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"Aiinctt han tenido, ni tienen la* arte* olro» 
enemigvt que lot ignorajOa" 







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§ 1. XVI CENTURY 24 




XVL SPANISH TYPES : 1500-1800 



§ 1. XVI CENTURY 60 




XVn. ENGLISH types: 1500-1800 





§ 1. XVI CENTURY 125 

§ 2. XVII CENTURY 130 






I. THE "classical" MOVEMENT 159 




XX. ENGLISH types: 1800-1844 188 
















INDEX 281 



77ie filateSf excefUing a few in the text of Volume /, either 
face thefiage detignated, or are groufied immediately after it 


193. Music Types employed in De la Hkl^s Masses: Planting 
Antwerp^ 1578 5 
From RooBe9* Chriatqphe Plantinj Antwerp, 1896 

194. Roman and Italic Types: Plantin Specimen^ Antwerp^ 
1567 7 
From Booses* Christofthe Flantin 

195. Roman and Italic Types: Plantin Specimen^ Antwerp^ 
1567 8 
Fiymi Rooses* ChjHstofthe Plantin 

196. Roman^ Italic^ and Cursive Types: Plantin Specimen^ 
Antwerp^ 1567 8 
From Rooses' Christcfihe Plantin 

197. Canon d* Espagne from Plantin Office 10 

Fi^m Specimen dea Caracth'ea employ^ dans PImflrimerie 
Plantinienne, Antwerp , 1905 

198. Calligraphic Initials from Plantin Office 10 
From Rooses* Christophe Plantin 

199. Page of Roman Type from Biblia Polyglotta: Plantin^ 
Antwerp^ 1572 10 
/hmt Druckschriften des XF bis XVUIJakrhunderU 

200. Text-page and Title in Plantings early manner^ Ant- 
zverp^ 1567 10 
From Claude Paradin*s Symbola Heroica 

201. Page from Rariorum Stirpium Hispanix Historia: 
Planting Antwerp^ 1576 12 
From a copy in Harvard College Ubrary 


202. Page of Rechten^ ende Coatumen van Antwerpen^ PlaU' 

ttn^ 1582 12 

From a a^y in Harvard College Ubrary 

203. Page of Italic from Rembert DodoerCs Stirptum His- 

torta: Plandn Office^ Antwerp^ 1616 14 

. Ftoni a copy in Harvard College Library 

204. Tttle^page^ Contents^ and Text-page of one of Elzevir* s 
Republics^ Leyden^ 1627 16 

205. Pages of Cicero: Elzevir^ Leyden^ 1642 18 
From a cofiy in Harvard College Library 

206. Page of Caea fir {octavo) : ElTxvir^ Amsterdam^ 1661 18 
From a cofiy in Harvard College Library 

207. Sale-Specimen of Elzevir Types: Amsterdam^ 1681 20 
From facsimile in Willem*» Ijc* Elzevier 

/ 208. Dutch Type used in Temple des Muses^ Amsterdam^ 

1733 34 

209. Type used in De Stad Haarlem en haare Geschiedenissen: 
Ensched/ and Bosch^ Haarlem^ 1765 34 
Fi^m a copy in Harvard College Library 

210. .Sbrr^^ Type: EnschecU^s Proef van Letteren^ Haarlem^ 
1768 38 

211. Fleischmah^s Roman Types cut in 1734, 1753, and 1761: 
Enachedfs Proef van Letteren^ Haarlem^ 1768 38 

212. fleischman^s Black-letter: Enschedfs Proef van Let- 
tereny Haarlem^ 1768 40 

213. Seventeenth Century Gvilit^: Ensched/^s Proef van Let- 
teren^ Haarlem^ 1768 40 

214. Rosarfs Caractere de Finance^ from his Epreuve^ Brus- 
sels {after 1760) 42 

215. Rosarfs Music Types^from his ipreuve^ Brussels {after 
1760) 42 


216. Raaarfs Ornaments j from his £preuve^ Brussels {after 
1760) 42 

217. Dutch Roman Tyfies: Erhardt Foundry Specimen^ Leip- 

sicj c. 1739 44 

I^hnn Cre9aner*9 Buchdruckerkumt und Schriftgiesaery 

218. Dutch Italic Types: Erhardt Foundry Specimen^ LeipsiCy 

c. 1739 44 

F^vm Geaanetr*B Buchdruckerkunst und SchriftgiesBcry 

219. Round Spanish Black-lettery from Lucas* Arte de Escri- 

vir, Madrid^ 1577 47 

From Strange^ a Alfihahets 

220. Antique Black-letter: Specimen of La Fabrica del Con-- 
vento de S. Joseph, Barcelona, 1777 48 

221. Title-page of Bordazar^s Plantificacion, Valencia, 1732 50 

222. Texto, Atanasia, and Letura Espaciosafrom Bordazar^s 
Plantifcacion, Valencia, 1732 52 

223. Pag-e ofSallust: Ibarra, Madrid, 1772 56 

224. Gothic Types in De las Tablas y Escalera Spiritual: 
Hagenbach, Toledo, 1504 61 
From a cofiy in the Boston Public Library 

225. Gothic Type used in Livy: Cod, Saragossa, 1520 62 
F^om a copy in the Boston Public Library 

226. Gothic Type used in Pulgar^s El Gran Capitan: Crom^ 
burger, Semlle, 1527 62 
Fhrni a copy in the Boston Public Library 

227. Roman and Gothic Types used in Complutensian Poly- 
glot Bible: Guillen de Brocar, Alcala, 1514r-17 64 
From a copy in the Boston Public Library 

228. Greek Type used in Complutensian Polyglot Bible {New , 
Testament): Guillen de Brocar, Alcala, 1514--17 64 
From a copy in the Boston Public Library 


229. Roman Type used in Latin translation of Pulgar^s 
Chronicle: Sancho de Nebrija^ Granada^ 1545 66 
From a cofiy in the Boston Public Library 

230. Roman Type used in Gomez de Castro* s De Rebus Gestis 
a Francisco Ximenio^ Cisnerio: Andres de Angulo^ Al^ 
caia^ 1569 68 
Fi^om a copy in Harvara College Library 

231. Types used in first edition of Don ^ixote: Juan de la 
Cuesta^ Madrid^ 1605 68 
From a facsimile edition in the Boston Public Library 

232. Opening of Solis* Conquista de Mexico {first edition): 

Villa- Diego, Madrid, 1684 70 

F^^mi a cofiy in the Boston Public Library 

233. Italic used for Spanish text of Sallust : Ibarra^ Madrid, 
1772 72 

234. Title-page of Academy Edition of Don ^ixote: Ibarra, 
Madrid, 1780 74 
From a copy in the Boston Public Library 

235. Types used in Academy Edition of Don ^ixote: 

Ibarra, Madrid, 1780 74 

F^om a copy in the Boston PubHc Library 

236. Type used in Villegas* Las Eroticas: A. de Sancha, 
Madrid, 1774 76 
From a copy in the Boston Public Library 

237. Opening of Solis'^ Conquista de Mexico: Sancha, Madrid, 

1783 76 

From a copy in the Boston Public library 

238. Type used in Bayer'*s De Numis Hebrseo-Samaritanis: 
Monfort, Valencia, 1781 78 
From, a copy in the Boston Public Library 

239. Page from Triarte^s Obras Sueltas: Mena, Madrid, 

1774 80 

From a copy in the Boston Public Library 


240. Italic in Prefatory Address: Espinosa^s Muestras de los 
Caracteres^ etc.^ Madrid^ 1771 82 

241. Texto Gordo (roman) : Esptnosd*s Muestras j etc.^ Madrid^ 

1771 82 

242. Texto Gordo (italic): Espinosd*s Muestras^ etc.^ Madrid^ 

1771 82 

243. Italic of Lttura Chica: Espinosa^s Muestras^ etc^ 

Madrid, 1771 82 

244. ErUredos {roman and italic): Espinosa^s Muestras, etc., 
Madrid, 1771 82 

245. Roman cut by Gil: Specimen Real Biblioteca, Madrid, 

1787 84 

246. Italic cut by Gilf Specimen Real Biblioteca, Madrid, 

1787 64 

247. New Italic of Texto (showing- French influence): Speci- 
men Real Biblioteca, Madrid, 1787 84 

248. Peticano, cut by Eudaldo Pradell: Muestras de la Viuda 

/ Hijo de Pradell, Madrid, 1 793 84 

249. Ornaments from Muestras, etc., Pedro Ifem, Madrid, 

1795 86 

250. Roman tending to *'*' Modem Face J'* from Muestras, etc., 
Imprenta Real, Madrid, 1799 86 

251. Italic tem&ng- to ^^ Modem Face,'^^ from Muestras, etc., 
Imprenta Real, Madrid, 1799 86 

252. Ornaments from Muestras, etc., Imprenta Real, Madrid, 
1799 86 

253. Ornaments from Muestras, etc., Imprenta Real, Madrid, 
1799 86 

254. Court Hand, Secretary, and Scriptorial Types from Sale 

. Catalogue of the James Foundry, London, 1782 89 


255. Roman Types used in HormarCs Vulgaria: Pynson^ 
London^ 1519 90 
J^hmi a cofiy in Harvard College Library 

256. Roman Type used in Mlfredi Regis Res Gestae: Day^ 
London^ 1574 92 
From a copy in Harvard College Library 

257. Italic used in jElfredi Regis Res Gestae: Day^ London^ 

1574 92 

Fhmt a copy in Harvard College Library 

258. Earliest English Specimen^heet: Nicholas Nicholls^ 
London^ 1665 95 
I^m Reed's HUtory of Old English Letter Foundries 

259. Roman and Italic given by Dr. Fell to the University 
Press, Oxford 96 
From Oxford University Press ^ecimen, 1695 

260. Black-letter given by Dr. Fell to the University Press, 
Oxford 96 
F)^om the Oxford University Press ^ecimen, 1695 

261. Dutch Types tised in England: Watson Specimen, Edin- 
burgh., 1713 100 

262. First Broadsiek Specimen issued by JVilliam Caslon, 

1734 102 

From a copy in the Library of the American Type Founders 
Company t Jersey Gty 

263. Roman and Italic: William Caslon &f Son^s Specimen, 

London, 1763 105 

Fhmi a copy in the Library of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety, Worcester 

264. Blaci'letter: William Caslon fcP Son^s Specimen, Lon- 
don, 1763 106 

Fhmi a copy in the Library of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety, Worcester 


265. Ornaments: William Caalan i^Son^s Specimen^ London^ 
1763 108 

Frtnn a ctifiy in the Library of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety, fVorcester 

266. Ornaments: William Caslan &f Sim's Specimen^ London^ 
1763 108 

From a ct^y in the Ubrary of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety y WorccMter 

267. Paffe of Basieroillt^s Preface to Milton^ Birmingham^ 

1758 110 

From a cofiy in the Boaton Athenmtm 

268. Title-page of Baskeroille^ s Virgil^ Birmingham^ 1757 112 

269. Baskeroille^s Type used in Virgil^ Birmingham^ 1757 112 

270. Baskerville^s Broadside Specimen {without border)^ Bir- 
mingham^ c. 17^2 114 

271. Types from Basierville^s bordered Broadside Specimen^ 
Birminghamj c. 1762 114 

/y-om a cofiy in the Ubrary of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety, Worcester 

272. Advertisement of Sale of Baskeroill^s TypeSj Paris 

(after 1789) 114 

273. Ornaments used by Baskermlle 116 
From Straus and Dent's John BaskerviUe 

274. Ornaments used by Baskennlle 116 
From Straus and Denfs John BaskerviUe 

275. Portion of Wilson^ s Broadside Specimen^ Glasgow^ 1783 118 

276. Broadside Specimen of Isaac Moore and Co,^ Bristol^ 

1766 118 

277. Roman and Italic: Fry and SteeUfs Specimen^ London^ 
1795 121 

278. Ornaments: Fry and Steele* s Specimen^ London^ 1795 122 


279. Transitional Types: Caslon Specimen^ London^ 1798 122 

280. Ornaments: Caslon Specimen ^ London^ 1798 122 

281. Types used in Gower^s Confessio Amantis: Berthelety 
London^ 1532 126 
From a copy in Harvard College Library 

282. Lettre Batarde used injirst complete e£tion of Chaucer: 
Godfrey^ London^ 1532 126 
^0171 a facsimile edition in the Boston Public Library 

283. Lettre de Forme used in second complete edition of 
Chaucer: Pynson^ London^ 1542 126 
Fhmi a copy in Harvard College Library 

284. Pag'e of Cunningham^s Cosmographicall Glasse: Day^ 
London^ 1559 126 
From a copy in the John Carter Brown Library ^ Providence 

285. Page of AschanCs Scholemaster^ showing Romany Italic^ 

and Black-letter: Day^ London^ 1571 128 

From a copy in Harvard College Library ' 

286. Type and Ornaments in Tass6*s Godfrey ofBulloigne: 
Hatfield, London, 1600 131 
Fiymi a copy in the Boston Public Library 

287. Page of WaltorCs Lives: Newcomb, London, 1670 133 
From a copy in Harvard College Library 

288. Page of English-Saxon Homily: Bowyer, London, 1709 135 

289. Roman used in Latin edition of Caesar: Tonson, Lon- 
don, 1712 136 

290. First use of Caslon^ s Roman Type, in Selden^s Opera: 
Boivyer, London, 1726 138 
Fh>m a copy in the Boston Athenseum 

291. Engraved Text of Pine^s Horace, London, 1733-37 138 
From a copy in Harvard College Library 


292. Type of Hanmer^s Shakespeare: University Press^ Ox^ 
ford^ 1743-44 140 
Prom a a^ty in Harvard College Ubrary 

293. Bastard Title-page of Hanmer^s Shakespeare: Uhiver- 

sity Press ^ Oxford^ 1743-44 140 

From a copy in Harvard College Library 

294. Page of Sir Joshua Reynold^ Royal Academy Discourse: 
Cadell^ London^ 1 78 1 142 
From a copy in Harvard College Ubrary 

295. Type of folio Pope: Fouiis^ Glasgow^ 1785 142 
F^om a copy in Harvard College IJbrary 

296. Tttle-page of Letters of Charlotte^ Londm^ 1786 144 
From a copy in Harvard College Ubrary 

297. William MartxrCs Type used in the ^""Boydell Siak- 
speare'*'^: Bulmer^ London^ 1792-1802 144 

From a copy in the Boston Public Ubrary 

298. William MartirCs Trvo-line Small Pica Roman and 
Italic used in Poems by Goldsmith and Pamell: Bul» 

merj London^ 1795 147 

299. William MartirCs Great Primer Roman {Goldsmith and 
Pamelt) and Italic {Somervil(?s Chase) : Bulmer^ Lon- 
don, 1795-96 148 

300. William Msirtin^s Pica Roman and Italic used in Som- 
eroile^s Chase: Bulmer, London, 1796 148 

301. Binnyi^ Ronaldson^s Type used in The Columbiad, Phil- 
adelphia, 1807 154 
Fivm a copy in the Boston Mhenasum 

302. Black-letter: Binny &f RonaldsorCs Specimen, PhiladeU 
phia, 1812 156 

303. Ornaments: Binny Esf RonaldsorCs Specimen, Philadel- 
phia, 1812 156 


304. Tttte'page: Isaiah Thomases Specimen^ Worcester^ 1785 158 
From a cofiy in Harvard College Library 

305. Greek from Iscrizioni Esotici: Bodoniy Parma ^ 1774 166 

306. Roman and Italic from BodonPs Specimen^ Parma^ 1788 168 

307. (a) Title of Lettre d De Cubi^res. (*) Text of Lettre d 

De Cidnires: Bodoni^ Parma^ 1785 168 

308. Page of Signora Bodoni^s Discorso: Manuale Ttpogra* 

fco^ Parma^ 1818 170 

309. Page of BodonVs Prefazione: Manuale Tipografco^ 
Parma^ 1818 170 

310. Specimen of BodonV 8 Ducalein three tueights: Manuale 

' Tipografico^ Parma^ 1818 170 

311. Largestj mecRumy and smallest Roman and Italic CafA" 
tals shown in BodonVs Manuale Ttpografico^ Parma^ 

1818 170 

312. Ornaments : BodonVs Manuale Tipograftco^ Parma^ 1818 170 

313. Borders: BodonVs Manuale Tipograjlco, Parma^ 1818 170 

314. Soman in Epithalamia Exoticis Linguis Reddita: 

Bodoniy Parma y 1775 172 

315. Italic in Epithalamia Exoticis Linguis Red£ta: 

Bodoniy Parma y 1775 172 

316. Roman and Italic: AmorettVs Sdggio de^ Caratterij 

Parma^ 1811 175 

317. Ornaments: AmorettVs Saggio de^ Caratterij Parma^ 

1811 176 

318. Italic in P. Didot Pain^^s Specimen des Nouveaux 
CaractireSy Paris^ 1819 178 

319. Roman in P, Didofs SpMmen^ etCy Parisy 1819 180 

320. Borders: Specimen of GilU fils^ PariSy 1808 182 


321. Broadside Specimen of GilU fils^ Paris^ c. 1808 1^2 

322. Sheet from folio Specimen of MoUjeune^ Paris^ 1819 182 

323. Broadside Specimen of L, L^ger^ Paris^ ofter 1806 184 

324. Borders: Ligei^s Spiamen des Divers Caractires^ Paris 184 

325. ^^ Classic'^'* Types: iprtuves de Caracteres^ Fonderie 
Ginirale^ Paris^ 1843 186 

326. French Old Style revived by De Bemy^ Paris^ in 1852 186 

327'-, Comparative Table of Types used by the French National 

Printing House from its foundation to 1825 186 

/hwi Mtice aur ies Ty/iea Mtrangera du SftBcimen de rimfirim- 
erie Royale, Paris, 1847 

328. Types used in The Sovereign: Bensley^ London^ 1800 188 

329. Types used in Poetry of the Anti-Jacobin: Bulmer^ Lon- 

don^ 1801 190 

330. Types used in Freylinghausen*s Doctrine of the Chris- 

tian Religion: Stereotype Office^ London^ 1804 190 

331. Page of Bibliographical Decameron: Bulmer^ London^ 

1817 190 

From a ccpy belonging to Mr. C R. Lauriat, Jr., Boston 

332. Julian Hibberfs Uncial Greek Types used in Book of the 
Orphic Hymns^ London^ 1827 192 

333. Modem Face Types: Alexander Wilson £s? Son^s Sped- 

men J Glasgow^ 1833 194 

334. Roman and Italic: W. Thorowgood^s Specimen, London, 
1824 196 

335. Black-letter: W, Thororwgood'* s Specimen, Lorubn, 1824 196 

336. Ornaments to accompany ^"^ Fat- Face'*'* Types: Henry 
Caslon, Lmdon, 1844 196 

337. Ornaments to accompany ^ Fat-Face"*^ Types: Henry 
Caslon, London, 1844 196 


338. Types and Ornaments of Period of the Caslon Revival: 
Casion Son and Livermore arul Henry Caslon Specimens^ 
London^ 1844 196 

339. Caslon Type as revived in Lady Willoug-hby^s Diary by. 
Whittingham^ London^ 1844 198 

340. Caslon Type used in ^^^ Pickering ec&tion " of The Temple^ 

by George Herbert: Whittingham^ London^ 1850 200 

341. First use of Fell Types by the Daniel Press ^ Oxford^ 

1877 200 

From A JSTew Sermon of the Mwesi FoBhion 

342. Fell Types as used in Songs by Margaret L. Woods: 
Daniel Press^ Oxford^ 1896 200 

343. Fell Types as used in Trecentale Bodleianum: Oxford 
University Press, 1913 200 

344. Modernized Old Style Fonts as used in JVotton*s Ele- 
ments of Architecture: Chisxmci Press, London, 1903 200 

345. Type used in The Hobby Horse: Chiswick Press, Lon- 
don, 1890 200 

346. Morrises Golden Type: Kelmscott Press 206 
From Pxma of William Shakeafteare, 1893 

347. Morrises Troy Type: Kelmscott Press 208 
Fhmi Morris's JVote on Kelmscott Press, 1 898 

348. Morrises Chaucer Type: Kelmscott Press 208 
F)rom Morris's Mte on Kelmscott Press, 1898 

349. The Vale Fount: Vale Press 210 
From Bibliography of the Vale Press, 1904 

350. The Avon Fount: Vale Press 210 
From Bibliografihy of the Vale Press, 1904 

351. The King*s Fount: Vale Press 210 
F^om Bibliografihy of the Vale Press, 1904 


352. Daves Type: Daves Press . 212 

From Catalogue Raiaonn^ of Dovea Preaa Booka^ 1908 

S5^, Type used by the Ashendene Press 214 

From Horace* a Carmina Jitcaica, 1903 

354. Brook Type: Eragny Press 214 
From Brief Account of Eragny Preaa, 1903 

355. Herbert Homers Montallegro^ Florence^ and PiccarcR 

Types 216 

356. Sehuyn Images Greek Type 216 
From JSTevf Teatament in Greek, London, 1895 

357. Proctor's ^^ Otter'' Greek Type 216 
Fivm Oreaieia ofJEachylua : Chiawick Preaa, London, 1904 

358. Bruce Rogers' Montaigne Type 218 
Fhmi The Banquet of Plato : Riverside Preaa, Cambridge, 1908 

359. Bruce Rogers' Centaur Type 218 
Firom Maurice de GuMn'a Centaur, Montague Preaa, 1915 

360. Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue's Merrymount Type 218 

361. Type of Risorgimento Grajico: Bertieri and Vanzettt^ 
Mlan^ 1921 222 

362. Distel Type: Ziherdistei Press^ The Hague, 1918 222 

363. Ziher Type: Ziherdistel Press, The Hague, 1915 222 

364. French Lettre Batarde, Parts, 1890 222 

From reproduction of Simon Voatre^a Heurea it f Uaage de 

365. Le Cochin: G. Peignot &? Fiis, Paris, 1914 224 

366. Arabic Figures, Non-Ranging and Ranging, with 
Arabic Figures employed by Simon de Coiines in 1536 230 

367. Examples of Transitional Types 243 






THOUGH Netherlands printing never equalled 
the exquisite work of the best French printers 
between 1500 and 1550, by the middle of the 
sixteenth century the primacy in printing had begun to 
pass from France to Holland. This was chiefly because the 
Roman Church, and especially the theologians of the Sor- 
bonne, were discourag^g French scholarship, forbidding 
Hebrew studies, fearing the study of Greek, and, by thus 
impeding scholarship, impeding the career of that fine 
figure, the French scholar-printer. The palm for printing 
passed to Holland also, largely because of two great names; 
and the books one naturally first thinks of in considering 
the Netherlands press are the ample sixteenth century vol- 
umes by Christophe Plantin, and the " tight," business-like 
litde editions printed by various ELlzevirs in the seventeenth 
century. We first consider the work of these two presses, 
and then some sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth cen- 
tury books by other Netherlands printers. 

PLANTIN was a Frenchman. He was born at Saint 
Avertin, near the city of Tours, about the year 1520, 
and after various wanderings in his own country he came 
to Antwerp, where he engaged in book-binding and work- 
ing in leather. Incapacitated through an accident from con- 
tinuing his trade, he became a printer — a metier with which 
he was already familiar. The books which he printed show 


his Gallic training and taste. Partly through the political 
situation of the Netherlands — still under Spanish rule — 
and partly through his eminence as a scholarly typographer, 
he came to have extended relations with many notable 
men. He began to print at Anfwerp in 1555, and estab- 
lished a foundry in connection with his press in 1563, 
where a certain Sabon — whose name was given to a size of 
German type — was employed. At first Plantin apparendy 
purchased current and local material ; later he began to 
import matrices of foreign fonts or to have his types cut 
for him. Though he made Antwerp a centre of printing, 
this printing was characteristic not so much of the Nether- 
lands as of France. This was not solely because Plantin 
was a Frenchman, but because he so constandy procured 
and used French products. Frangois Guyot of Antwerp, 
a type-cutter and founder, who was one of the earliest y&wr- 
nisseurs to the Plantin press, was a Frenchman of Parisian 
origin. With Robert Granjon of Lyons — who for a time 
lived at Antwerp — Plantin had continuous dealings. San- 
lecque supplied some of Plantings fonts ; at the Garamond 
sale he acquired certain important "strikes^ and types ; and 
Guillaume Le B6 I and Hautin supplied part of his equip- 
ment Some delightful roman and italic fonts came, appar- 
endy, from the office of Simon de G>lines. Granjon supplied 
some of Plantings ctviliie^ and also cut the Greek and Syr- 
iac type for his Polyglot Bible — the Hebrew being from 
Le Be. This famous Polyglot in eight volumes (printed by 
Plantin under the patronage of Philip II of Spain, and 
edited by Benito Arias Montano, Philip's chaplain) was 
his masterpiece and also almost his ruin, 'learning hath 
gained most by those books by which the Printers have 
lost,^ says Thomas Fuller in his Holy State. "Christopher 
Plantine [«r] by printing of his curious interlineary Bible 







in Anwerp [sic] through the unreasonable exactions of the 
King's officers, sunk and almost ruined his estate.'' The 
Spanish Crown later granted the Plantin press special privi- 
leges for printing service-books for the Spanish Church. 
This was a monopoly retained for a long time by Plantin's 
descendants, and (as we shall see) proved an obstacle to the 
progress of liturgical printing in Spain. Between 1568 and 
1570, Plantin bought the Netherlands "rights" of the new 
Breviary of Pius V; for the new Missal he purchased a 
monopoly for the Netherlands, Hungary, and portions of 
Germany. These privileges assured the press of a staple 
product which was a veritable gold mine to him and his 

Plandn, after the death of Guyot and the cessation of 
his reladons with Granjon, appears to have taken up with 
a Ghent type-founder, Henric van der Keere the younger, 
or, as he preferred to call himself, Henri du Tour; and 
between the years 1570 and 1580 Plantin's own foundry 
apparentiy was closed — Du Tour supplying everything. 
He, too, seems to havebeen of French origin — indeed, Four- 
nier speaks of him as living at Paris. The music fonts in 
Plantin's office were of remarkable magnificence, and some 
of his books of Masses, especially those by Georges de la 
Hele, are strikingly handsome {Jig. 193). Of these music 
types some of the best were cut by Du Tour. In 1580, the 
year of Du Tour's death, he was, according to Rooses,^ the 
only type-founder in the country. There were also Nether- 
lands founders from whom Plantin purchased types, whose 
names have come down to us, but the greater part of his 
equipment was by French hands. 

The following letter to Moretus, written from Paris, De- 

'Max RooseSyChristc/ihe Ftantin, Im/irimeur jinveraoia, 2^^^ Edition, Ant- 
werp, 1896. 


cember 12, 1598, tells something of the relations between 
Garamond and Plantin, as well as Plantings dealings with 
Guillaume Le B6 I, whose son, Guillaume Le Be II, writes 

"I have long had a great desire to write you, understand- 
ing you to be son-in-law of the late M. Plantin (whom may 
God absolve), who during his lifetime was a great friend 
of my late father^ which has caused me, through the 
kindness with which your nephew, M. de Varennes, has 
addressed me, to take up my pen, in order that thereby I 
may make overtures toward renewing between us the ac- 
quaintance which existed between our fathers — which is 
the first reason moving me to write ; the second being, that 
as I know you have the matrices and punches which M. 
Plantin had and likewise punches of the petit texte cut by 
Garamond, I would pray and beg you to accommodate me 
with a set of these matrices (without justifying them, as 
long as they are struck on copper of good quality and are 
deeply sunk), and as a * trade.' I have Garamond's other 
punches which my late father purchased from Garamond's 
widow, of which I will accommodate you with any, in even 
exchange, such as the pamngon wmain^ the gros ivmainy the 
canon and the petit rvmain. It was my late father who sold 
M. Plantin the said punches oi petit texte and those of the 
Saint-Augustin which I know you have, for my father 
bought all these from Garamond, and then, at the desire 
of Monsieur your father, he sold him these two kinds, 
although my father retained for himself a set of matrices 
of each. But in selling a large assortment to a merchant, 
he had to dispose of his petit texte because this customer 
wanted so much to have it ; and that is why, not possess- 
ing it, I desire to secure it. I have also several fine fonts of 
Hebrew letters — for text as well as notes — with which 


Quifquis eft, qui moderatione & 
conftantiapolleat, quietus animocft, 
fibiqiie ipfeplacatus,vt neque tabcfcat 
moleftiis, neque frangatur timore, nee 
fitien ter quid expedlans, ardeat dcfide- 


Sapient! nihil poteft videri magnum in rebus 
humanis, cui ascernicas omnis, tociusque mundi 
noca (ic magnicudo . Nam quid aucin ftudiis hu- 
nianis , aut in tarn exigua vita* breuitate magnum 
/apienti videri poteA:, qui Temper animo fic excu^ 
bat^ vc ei nihil improuiTum accidere poisit, nihil 


Saptentia nihil ep melius, i. de natunu Deorum^. 

oAd rernpublicamflurimaveniuntJcomrnqdaffimO'-' 
deratrix omnium rerumfrnHo eHfapientia: hincadipfis 
am eam^adepti funtj ^ lauSy honor, di^itas conjluit, 
I. do Inuenc'. 

194. Roman and Italic Types: Plantin Specimen, Antrverp, 1567 


to print rabbinical commentaries, as is done in the great 
Bible printed at Venice; I think you have several kinds 
of Hebrew letters, for my father cut them and sold them 
to M. Plantin, your father. If it is agreeable to you to ac- 
commodate me with a set of matrices of the aforesaid petit 
texie of Garamond's on the above named conditions, I beg 
you to send me a reply. I am living at rue Saint Jehan 
de Beauvais, au clos Bruneau, and am a dealer in paper, 
and a master type-founder. By doing this you will impel me 
with all my heart to render you service wherever it may 
please you to command it ; praying God that He may pre- 
serve you, and remaining, Sir, your servant and friend, 


"I send you an impression of the letter I call petit texte^ 
which I wish to procure." 

Some of Plantin's fonts are shown in his Specimen of 
1567. This IndeXy sive Specimen Characterum Christophori 
Plantini showed forty-one specimens — seven Hebrew, six 
Greek, twelve roman, ten italic, three cursive, and three 
gothic types. Rooses shows but six roman, four italic, and 
three cursive fonts.^ I hesitate to give these types attribu- 
tions, though the larger sizes of roman and italic appear 
very French in style {Jig. 1 94). Those headed De Claris Orat 
and Pro Sestio appear to be from the office of De Colines 

The cursives headed Pro Flacco and / Offtc. are the 
work of Granjon, whom Plantin frequently employed {Jig. 
196). The cursive type headed III De Legib. is attributed 
to another type-cutter. Various forms of cursive type are 
displayed in Plantin's Polyglot Bible,* and the Plantin office 

* Rooses' i%z7i/jn, after page 232. His reproduction, from which our plates 

are taken, is slightly reduced. 

* Druckschriften, pis. 8 and 30. ^ 


at Leyden possessed fine fonts of it^ A peculiarity of all 
these fonts is that lower-case letters to be used in the mid- 
dle of a word often differ entirely from those to be employed 
as final letters. 

But the Dutch vernacular types, which reproduced typo- 
graphically writing then current in the Netherlands, — the 
only "national" character given by the Low Countries to 
typography, — we owe to Ameet Ta vernier and Henric van 
der Keere. Tavemier, who, no doubt, had seen Granjon's 
types, produced a similar character in Flemish style about 
1 559, which, because it was native, and not (like Granjon's) 
foreign, had a great success, and was used by Plantin. 
Van der Keere (already mentioned as supplying Plantin 
with material) also made an essay of a letter Ja^on d^ecri- 
ture about 1575; his font comprising 110 characters. Spe- 
cimens of these types exist in the Enschede collection.* 
Though not germane to our investigation, they are of con- 
siderable interest* 

Another "document" on Plantin's types is the publica- 
tion of the Plantin-Moretus Museum entitled Specimen 
des Camcth'es employes dans rimprimerie Planttnienne^ is- 
sued in 1905. Forty-eight characters used by Plantin are 
displayed, although the basis on which the selection was 
made is not indicated. The monumental canon d^Espagne — 
a large, round gothic letter intended for liturgical books, 
and, I believe, cut for a Spanish Antiphonary ordered by 
the King of Spain but never printed — is a very good ex- 

* Ensched6'8 Fonderica de Caract^ea et leur Materiel dans lea Paya-Baa^ 
du XF^ au XIX^ Si^le, pp. 44-47. 

'Ibid,, pp. 40, 41, 47, 48, 49. 

* For a valuable survey of these types see Lea Caract^rea de GvilitS de Rod- 
ert Granjon et lea Imfirimeura Ftamanda, Antwerp, 1921, by Mauri ts Sabbe 
(of the Muaie Plantin) and Marius Audin. It contains twelve reproductions 
of civilUf fonts by Granjon, Tavemier, etc. 


O y X T AS Philorophii dux 9 o Tirtn* 
ds indagatrix , cxpulcrix4ue viaorum ! qui 
nonmodonos^redomnioo vita horoinum 
fine te cflc potuiflct ? Tu vrbcspcperiftij tu 
difsipacoshomiaes in focietatem vicxcoa-' 
uocafli . To eos inter fe primo dodticiliis^ 
deindeconjugiasj tuni liuerarum & vocum 
comniunione iunxiili.TttinuenciixIegan)f 
oi magiftramonim dc difdplin^fijifti. Tu 
ticar cranquillicatem largica nbbis es, & ter- 
rorcm mortis fuftulifli* 
^ Thales Milefius^vt obiurcatores fisos c6* 
niocerct, oftenderet4ue Phaofophum^ fi ci 
commoduni cflct , pecuniam fiicerepoffct 
omnemolcam antcquani florerecoejpifletj 
in agro Milefio cocmifle dicitur • Animad- 
ttcrteracfertafle quadain /cientia okarum 
ybertatemforc. i.deDiMMr. 

Qui ceteris rebus pro nihilohabitisre- 
mm naturam ftudiole intuentur,&(apien- 
tiariludiofi&Philoibphihabentur. ^-Tife, 

PhilofophijVirtiitismj^iftri. a^TiifciiL 



K O N ex pngulk <uonhis Pbi/o/op/ii ^eSauii 
fnntyfedtxftrptimuttt&twJiintiM: ra^^Qm 

InTkhfi/hid resfl^Mtur, nonwria jtHdun-^ 
tw* Orat. ad Bnicum. 

A VtihfiphojpMdftrdi doquentiamj iioii4j|^or: 
fmn luAuitfm admodnm Hefidero, i.TuTcuL 

Smu ^iii m ftbm tmurmik ftmrn fibi cwfeitt, 
vAifmtmfumfmA amemuaa^ m dthrtfmi mol- 
tma^^mim mgbgitjrMgtoiim mfmid, i .Offic. 

Ytpffamm4UCHm fn{t]fmfiqwffi4m. 
lTuIcuI. In Simil..xo. 

wufMim, iULmumo de van cwfiuum ,.^ tiikmw^ 
Utsqm difdfbkm nw oftntMimtmfiUnifdffid b- 
nm ^iMfitf cf , qmdg oHmfeut iffifiH , mc ikatik 
fmsfotut f Vldtnhm 4601 umu kmute & iiAi- 
timnJusufkeiU jmm Hdjft nubm: JSmfHmM en- 
ffiMjMM mbs jbrU .-miidos UnHmwmfttmi^iJi nm 

imfipmim, ^.Tulcul. 


P A c I s eft comcsjOtiiauelbdaA >am bene 
coolBntaeduitttis quail alomna quxdamclo- 

Nemo cfl qui oefciar ioirio genus hununum 
iarooocibus ac filuts di/fipacum, prudentinm 
confiliis compuinim:&dilmotum oracionedc- 
Iif3iru» fc opptdismotniburqi fcpfiile. t . dr Or^r. 

Foic quoddam tempus, cum in agris homines 
paflim bcftianun mor^ ? agabamar, Sc vi£iu fcri- 
aofibi^cam propagabant.* nee ratione animi 
CjUidouaci, fed pleraaueviribus corporis admi. 
aiihabant. Nemo Icgittmas viderat nuptias, ne. 
mo cdios iofpexcrat libcros.Quo tempore qui. 
dam nagpustidelicetvir & (apicos » difpcrfbs 
bomines in agris A >n locis (ilueftribos abditos, 
tatieoe quadaro compulit in vnnm locu,& con- 
ercgamcy & eos ex feris & immanibus mites red- 
didit^ mantuetos. iJetniient, 

Du4r (uni attes qoq poflunt !ocare homines m 
amplidimo gradudiraiiatis: vnaimpcracoriSjaU 
rctaoiatotfs Doni . ab hocenim pacis omamen- 
ca raincntur^ abillobdiipericularefellttocur. 


Hoc tempore rim hmmnes n^nittm ne^nttuomtim 
Uyntifkr Itf^n !utt> dtfaipUffup per agna^ Mtptt dijptrfi 
yavvrtntmr^Mntwn^ habettnijftkiniMm wumm 4K >f» 
riCmperc^dimMc ytUnctd dut erifertf dut ftuntrtf^m 
tm0€nt: txiitttmnt ytrirktutt ^tmrfdhfr^fidiiH^m 
di^4A9% >fmm in laum chnpeganwt, eosjue txftnti'^ 
uaeilU dd im/lttUm Mqut mtmfintudiMtm tumfultm 
fwu f t^ ummi0 dMn9 f^ hmnano tare fs meembm 

CroMH efi'^ ftaut dignkntudken^ftttdHM/ii^ 
plunmss grttidt^prmifltnuu amkitut, mMcimsfipt 
fi$dUftf€tit, Pro Mur«na. 

tJo^tientU frmcifthti nMarsne mymtmtoefi^ 

Elt^iutntU^dndi^ tfi rtrhiif fitpienifintentm^jiitm 
mitt ftt« irdm : mtumt exiremd » #» dteejpt cpmbm 

De Claris Orat. 

Ntliiltp elo^ueniU Undabilim yelpptfldottitt^ yel 
ddmirdiione amtientiwo^yel/lte indigemiMm^ytlt^rum 
t^ideftttpfunf^di -A, t • Oflic. 

yt /TOffifiiM dtcH' tfi in^tmumji€lf^tmi Utmcn , ffl 
tlo^uemia* DciJarisOrat. 

195. Roman and Italic Types: Piantin Specimen, Antwerp^ 1567 {reduced) 

I. O V Y I c 

Km JAe MH W ^dJqvaai if/ut , cuittiaoa pcfkinHS at£tm proka* 

ImirrMae. t.Offt. 

A4 ttrnfjcntJlMm ^m accedic, fiunt, bc U iviuie roafidcrer, Jt'itr-. 
Ml ret howlla &tjkd ttinn vt ^abcac erocicntti fwulCMcmtia ^uo i^•lo 
—■fiAraaif tan c> lOi > ec avi tnncrc 4tlpcfrc propcer i|«aiiijm, aut 
■aiii ce<tn4at prepwr cttptdtiatcfli. laomnibiitsM«niBC£otiu |m'us 
yii« afgtc^iitt , adhtWaJ J eft prrparaiio ^l<f cni. i. O/Vf . 

Soam ^iTiiae aokx wtgcciuai, acrmqot viifonim, k bon«« 
ffWB laonni Ufciiccm p^b«ai:u((Cnf ri plu* anlffl aot viirtMW babe* 
M pc»M Miv^B^irc UOffio V I Jcji ia (ccm,^ii<m no* vUm Ofitm ia vi- 

KoB dl f ocvmmodMii C« aSii Mkarc t vc fi obM <cJc « e < to alib, 
viBSMi * fpJkiSt raiai ticA jo ^iio to Jo , vc mi^it i* alijf caBMMii» 
fjilfli a aeMJB«upfi«.fi^iiU Jdin^ior. i . Offt. 

TipAiiCit k ij <itu fisaafabriciMW. i. OffiJU SAsafiA. fii 

t. p r t c. 


Nm fitfititUAie^t ^fMU»iwm, mtmfstindimmtfi,fiifimntimm 
ifvtrt i« n ^vtipt i»itf0t»m. % , dc Fiaib* 

f»fb «• 4( Inueni. 

firim 90 9*4 nmtrr.^umtlt twfti* Jidmm0r4in, i*4e f MNtit. ■ 
^ Evrtfirai i« tiiiyMftfi»tffftfftmr,0'«lBU*i i^fmttr^mtilwtfgt* 

mtp**tnr, i^c Inuevc. 

fftaefjtntjmmhmm itUm PMaWiAl mI/«<iu, mAUfemM irttmu. 
Pro<i.ftaUr.P»«hMB. ' 

-- >4*a« nr 9tkmM*fttfifp0fHbMipi$t», Uw9.t4Aiiic.8fjA.i«» 


cr St iffCu^tCP (t (mtf^rKf- : t^utCftCP ^ti Cvttt t^ 9iif25tvirti^^ {i6t^ 
nidcufc^, {t fwntfamiCiiC^ a tou^^ Ctffnit 9t fCuftuKa- fCaijf 9iK- 

f truiPff' 9t5Hitir^ ^ tfftcp fitutnt a tug i|ffiin^ i(cp fiwi^ fitt^ne-, tt (ircp 
9c(iii^nt (oif(P i|tiU^ i'£!9 9oH4^i 



^c^'^^ocvfe tienn^fit €9^^ tntrtCU 
t^rwc^^ «u fie e9tnm«ifi9ent 9*c^re «t|CfV 

9roit itttCrtOre [itt tHJuitemtttt f wiv » Vt- 
tt«m«uc 96m«n9Criu^C^«m«n9<meif<^ 9e 
••iff e»^. ^r« OTlif. 

I . O F F I C. 

196. Roman^ Italic^ and Cursive Types: Plantin Specimen^ Antwerp^ 1567 



ample of the black-letter peculiar to Spain at that period 
{Jig. 197). Certain fonts similar to it were used in Italy. 
The moyen canon romain and its italic appear to me French, 
as does the petit canon romain with its italic ; but the moyen 
canon Jlamand is a characteristic Netherlands black-letter. 
The roman and italic types are, of course, old style, most 
of them heavy in cut The ascendonica cursive is an inter- 
esting, lively italic in which two forms of double s should 
be noted, as well as the lower-case g's, the ligatured sp, the 
ampersand, and the capital Q — characters closely allied to 
handwriting. On the other hand, the gros texte italique^ the 
augustin ita/igue {lst\ and the cichv itaiique remind one (in 
general grayness of efiect when printed) of the light italic 
which came into use in France in the late eighteenth cen- 
tury. In the smaller types of this specimen there seem to 
be two sorts of fonts : (l) traditional old style with its inter- 
esting italic, and (2) lighter roman and italic, more even 
in cut, more monotonous in colour, and much less attrac- 
tive. The beautiful type from the De Colines office, called 
Colineus romain and Colineus italigtiCy I have spoken of. The 
type-specimen ends with a page each of Greek and He- 
brew — one of the latter from De Colines' office — and then 
follow music types and borders, some of which are familiar. 
A vast quantity of ornamental alphabets, many of which 
are of great magnificence, do not come properly under our 
survey. Two classes of these, however, may be noted — 
the calligraphic letters {Jig. 198), probably derived from 
the ornamental lettering of contemporary writing-masters, 
meant to be used with civility types, or with music ; and 
the class of alphabet represented by the famous historiated 
letters numbered 6 and 14, from the first of which a letter 
(reduced) is shown in the plate from De la Helens Mass 
{Jig. 195). 



How such types look in pages may be seen by consult- 
ing Plantin's books — particularly the monumental Polyglot 
Bible (1572), the prefatory matter to the first volume being 
a magnificent display of his noble fonts {Jig. 199). This 
work is generally to be found in any large library. For those 
who desire an easy ascent to Parnassus (though they will 
not get very far up the mountain), the plates of text-pages in 
Rooses' life of Plantin will be found convenient ; or, bgtter 
still, the few but telling facsimiles in Druckschrijien des XV 
bis XVIII Jahrkunderts} But Plantings books themselves 
are the only satisfactory exhibition of his types. 

Plandn's earlier printing is more delicate than his later 
work. A good example of his first manner is an '^emblem 
book" published in 1567 — an edition of Claude Paradin's 
Symbola Heroica^ translated from French into Latin, and 
printed in 32mo form. The text of this delightful litUe book 
is set in a delicate italic which harmonizes agreeably with 
the spirited rendering of the designs. Displayed lines, em- 
ployed in connection with the italic text, are, however, set 
in roman, and the prefatory matter is almost entirely printed 
in it {Jig. 200). Very reserved in style, the book reminds 
one of ^itions from the Lyons press. A 12mo herbal, i?a- 
riorum Stirpium HispanisB Historian by Charles de r£cluse 
(Clusius), printed by Plantin in 1576, — also set almost en- 
tirely in italic, — resembles French or Italian work. Sim- 
ple in arrangement, and with charming woodcuts of plants, 
it is another example of his earlier and more intimate man- 

^ Druckachriften^ pis. 7, 8, 16, 30, 87. Plate 7 shows a beautiful old style 
type, very beautifully set {our Jig. 199). Plate 8 shows Dutch dviliti typc> 
with its semi-calligraphic initial. Notice the ''written" look of the capital 
letters in the first seven lines. Plate 16 shows an italic type. Notice the am- ' 
persands in the third, fourth, and seventeenth lines. Plate 30 shows a small 
size of civility. Plate 87 exhibits a massive old style roman font, in which ob- 
serve the final n*s, e's, and t's. 





P R I V I L E G I V M. 




N T ON I V s Perrenotus, S.R^C.Tic. Sandi Petri ad Vincula Prefby- 

I cer, Cardixudis de G ranuela;;pr^fatx Regix 6c Catholicx Maieftacis 

[a confiliis (brus» Sc in hoc Regno locum tcnens, & Capicaneusge* 

neialtSyfiCc. Ma^ viro Chriftophpro Plantino, ciui Ancuerpien- 

tn, 8c pixfacae Cacholicx Maieftatis Procotypogiapho fideli Re- 

igio^diledo^radam R^am 8C boham voluntatem. Cum ex prae- 

clarorum vironim Uteris ccrtiores dGd Hmus, opus Biblionim quinque linguarum, 

cum cribus Apparatuum tomis^eleberrimumyfei^ue public^ Chnftian« vtiliffimu, 

eiufdemiereniffinue Maiefbins.iu(ru,opeatqueaurpiciis,adpubllcam totinsChri- 

fbaniorbiscommodiatem £C omamentum, typis longeelegantifTimisySc przfbn- 

tiflimi viriBenedi^ AriasMcffitanipnedpuacuxaSc (hxdio . quam emendatilTimi 

a tcezcufumedeyeiufdem^ exemplar fandilTimo Domino nofbtpPP.Gregotio xiii. 

oblatum, itaplacui(re,vtpnefataeMaieftatis(andos conatus, & Regi Catholico in 

primis conuenientes, fumfnopere laudarit, & ampliffima tibt priuilcgia ad hoc opus 

tuendum Motu proprioconcederit- Nosquoquecunfnaturali genio tmpellimurad 

Ibuendum przclaira qUxque ingenia, que infigni qudptam Conatir ad publica com* 

moda promouenda arque augenda a(pirant«, primum quidem longc praeclanflimum 

hoc fux Maieftatis ftudium , vt vere Heroicum 6c Ptolom^t, Eumenis, alionim^uc 

olimconatibusinBibltotheds inftruendis eb prxftantius , qubdnon vanxftimulo 

glorizyvt illi,(cd tedbe ReligionisiConfe^iiandgBSc propaganda zelo fufceptum.meri- 

tb (ufpicientcsj deinde eximiam operam dp&iffimi B. AnxMontan],acimmortali 

laudedignamadmirantes, rebus^uetuiSyquemadmodu tuo nomineexpetitur,pro- 

jpicere cupientes, ne meritisfrauderis (rudibas tancx opene^fic impenfseyqux Aimma 

fi)licitudine 6c induftria in opus adfinem feliciter perducendum a teetiam mfumpta 

efjeaccepimus'cum^aecertb cohitet,opns hocnunquam hadenus hoc in Regno ex- 

cufum ede, dighum^ueipib S. (edis Apoflblicsefudragio /it iudicatum vt diuulgetui 

ac priuilegiis ometur. Tuis igitut iuftilfimis voris, vt delibccato confilio, ita alacri 6c 

expomda firontelubenterannuentes^tenore pntfentiura ex gratia fpeciali, prz&tx 

Maieftatis nomine, cumdeliberationr 6cai&ftentia Regij collateralis.con(ilij,ftatui- 

mus 6c decieuimus, ne quis intra viginti annos pipximos,a die dat.ptz(entium dein- 

ceps numerandos^ in hoc Regno di^um Bibliorum opus, Cum Apparatuum tomis 

coniundis, vel Appratus iplos, auteoru partem aliquam feorfum^citraipfiusChri- 

ih>phori^ut caufam 6c iusab ip(b habends»licentiam imprimere,autab alits impref- 

la vcnderc,aur in fuis ofEcinis vel alias tenere polTit. Volentes 6c.decernetes cxprcfs^, 


199. Page from Bthlta Polyghtta: Piantin^ Antxverp^ 1572 


s o 2 5 i 5 If 

>• ci " Z < ' M 
X ' it 




NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 11 

ner* {Jig. 201). This book deals with heliotrope, thyme, and 
other godless vegetation, and on the last page a Canon of 
Antwerp Cathedral attests that it contains nothing contrary 
to faith or morals. Since then we have learned that the mar- 
riage customs of plants would bring to the cheek ^*the blush 
that is now peculiar to the middle-aged.** 

The later Plantin fonts needed great space around them 
when in mass ; and this they have in that splendid Adas 
by Abraham Ortel* — Theatrum Orbis Terrarum — first pub- 
lished in 1570. In a copy of the edition of 1584 in the Li- 
brary of Harvard College, the elaborate copper-plate title- 
page is made gorgeous by colour, and the portrait of Ortel 
is surrounded with a complicated framework which is a 
mass of illumination. The maps are gaily coloured, too, and 
their decorative cartouches are specially brilliant The typog- 
raphy (in roman and italic fonts) stands up well under the 
strain of its coloured decoration. The prefatory type-matter is 
magnificent, especially the page of spaced capitals, arranged 
in a dedication to Philip II. The alphabetical index of maps, 
in spaced capital letters, the compliments to Ortel in Latin 
and Greek, and the tabular arrangement of type (in the 
Nomenclator Ptolemaicus generally bound with the Adas), 
are all most distinguished. The final "privilege" in civilite^ 
and directions to the binder, etc., on the last page, close a 
book in which a difficult problem is met with courage and 
solved with gusto. As the size of type used in each page is 
dictated by a desire to fill it, and the matter varies in amount, 
the volume is a sort of specimen-book of Plantin's fonts. 

Plantin's folio Opem of Tacitus, annotated by Lipsius, 
printed in 1585 (a third issue of this work) is also a beautiful 

* For odier examples of Plantin's earlier way of working, see title-pages re^ 
pnxluced in Rooses' Plantin, pp. 58, 60, 84. 

' GominoDly known as Ortelius. 


book. It is very simply arranged. The Annals and History 
occupy a section by themselves, and Lipsius' commentary 
to the former, and notes to the latter, occupy divisions marked 
by separate tide-pages. This fine, lively piece of printing 
employs for its preliminary matter many of Plantings mel- 
lowest and most beautiful types. The opening addresses, 
composed in noble fonts of roman,or in an italic full of swing 
and movement, show the Gallic touch. In the body of the 
work the type used is a smaller size of excellent roman; but 
the pages are so large, there are such masses of it, and it is 
so closely set, that the effect is a bit overpowering. Lipsius' 
commentaries at the end show that sad mixture of roman 
and italic, spaced capitals, and Greek quotations, dear to the 
learned at that date. Yet in the main, the Tacitus is a fine 
piece of printing. 

Plantin also printed books in the Flemish black-letter 
current at that day. An example of this is the Rechten^ ende 
Costumen van Antwerpen^ printed at the expense of that city, 
in 1582. It is not by any means a "pure'' black-letter book, 
for (as in some sixteenth century Elnglish books) roman 
was used as a display letter to a "norm" of black-letter — 
exactly reversing our present-day use of black-letter and 
roman. Its title, preface, and some displayed matter employ 
italic. A letter quoted in the black-letter "Confirmation of 
Privileges " is set in roman type ; and passages in roman 
here and there occur. But the text, which runs to nearly 
four hundred quarto pages, is composed in a superb Flem- 
ish lettre deforme^ massive and very fine. Some passages in 
civility are interesting, and so are the decorated initials. This 
book is supplemented by a sort of "order of procedure" for 
meetings of city officers. Would that "municipal printing" 
to-da^ had such dignity ! {Jig. 202). 

In addition to the Polyglot and other Bibles, and missals, 




H I S.TO R I^» 


R B o R V My frudcum & fufTruticum 
abibluta Hiftona, reliquarum ftirpium 
defcriptioncs adgrcdicmur , inter quas 
j^^^^^^ Coronarias (quod infigni coloram va- 
rietatc, omnium oculos ilic6 in £c conuertant, eofque 
minim in modum reaccnc) merito pdmum locum 
fibi vendicare vidcnnir. Jnidum igimr a Bulboiis, vt« 
pote nobilionbus » fadentes , reliquas ordine deinde 

De Narcillb. cap. i* 

Dv o fintapud Diofcoridem Narc%fftgener4,mi^ 
dio lutem , & medio fHtfureta. Ego^prdterpo* 
ftremi(qHi ncnnullis Narbonenjts GaUu^pratis jpon- 
ti proHcnit) qnatuar alia genera perHtJpanias objet'* 
uoHt^ mamtudme^fiorum ^liorumj^firma & colore, 
flarendi deniq^ tempore inter Je differentia . 

Prior ergo NarciffHstema ant quatemafilia i, 
habef^ virentta^ oblonga^ ?orr% filiujtmtlia fire, can- ^*"*^J* 
tern concannm^firiatnm.Jinefiltis ^pedem altnm^ in- "* ® *• 
terdnmaltiorem , & in/ummofiores (ex ant o£lo ^pln^ 
resve , triangnlis pedicnlis infidentes > & emembrdna 
ertimpentes, mediocriteramplos, cnmgranimte qnada 
cdoratos ^fix filOs albisconjbntes j^nornm medium^ 
caljx ommno Intens occnpat ^jkmina breniafix cnm^ 

Q^S totidem^ 


201. Page from Ranorum Stirpium Hispantx Historia 

Planting Antwerp^ 1576 


ende Coftumen 





^MDe 3(ttn(Dictte. 


Nden eerftcn , fprekende ^ 

t)dn:3fntU)enien/t0 menbenrtl^ 

pentieniet alleenHjcfttgmetuit&intmt 
He poo^enoft tmiermtiantierftaDtbe- 
Ootm/maecoocfttiarotti»mventie bim 
nenDe €U;pI)ei>tDei; rrliter ftaDt gi) 


U^elcfteii^ei^gaetentieScecttotDome-I'^nsoe/mtie ii. 
Scr^em/mtiealfoo tioo^tsomdeaadttoan ainmierpen/ 

ictnt in iSouemiiii Jtr* 1 4 s 8.nde)ott]n)(im iMitDe c^ame 

g(6oien tno^m/ 3im !^o?tec0/entie VJlntooonDers al« 
iner/5iin3Mrfmnmt)an :annoe(i;i(n. 

202. Pag^^ of Rechten^ ende Costumen xxtn Antwerpen^ Planting 1582 

{reduced ) 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 13 

breviaries, and such-like liturgical books, I recommend the 
student of Plantin's work to examine the botanical books 
by Lobel, Dodoens, and Charles de l'£cluse ; the adases by 
Abraham Ortel ; Luig^ Guicciardini's Description of the 
Low G)untries in various languages ; the works of Arias 
Montane and Justus Lipsius ; the music of G. de la Hele, 
Comet, and others; the emblem books of Junius, Alciati, 
Sambucus, etc., and the poetry of Houwaert 

Plantin died in 1589. He was buried in Antwerp Cathe- 
dral, and on his tomb was inscribed : 


Plantings two daughters were married to printers — the 
elder to Rapheleng^us, associated for many years with 
Plantin, and who previously taught Latin and Greek at 
Cambridge, and afterwards accepted the chair of Hebrew 
at Leyden. To this University he was also printer — as was 
Plandn himself for a brief period. The other daughter 
married Moretus, who, after Plantings death in 1589, in 
association with his widow, carried on the press — the 
Plantin-Moretus Office, as it was usually called. Its work, 
at its best, preserved much of the later Plantin style. Two 
examples of it must suffice. The first is Rembert Do- 
doen's Stitpium HisUniOj printed by Plantin's grandson, 
Johan Moretus, in 1616 — a revised Latin edition of the 
book earlier issued by Plantin. The preliminary matter is 
set in Plantings superb roman and italic fonts (Jig. 203). 
The actual book, most agreeably illustrated with brilliantiy 
printed woodcuts of plants, is composed in a small size of 
roman type of great mellowness and beauty. Simple two- 
line initial letters start each chapter, the title of which is 
set in a small italic. It is a charming piece of work — ex- 


cept that the chapter-heads are too much crowded into the 
text — and a fine example of "the Plantin manner"; per- 
haps too much of a survival to be typical of Moretus. An 
odd feature is the final table of names of the plants de- 
scribed, in different languages. Arabic names, etc., are set 
in italic; Italian, Spanish, and French, in roman; but Ger- 
man, Bohemian, English, etc., equivalents are arranged in 
black-letter. Dodoens was among the great botanists of his 
day, and Plantin printed a number of his books. 

Another seventeenth century book from the Plantin Of- 
fice is the Jesuit Hugo's Obsidio Bredancu This interesting 
folio gives an account of the siege of Breda — familiar 
still through Velasquez' great picture of its surrender. Its 
printing retains much of Plantin's later manner. It is com- 
posed entirely in an ample roman type. It was issued in 
1626 and is a very dignified piece of worL 

The Officina Plantiniana— more a palace than a print- 
ing-house t- in the March6 du Vendredi at Antwerp, has 
long been, and still is (as the Mus6e Plantin), one of the 
sights of Europe. It is probably the most beautiful building 
— both inside and out — dedicated to the uses of printing, 
in the world; nor is there any other establishment which 
gives such an accurate idea of an early printing-house. The 
presses, type, and materials of Plantin, Moretus, and their 
successors have all been preserved, as well as their account- 
books and correspondence. Not the least valuable part of 
the collection is the original plates and blocks of ornaments, 
and designs drawn for the press by Rubens and other 
artists. To the student the most interesting of the rooms are 
the type-cutters' work-shop, the letter-foundry, the press- 
room, and the proofreaders' room, which are kept much 
in their primitive condition. The building and its con- 
tents were in the possession of successive members of the 

Largui opes profrias diffmdens fihti in omnes. 
Sic hoc Script orum 'veterum monimenta volumen 
Jlhfirat JplendoreJiiOi noBtmq^ recent unu 
iiArte noua pulfa penitus caligine nuda^. 
Jure igitur 'uittax, omni^ perenmus Arc^ 
Q^aiejia^e fua fiahit ,nec frmius *vllumj 
Olim cudit opus 'Oapid& fomacihus jEtnA 
[yclopum Ujfata manustferro^ coa&A 
Sudantis rara fttb vefie Pyracmonis artes 
Sentifcent mi cariem priusy ^'folidajpc^ 
Fraudatus St er apes operam plorahit inerterru, 
O auAfama tuas oiim fe£kdntur *vmhras? 
Ventwi qtMntPUpapuli memoraheris orc^ 
'DodonAe pa^er? quanto celehrahere pUufu? 
Cum tibife papm debebunt plebsque •tpatresq^, 
SeruMiq^fenes-i ignaraq^ 'virgo maritt? 
Funera quid metuis? viuet poB bufiafuperfies 
Fars immenfa tui, nulloq^ taceberis auo^ 
a^que ipfo afeniofumet tua gloria vires* 
3^^C^m prius afira polum toto radiant ia caIo 
*Defiitt4ent ifierilesjg fragofum Uttus arenA^ 
Jnqg autumnali noua palmite gemma tumebit, 
Et pede preffa fluet tepido vindemia Vere^ 
Quam taceant nomenj^ tuum, laudesq^ minoresy 
Jrritaqg intereant operA conamina mefirA* 

203. Page of ItaRcfrom PhnHn Office.^ Arttwerp^ 1616 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 15 

Moretus family until 1875, when it was ceded to the city 
of Antwerp by Edouard Moretus, the last proprietor, who 
died at Antwerp in 1880. The place is full of charm, and 
its sunny, vine-clad courtyard a haunt of ancient peace. 


ELZEVIR, the other great name in the history of print- 
ing in the Netherlands, belongs properly to the seven- 
teenth century. The founder of the family, Louis Elzevir, 
a bookseller and bookbinder at Louvain, removed to Ley- 
den for religious reasons — the Ellzevirs were Protestants — 
in 1580, and began to publish books there three years later. 
Five of his sons carried on the EUzevir activities. Utrecht, 
Leyden, Amsterdam, all had members of the family at 
work there, and for nearly a century and a half they were 
the best known printers of the Low Countries. The great 
figures in the family were Bonaventure and a nephew 
Abraham — partners from the year 1625 — who published 
editions of the classics in convenient ^onTia^ ^In the Elze- 
virs," as Aldis says, "we have parted company with the 
scholar-printers who themselves edited and revised the 
texts which they presented to the learned world. We have, 
instead, intelligent printer-publishers, excellent men of busi- 
ness, anxious to produce books that both textually and typo- 
graphically should sustain their credit for good work. To 
secure correctness they employed scholars to edit their pub- 
lications and see them through the press." 

The Ellzevirs are popularly remembered nowadays by 
their litde editions in 32mo, with engraved tide-pages, 
narrow margins, and compact pages of a solid, monoto- 
nous type which is Dutch and looks so. These are the 
volumes which romantic novelists — who are seldom good 


bibliographers — like to call "priceless Elzevirs," though 
they were then, and are now, cheap books. These and other 
Dzevir editions had the merit of handy form, good edit- 
ing, and eminendy common-sense qualities. But even this 
scarcely accounts for their tremendous popularity. The 
Ahb6 de Fontenai, writing in 1776, says that the Ellzevirs 
" have made Holland celebrated for printing, tlirough an 
elegance of type which the most famous printers of Eu- 
rope have never been able to attain, either before or since. 
This charm consists in the clearness, delicacy, and perfect 
uniformity of the letters, and in their very close fitting to 
each other"; and he adds that "the taste of young people 
for literature very often shows itself by a great fondness 
for these little Dutch editions, which give so much pleasure 
to the eye." John Evelyn, who was in Leyden a hundred 
and twenty-five years earlier, was of the same mind, and 
speaks of visiting the printing-house and shop of the fa- 
mous EUzevir," renowned, for the politeness of the characters 
and editions of what he has published, through Europe." ^ 

As publishers, the Elzevirs held somewhat the relative 
position to the work of their time that Aldus did in his day. 
They were pioneers in the popularization of books through 
convenient format and low price. How modem in ideas as 
publishers the EUzevirs were, is shown by their series of 
travel-books called "The Republics" — little historical and 
geographical descriptions of European countries by vari- 
ous authors, put together by a judicious use of scissors and 
the paste-pot. The Helvetwrum RespubUcOy devoted to Swit- 
zerland; Respublicoy sive Status Regni Scotise et Hibemrn 
(Jig. 204), a similar volume on Scotiand and Ireland — both 
issued in 1627; and a like book on France — Gallia^ by 

^ Evelyn also records that at Antwerp at ' 'the shop of Plantine I bought some 
books for the namesake only of that &mous printer." 

s-o S.S ''^ a 6?. 






: a: 

"5 . 

! d 






trt a 


NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 17 

J. de Laet — published in 1629, formed parts of diis pocket 

Of the celebrated EUzevir editions of the classics in small 
format (styled m-iJ?, but what we should call 32mo), the 
Caesar of 1635 is considered one of the best This was pub- 
lished at Leyden. Its engraved tide-page, a preface set in 
italic, and prefatory matter printed sometimes in roman and 
sometimes in italic, its neat litde maps, its tight litde head- 
pieces,^ and compact, monotonous type are very like all El- 
zevirs. These editions were all very much alike. Each divi- 
sion of a book generally started with tide and chapter heads 
set in capitals and small capitals, very much spaced ; the 
subject of the chapter (if any) being set in a tiny italic. The 
running-tide was in capitals and small capitals, also spaced, 
and page after page in book after book was set in this style. 
To have seen one EUzevir volume in prose and another in 
poetry, in ^\% format^ is to have seen all — or certainly as 
many as one wishes to see ! How any one ever read with 
comfort pages so solidly set in such monotonous old style 
type passes understanding — or at least mine. EHzevir edi- 
tions were generally unannotated, and if notes occurred, 
they were usually placed at the end of the book. 

The Pliny of 1635 and the Virgil of 1636 stand on a par- 
ity with the Caesar in the estimation of bibliophiles. The 
Leyden Terence of 1635 is also one of the most esteemed 
32mo editions, and is easier to read because in Latin verse. 
The Leyden Florus of 1638, though of the same^nna^ is 
more attractive. In 1642, the EHzevirs printed the Opera of 
Cicero in ten volumes, 32mo, and this, as Elzevirs go, is 

' The printers* marks, head-pieces, and ornaments of the Leyden and Amster- 
dam establishments, with a collection of similar material from different sev- 
enteenth century Dutch printing-houses, may be seen in Rahir's Catalogue 
(Tune Collection Unique de Folumea im/irimfa fiar lea Elzrvier et divers 
JStfiografihea HoUandais du XVII^ SiMe, etc. Paris : Morgand, 1896. 


an attractive edition. The engraved tide-page is handsome, 
the portrait of Cicero not bad, the prefatory matter well 
arranged, and the rest of the work made up of the solid 
pages characteristic of the house {Jig. 205). Daniel EUze- 
vir's Amsterdam edition of 1675 of St Augustine's Con- 
fessions^ in 32mo, is also considered among the best of the 
EHzevir editions; and perhaps it is — though not beautiful 
The Institutes of Justinian, an edition of which was printed 
by the same house in the next year, plentifully supplied with 
rubrication, is a book which was thought charming in its 
time. Still other editions which the student may look at are 
the Amsterdam Decameron of 1665 and the Virgil of 1676. 
Though considered so remarkable in their day, these edi- 
tions now appear merely "well-enough'' little books for the 
pocket But they were largely copied by other Dutch pub- 
lishers, and by publishers throughout Europe — the same 
rugged little types were employed, the same style of com- 
position was repeated, and the same effect produced, except 
that it was not so good. The EUzevir 32mo editions had a 
series of decorations peculiar to themselves, which were as 
"air-tight" in effect as the pages which they adorned. 

The Elzevirs also printed editions of the classics in oc- 
tavo — less typical in one sense, but better, because the type, 
being larger, was handsomer, and being more leaded, was 
easier to read. The typographic style, however, was much 
the same. These editions were annotated, and the very full 
notes were set in double column at the foot of each page. 
The octavo edition of Caesar of 1661 is a good instance of 
this format {Jig* 206). 

If a 32mo Hzevir edition were inflated until it became 
a folio, you would have a very good likeness to the second 
revised edition of Philip Cluverius's Germania Antiqua^ 


A D 

Dialog! tres de Oracore. 

DlALdGVttSCvLtB. I. 

O G f T A N T I mihi (xpenumero,^ 
memoiu cetera repeienci , perbead 
fiitde, Qutoce fcstter,illi videri folenc, 
qui in opcinu Republtca, cum 6c bo- 
'oonbus » 6c return geftaium gloria 
floftienc , cum vicx cuiiuni cenere pocueninc , vc 
rtl in negocio fine ptriculo, vel- in otio cum digni- 
OEeeflepoflaiCi Acfiiiccempui iUud, cummihi 
quoque iniuiim cequiefcendi , acque animum ad 
irtriulqueiioftrilmpcxclani ftudia referendi foie» 
juffann, ic ptope ab omnibus conceflum efle atbi- 
ixater , fi infioims ferenfium renim labor , U am« 
bidonts occupacio, decucfit honorum, etiam era- 
tis flem coofUddecQuam (pem cogtadonumA 
coofiliomm meorttm , cum gtaues communium 
iemponim,tizm ?aiii ooftri cafiu fefeUeranc Nam 
qui locus qnieds &c cranquillicads pleniffimus fo- 
re vidcbanii , in eo maiimx moleftiarum, & tur- 
bolmriflimat eempeilares exdtemnc. Neque vero 
nobis cupiendbos , acque exopcancibusfmdhis orii 
danseft adeas aneis , quibus i paerisdedidfiii- 
mnstcekbtandas, inter nofquerecolendas. Nam 
prinM glare inddimus in ipiam perurbadonem 
diicipliuz yeceds , 6c confiilam deuenimus in me* 
diom temm omnium cemmen arquedifcdmen, 
& hoc tempus omne poft confiilanim objedmus 
iit floftibos, qui per iiosi oommuni pdte depuMi» 
ia nofinedpros seduadacoob Sed umen in his vd 


t I 1 E & I. i^« 

aipetiratibtts reium , ve! angpftiis ttmporis , ob&« 
quai (bidiis noftris : fle , quanmm mihi rdfiaus 
ifljmiconim, vel cauflx amicorum, vel Reipablica 
cnbucc odi, ad (cribendum podffimum conferanik 
Ubi vero, fiacer, neque hortanri deero, neque ro- 
gincL Nam neque autoricate quifquamapudme 
plus reyalere poteft, neque voloncare. Ac mihi re- 
petendaeftvetens cujufiiam memoris non lane 
lacisexplicata recordano, fed, n arbirror , apaad 
id, quod requiris, vt cognolcas quae viri omnium 
eloquendlCmi, darilfimique (enfoinr de omni ra<» 
tionc dicendi. Vis enim,vt mihi (kpe dixifti, qua* 
oiam quzpueris.aut adole&enmlis nobis ex com* 
roenoiriolis noftcis inchoaca atque rudia exdde* 
ninc.vixhac aruuedigna, dcbocrfii, quemez 
cau/Its , quas diximus , roc canrifque confecud fii- 
mus, aliquid iifdem de rebus policius i nobis,pro- 
ft^iufque proferri : folefque nonnunquamhacde 
re i me in difpucarionibus nof his diilendre, quod 
ego emdidlHmoram horoinum ardbus eloquen- 
dam condneri ftaniam: ru aurem illam ab eleg^- 
ria doArinz fegregajidam puret, & in quodam in* 
genii atque exerdutionis g^nete ponendam. Ac 
mihi quidem , fxpenumero in fummos homines, 
ac fummis ingentis prardicos inruenti,qujerendum 
efTc viliim efl, quid eOet,cur pkires in omnibus ai« 
nbus quim in dicendo admirabiles exdiiflent : 
nam quocumque ce animo,& cogiurione conuer* 
teds , permulros excellcntes in quooue genere v^ 
debis , non mediociiumardum , fedprope maxi- 
marum. Quis enim cft,qui,(j darorom hominun 
fdenciam reruro geftarom vel vtilitate, vel magni- 
ludine medri vdir , non anteponat orarod impe- 
larorem ? Quis aurem dubicer, quin belli duces ex 
bacvnaciuiure pneftand/fimos pene innameca* 

M a bildf 

205. Pages of Cicero: Elzevir ^ Leyden^ 1642 

L I B E K. H. 

t ica un fupra dcmonflravimus, cicbii ad cum 
i rumotcs sffcrcbannic , licciilquc item Labie- 
I ni (lercior ticbac > omncs Bclgas > quam tci- 
tiam'c/Ic Gallia: panem dixcramus, contra pupulum R. 
coniurare , obfidclque inter Cc dare. Conjuraadi has 
cflc caufTas : priinum, quodvcietcntur, nc, omnipa- 
cadi Gallia , ad cos excrcitus noftcr adduccrcnir : dcin- 
dc quod ab nonnuUis Gallis follicitarcntur , panim qui 
Gennanos diucius in Gallia verfati nollenc ; ita popuU 
K, cxetcitura hicmarc atque invctcra/ccrc in Gallia mo- 

E Vmm iffii Ctfa] Anno ab 
t U.Cocxcviiincepithoc 
B teitiumbdlimi, ColTF. 
/ Coioelio P. F. Lcnculo 
^ Spimheret f<Q,^_CxdIii> 
Q^F. Mciella Ncpotc Mmtt*. 

i* (itmm C«lu ] Includcbvui 
mtitiuinuGalUalUicDoflumiDe, O- 
ccino I tpaeas ju^i ft Alpibui. At 
pollqn^ GaUuium pan idlix dlum 
Decent , Alpa tnnTpdBi termi- 
Buab hoc tame &aiu cA Apcnninui 
IBOM tc JUbamutt , ad Anconam ut 
que I mttu Adriatici ucbati. Totui 
auieinhicin&uiR.omanu divitiu t& 
ID Galliani' utterioiem fc dterioiem : 
hMctiamlolkaiQlalpin], ulBtTo- 
|ita ftoaa&ai difla t&. Vocis ttynion 
Uii a ;^M> qaod lac Icuinu. dcri- 
•OBt, quiib^cM, ideniiltncolocii 
bomina ^rodncit : DiodomiaCalatl 

hoc nomm conti|ifl£ anoliicui piota- 
re. qiiod. ciim oibem letiamm p«- 
tpmnt, Tc miicub inienogaient , Ob 

cnsivult OuaUanei ) SclUtuiii.pi 
C cfTeier.libus , Galloi O^imein 
caligJDc Tidct doAilUmui CluTcriui: 

dicimtu Ffitn 


incspctcTcGaUictcpil&m: putcil. 

pane in lUjnicun 
stque indc in Gradam Be AGam , pai- 

"mGcnnaniam dclatl: ^iclpsiliiu 

vocabulo I proiunu GcnnanU 
lU^lquc diOi Tuai ihi CiOfo.livc Gtl- 
^r , Sc alia dialetlo WnUci | quod voce 
cquipollenii Vulgo dicimiu du «»• 
iirtr , lA^atftiipiiuuni. Ei hoc L*- 

^ _ . ... tini.vocabulumlEtooiiaccammodaD- 

Uia: infubi Bodinia Ccloi lOifoimaiiuitCiili. MoniJO. 

206. Page of Caesar {pcttmo): Eizaar, Amsterdim, 1661 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 19 

printed at the Elzevirs' Leyden house in 1631, for the for- 
mula used in making it is about the same. Except for the 
condensed italic of the reprinted introduction to the first 
edition — quite a new note in italic type — the fonts used 
are larger versions of those in smaller books. Type w^ell 
set and displayed by good presswork gives a general effect 
that is excellent, and the masses of Greek quotations make it 
look very learned. The same author's Siciiia Antiqua (some- 
times included as a supplement to the Italia Antiqua of 
1624), printed by the Elzevir office in folio in 1619, is less 
conventional in style. Both books have engraved tides and 
maps, and the Germania a good many copper-plate illus- 
trations. The Historia Naturalis Bmsi/isB of Piso and Marc- 
gravius, issued in 1648 with the Amsterdam imprint of 
Louis Elzevir, is a good example of an Elzevir folio. The 
text is printed in a handsome but rather too regular roman, 
which is very Elzevirian indeed. 

In a letter written from Amsterdam in 1681 by the widow 
of Daniel EUzevir to the widow of Moretus, at Antwerp, 
we learn that the writer wished to dispose of part of the 
type-foundry inherited from her husband, Daniel Elzevir, 
which had descended in turn from Louis EHzevir. Some of 
its material was the work of Christoffel van Dyck, the great 
Dutch designer and type-cutter. 

" Not feeling myself competent to manage everything," 
she writes, "I have decided to sell my type-foundry. It con- 
sists of twenty-seven sets of punches and fifty sets of ma- 
trices, which are the work of Christoffel van Dijk, the 
best master of his time, and of our own. This foundry is, 
consequendy, the most famous which has ever existed. I 
have desired to inform you of the intended sale, and to send 


you specimens and catalogue so that, if agreeable to your 
plans, you can seize the occasion and profit by it^ 

With this letter she sent a broadside specimen-sheet 
which is reproduced, and the heading of which reads : 

"Proofs of types cut by the late Christofiel van Dyck 
such as will be sold at the residence of the widow of the late 
Daniel Elsevier, on the Canal, near the Papen-bridge, at the 
Elm, Wednesday, March 5, 1681" {Jig. 207). 

This broadside shows forty sorts of characters, if we 
include two music fonts. There are four kinds of capital 
letters, thirteen roman, twelve italic (the "pearP' not having 
any italic of its own), eight black-letter, one Greek, and two 
music fonts. Most of these types are rec(^^izable as Dutch 
by their sturdy qualities of workmanship, and, particularly 
in the smaller sizes of roman and italic, by a tiresome even- 
ness of design. Their closely fitted, large face on a small body 
was preeminently practical, and adapted them for the small 
formats of the Ellzevir publications. In a table given by 
Enschede in his Fonderies de CamcthvSy he attributes but 
twenty-eight of these characters to Van Dyck.^ The forms 
of the types call fot little attention ; the AugusHjn Romeyn 
and the Augustijn Ctirsijf (that in the second column) have 
certain swash letters which, in the roman, remind one of 
Plantin's fonts. Some of the swash letters in the Kleene 
Kanon Cursijf {sxxih in the first column) and the capital 
Q's in the Paragon Gursijf (next to the last in the first col- 
umn) are interesting. It was from Dutch swash letters — 
so much admired by Moxon* — that the variant capitals in 

' In the first column of the specimen, the first, fifth, sixth, seventh, and ninth 
types shown are his. In the second column, the first three, and the capitals of 
iiiejiuguatijn and CurMijf, In the third column, the first, third, sixth, seventh, 
dghth, and nintii, and the last one; and all the types in the fourth cdumn. 

* Moxon's Mcchanick Exerciae9, or the Doctrine of Handy^ Works afifiUed 
to the Art of Printing, pi. 15. 


Pi o 





m pm 

i It lis {■ 

i ' 111 w 

^! Is St' 

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NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 21 

Caslon's fonts were no doubt partly derived. In these old 
fonts, too, there were more unusual and tied letters than are 
now common. 

The black-letter shown in this specimen is heavy in its 
larger sizes, and the capitals are awkward and overcharged 
— like Flemish sixteenth century fonts too much elaborated. 
In the medium sizes, the types seem better. The Greek 
characters would to-day be obscure because of the number 
of ligatures. The two fonts of music type are those known 
as the "Music of the Huguenots." The specimen ends with 
many good type "flowers." The last three still hold their 
own, not merely because they are attractive in design, 
but because they print so well. This is due to the cross- 
hatching of the designs, which gives a pleasant tone and 
variety of colour to the ornament, and was intentionally 
employed to help the presswork. 

Mr. De Vinne, who attributed all these types to Van 
Dyck, — in the light of which his words should be read, — 
says,^ that "Liberal allowance should be made for the worn 
types and the bad printing of the original specimen-sheet, 
as well as for some falling-off, even from this low standard, 
in a facsimile. . . . Yet the good form and fitting-up of the 
Flemish Black Letters are but slighdy obscured; . . . any 
punch-cutter might be justly proud of them. The smaller 
sizes of roman and italic make a creditable appearance, but 
all of the larger sizes are not so good : some are really bad. 
Letters more uncouth than those of the capitals of the 
^Dubbelde Augustijn Kapitcden'* . . . were probably never 
shown by any reputable type-founder. Moxon's tracings of 
the Van Dijck roman letter,* although rudely done, showing 
undue sharpening of the lower serifs, give a clearer idea of 

* HUtoric Printing Tyfkes, New York, 1886, p. 43. 
' Moxon's Mechanick Exercises, pis. 11 and 12. 


its peculiarities of style and of its real merit than can be had 
from the study of the Elzevir specimen-sheet The general 
effect of this letter is shown to the best advantage in the 
larger types of some of the octavos of Daniel Elzevir. The 
smaller types of the duodecimos are too small to clearly 
show the peculiarities of cut Van Dijck seems to have de- 
signed letters, with intent to have them resist the wear of 
the press. The body-marks were firm, and the counters of 
good width, not easily choked with ink. Hair lines were few 
and of positive thickness. The serifs were not noticeably 
short, but they were stubby, or so fairly bracketed to the 
body-mark that they could not be readily gapped or broken 
down. When printed, as much of the Elzevir printing was 
done, with strong impression and abundance of ink, the 
types were almost as bold and black as the style now known 
as Old Style Antique. This firmness of face explains the 
popularity of the so-called Elzevir letter. It may not be 
comely, but it is legible. The letters may be stubby, but 
they have no useless lines ; they were not made to show the 
punch-cutter's skill in truthful curves and slender lines, but 
to be read easily and to wear well." 

Mr. De Vinne appears oblivious of what seems so self- 
evident to some French writers — that Van Dyck slavishly 
copied the design of Garamond's fonts. Dutch authorities 
think differentiy. 

The punches and matrices of the types shown on the 
specimen-sheet were offered for sale in 1681, and were 
bought by a Spanish Jew named Athias — a Rabbi as well 
as a type-founder. Some twenty years earlier he had em- 
ployed Van Dyck to cut Hebrew fonts which were used in 
a Hebrew Bible, for which Athias was given a medal and 
a golden chain by the States of Holland and West Fries- 
land. In 1683, the following notice appeared in the Gazette 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 23 

de Haarlem: "The attention of the public is called to the 
fact that the excellent and celebrated type-foundry of the 
late Christoffel van Dyck, sold by the heirs of the late D. 
Elzevir, t<^ether with other excellent matrices, Greek as 
well as Roman, brought together in the lifetime of the said 
Ellzevir, has been reorganized at Amsterdam. Address Jan 
Bus in the house of Sr. Joseph Athias, where he is at work 
throughout the day. The price of the types is the same as 
in the time of Van Dyck and Elzevir.'' A broadside speci- 
men ^ which must have been brought out about the same 
time shows, according to Blades, five fonts of titling, sixteen 
of roman and italic, eight of black-letter, and two of music' 
Upon Athias's death the foundry passed to a printer 
named Schipper; then to the Amsterdam founder Jan Ro- 
man. One-half of Roman's collection was sold in 1767 to 
Enschede of Haarlem; the other half to the brothers Ploos 
van Amstel of Amsterdam. Later their pordon was bought 
by Enschede, so that practically all Van Dyck's work went 
to the Haarlem foundry. Unfortunately, the Ensched6s' un- 
bounded admiration for the tasteless German type-cutter 
Fleischman threw Van Dyck's types into the shade, and 
their untoward end is described on another page. 


THE work of the Dutch press, outside that of the Elze- 
virs and Plan tin, was not of great interest There were 
three features, however, to which attention should be called: 
(l) The magnificent maps and atlases printed during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries by Mercator, Ortel, 

' Proevtn van Letteren die geaneden zijn door Wylen Christoffel -van Dijck^ 
welke gegoien werden by Jan Bus, ten huyse van Sr, Joaefih MhiaSt etc. Bus 
had a reputation in his day as a clever workman. 
' Blades's Earty Type ^ecimen Books, pp. 14, 15. 


Waghenaer, Hondius, and the Blaeus, which, quite apart 
from their engraved plates, are imposing in their typog- 
raphy. (2) The books printed in French and other lan- 
guages during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
Some of these were works, now famous, issued in Holland 
in order to escape the restrictions placed on the press else- 
where — restrictions that proved most advantageous to the 
Netherlands book-trade.^ (3) The illustrated volumes pub- 
lished in the early eighteenth century by Bernard Picart 
and others — ambitious pieces of type-setting, which, though 
heavy in effect, were magnificent for the period.* 


During the first half of the sixteenth century, printers in 
the Netherlands employed a great deal of gothic type of a 
square, heavy, monotonous cut A few books were printed 
in a lettre batardey but the black-letter fonts that were most 
used were of the lettre de forme family. A few of these fatter, 
"blockier" gothic types furnished an unfortunate historical 
precedent for the corpulent *' blacks" which disfigured Eng- 

^ The small format of some editions of proscribed books was probably to 
adapt them to convenient transportation to the public they commanded out- 
side Holland. 

'Tide-pages, etc., of books issued in the Netherlands during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries (as well as manuscripts and incunabula) are repro- 
duced in J. ten Brink's Geachiedenis der JSTederlandKhe Lettcrkunde, Am- 
sterdam, 1897. See also Stockum's La Ubrairie, PImfvrimerie et la Presac 
en HoUande d travcra Quatre ^^iea, Documenta ftour aervir d PHiatoire 
de leura JReiationa IntemaHonaiea. La Haye, 1910. This gives reproductions 
of titie-p^es, etc., of works of foreign authors printed in Holland. For a guide 
to some of the best Dutch printing, consult the Catalogue of the Elxhibition of 
Old and New Book-Making in the Netherlands, held at The Hague and Am- 
sterdam in 1920 under the auspices of the Joan Blaeu Society {Catalogua 
van de Tentoonatellingvan Oude en JVteuwe Boekkunat in de JVederlanden: 
Fereeniging Joan Blaeu) . The catalogue includes 378 items, and is valuable 
for titles of interesting sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth century books, 
of well-printed volumes issued in the nineteenth century, and of those reflect- 
ing modem tendencies in type-cutting and book-making issued in recent years. 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 25 

lish printing in the early nineteenth century. Along with 
these gothic types, roman types were used — a Dutch vari- 
ant of Italian roman types, with the same squarish quality 
in design which marked their black-letter companions. The 
italic employed resembled the Aldine character, and with it 
small roman capitals were used according to Venetian tra- 
dition. The general eflfect of type at this period was remi- 
niscent of the fifteenth century; indeed, the same general 
forms persisted in Dutch typography for a long time after 
1600. Early Netherlands books were often decorated with 
woodcuts, occasionally effective, though usually coarse in de- 
sign and execution; and tide-pages often bore elaborate and 
overcharged borders. Such types, square in shape, closely 
set, monotonous, and arranged without much sense of style, 
made books which can be readily recognized on the shelves 
of a library; volumes too thick for their height, in folio, 
quarto, and diminutive 32mo, mosdy bound in vellum, 
which are as unappetizing in their outward appearance as 
the tjrpography within. 

A general idea of Netherlands printing from 1 500 to 1 540 
may conveniently be had by consulting the reproductions of 
titles and text-pages given in Nijhoff**s VArt Typographique 
dans les Pays-BaSj and I indicate a series of plates from 
it which cover the different classes of types. The square, 
heavy lettre de forme is exemplified in some of the work of 
the Antwerp printer Willem Vorsterman, whose product 
is of a high average — for instance, the title-pages of both 

* Wouter Nijhoif, VArt Tyfiografihigtie dans /« Paya-Bas (1500-1540). 
Refiroduction en Facnmile dea Caracth'ea Tyfiografihiquea, dea Marquea 
d^Im/irimeuraf dea Gravurea aur Boia et autrea Omementa emfilcy^a dana 
lea Ptiya-Bcu entre lea Ann^ea MD et MDXL. Avec Mticea Critiguea et Bio- 
grafihiguea. La Haye, 1902. In the references to this work which follow, the 
numbers of the Uvraiatma in which the loose facsimiles were originally issued 
are given, but if the plates have been collated and bound, these numbers can 
be disregarded. 


Old and New Testaments in his Dutch Bible, issued re- 
spectively in 1528 and 1529. These plates show, too, the 
borders used in such books — although these are much 
above the ordinary in design.^ The same sort of type, but 
larger and finer in execution, was employed by Jan Seversz. 
in his title-page of Die Crxmycke van Hollandt, etc, of 1 5 1 7.* 
Yet another book that shows Dutch printing of the first 
order is the Delft edition of a Latin Psalter printed in 1530 
by G)rnelis Henriczoon Lettersnijder — who certainly knew 
his business.^ His black-letter is very impressive and beau- 
tiful, though of a massive kind that betokens Dutch pro- 
venance.* These show Dutch lettre de forme at its best 
Scarcely less good — and more characteristic — are the types 
of Jan Lettersnijder of Antwerp as used in Hoveken van 
devocien (c. 1500).* Still more characteristic, and much less 
good, are the pages from Nicolas de Grave's 1520 and 1529 
editions of J. Boutillier's Somme Ruyrael^ the Segelijn van 
Jeruzalem (1517), and Leven van St. Bernard (1515).* 

Roman type of this period is finely displayed in the open- 
ing page of a book printed by Thierry Martens of Alost at 
Lou vain in 1 5 1 7 — Summx s. argumenta Legum Romanorum 
of P. Aegidius^ — rin which the entire title is set in roman 
capitals of classical form. A tide-page showing capital and 

* Nijhoff: Anvers, Willem Vorsterman, IV, No. 10 {Uvraiaon 3), and V, 
No. 1 1 iLivraUon 4) . 

*3id,, Leiden, Jan Seversz., Ill, No. 8 (LivraUon 3). 

* In connection with this man's work, the cursive character used in his edi- 
tion of the New Testament in Dutch, printed at Ddft in 1524, is sufficiently 
unusual to reward attention. See Nijhoff: Delft, Comdis Henriczoon Letter- 
snijder, Nos. 7 and 9 (Livraison 11). 

* Nijhoff: Ddft, Comdis Henriczoon Lettersnijder, V, No. 15 (LivraUon 17) . 

* Jbid.f Anvers, Jan Lettersnijder, I, Nos. 1-3 iUvraiaon 8). 

* Ibid,, Anvers, Nicolas de Grave, III, Nos. 6-9 {Livraison 10). 

^ Ibid,, Louvain, Theodoricus Martinus Alostensis, V, No. 19 (Uvraison 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 27 

lower-case letters appears in the Antwerp edition of Eras- 
mus' De Contemptu Mundi, printed by Van Hoochstraten/ 
Fonts of heavier roman were used in some other books 
printed by Thierry Martens — such as the Condemnatto Doc- 
trinsB M. Luiheri of 1 520, or Fischer's Eversio Munitionis^ 
printed about 1518/ or the somewhat better roman types 
used by Pafiraet at De venter in 1521 and 1525.' Examples 
of italic are to be found in a Leyden edition of Erasmus' 
De vitando pemitioso aspectu of 1 538, printed by Pieter Claes- 
zoon van Balen,* and in the pages of Antonio de Nebrija's 
Lexicon Juris Civilis of 1527, printed at Antwerp by Gra- 
pheus/ These examples give a fair idea of the kind of ro- 
man and italic types generally employed in the Netherlands 
from 1500 to 1550. 

Two books in folio by Hubert Goltz (Goltzius) of about 
this date are interesting. The first is his Fivae Omnium Jere 
Imperatorum Imagines, printed at Antwerp in 1557, and in 
its illustrations showing, says an authority, "the first use of 
the copper plate in connection with blocks engraved for 
chiaroscuro printing and also the first appearance in any 
form of the chiaroscuro as book illustration."* Typograph- 
ically it is noteworthy for its display of italic types ; espe- 
cially imposing in the largest size,^ which resembles some 
used by John Day. The prefatory and final matter is ar- 
ranged with great distinction — in capital letters mingled 

' Nijhoif : Anvera, Michid HUIen van Hoochstraten, XIV, No. 51 {UvraU 
son 15). 

* Urid., Louvain, Theodoricus Martinus Alostensis, II, Nos. 6, 7, 8 (Uvrai- 
9on 2) . 

•iWrf., Deventer, Albert Paflfract, IV, Nos. 16, 18, 19 {Livraiaon 2). 

* Ibid. 9 Leiden, Pieter Claeszoon van Balen, I, Nos. 3, 4 iUvraison 15). 

* Jbid., Anvera, J. Grapheus, II, Nos. 4, 5 {Uvraiaon 5) . 

* Rudolph Ruzicka. 

' Facing pis. xu, xui, etc. 


with an italic recalling FelPs types. The second book is 
C Julius CsBsar she Historise Imperatorum Cassarumgue JSo- 
manorum ex Antiquis NumismatUms Hestitutae. It was printed 
at Bruges in 1563, and is a fine example of the sober use 
of some monumental reman types of a style much earlier 
than the date of the book. It is illustrated with copper- 
plates, and its engraved tide-page and colophon are most 

Luigi Guicciardini's DescritHone di Tutti i Paesi Bassi 
was issued in folio at Antwerp, in 1567, by G. Silvius, royal 
printer. The roman type in which it is chiefly printed and 
the italic used in its prefatory verse are not unlike Plantings 
fonts, and the book is interesting because it suggests that 
Plantings style was not so peculiar to him as we are apt to 
think. Elxcept for a copper-plate map and .a view of the 
H6tel de Ville at Antwerp, the book is illustrated with large 
wood-engravingfs. The tide-page and its two following 
leaves of dedication, engraved on wood, are fine, and so are 
the double-page plates : those of Ypres, Malines, and Lou- 
vain in particular being worth looking at These blocks 
were ultimately bought of Silvius by Plantin, and are now 
in the Mus6e Plantin at Antwerp. On Silvius' death at Ley- 
den (where he was printer to the States of Holland and the 
University), his widow sold his material to Plantin. 


J. Hondius, the well-known Amsterdam publisher, brought 
out in 1611 a Latin history of that city by Pontanus — 
jRerum et Urfns Amstelodamensium Historia. It is printed 
entirely in roman and italic types — the latter the better of 
the two — which have the worthy but uninspired appear- 
ance of Elzevir fonts. There are engraved illustrations and 
woodcut initials — the latter rough but attractive. The same 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 29 

publisher about this date printed a Dutch edition of this 
book, set in double column, in a spirited cut of lettre de 
forme with the usual italic and roman interspersed. The 
copper-plate illustrations — unintentionaUy diverting — of 
the Latin edition are used in the Dutch version. The two 
editions are interesting to compare. 

Samuel Ampzing's Beschryvinge ende lofder Stad Haer^ 
Ian in Holland (Description and Praise of the City of Haar- 
lem), and Pieter Schrijver's (Scriverius) Laure-Crans voor 
Laurens Coster van Haerlem, Eerste Finder vande Boeck- 
Drucken/jWere printed together in a stout quarto at Haarlem 
by Adriaen Rooman in 1628, in a mixture of roman, italic, 
black-letter, and cursive letter, in various sizes. I do not 
attempt to describe it except as an unbelievable jumble of 
types not in themselves bad. Of the two unusual cursives, 
the smaller is well displayed on pp. 246-256 in the first book 
named, and the larger in the Foor Reden to the second. 
This last work, — "Laurel Wreath for Laurenz 0)ster,'' — 
although issued separately, was added, in enlarged form, to 
Ampzing's book to support his championship of Coster as 
the inventor of printing. Plates of G)ster's ill-favoured coun- 
tenance and of his printing-office enliven the treatise. 

The three- volume folio Atlas JVouus sive Descriptio geo- 
grapkiea Totius Orbis Terrarum^ by Mercator and Hondius, 
published at Amsterdam by J. Jansson and H. Hondius in 
1638, and apparently printed by Hondius, is handsome 
typographically, apart from its maps. The text is printed 
in double column from old style roman and italic fonts ; and 
woodcut ornaments and initials are often employed. But 
it lacks the sense of style of Plandn's edition of the Atlas 
by Ortel. Although the text is printed on the back of the 
engraved maps, the paper is so thick and good that it does 
not matter. 


Willem and Joan Blaeu's Nouus jitlaSj in six enormous 
^^ atlas folioSy'' is another able performance. Iti an edition in 
German, printed at Amsterdam in 1676, the text is set in 
fraktur, with — alas! — proper names in roman, and quota- 
tions in italic letter. But it is a very wonderful achievement, 
all the same. Evelyn, when on a tour in 1641 which seems to 
have been more or less bibliographical, visited (besides the 
establishment of ^^ that indefatigable person ^ Hondius, men- 
tioned above) Joan Janszoon Blaeu's shop in Amsterdam to 
buy maps and atlases. This was Blaeu the younger, son of 
the better-known Willem Janszoon Blaeu (1571-1638), in- 
ventor in 1620 of an improved style of printing-press which 
had considerable success in the Netherlands and in England. 
The elder Blaeu had earlier been associated with Tycho 
Brahe, the Danish astronomer, from whom he got the idea 
of making globes and maps. Blaeu's new press was intended 
to surmount difficulties in perfecting this work, for which 
the shop became famous. 

A contemporary account, describing the establishment 
much as Evelyn must have seen it, tells us that "on the 
Blumengracht, near the third bridge, and the third alley, 
may be found the gready renowned printing-house of John 
Blaeu, Counsellor and Magistrate, of this city. It is fur- 
nished with nine type-presses, named after the nine Muses, 
six presses for copper-plate printing, and a type-foundry. 
The entire establishment on the canal, with the adjoining 
house, in which the proprietor lives, is 75 feet in breadth, 
and stretches along the east side of a cross street 135 feet, 
or with the attached house 150 feet Fronting on the canal 
is a room with cases in which the copper-plates are kept, 
from which the Adases, the Book of the Cities of the Neth- 
erlands and of foreign countries, also the Mariners' Adases 
and other choice books are printed, and which must have 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 31 

cost a ton of gold. Next to this first room is a press-room 
used for plate printing, and opening upon the cross street 
referred to above is a place where the types, from which 
impressions have been made, are washed; then follows in 
order the room for book-printing, which resembles a long 
hall with, numerous windows on either side. In the extreme 
rear is a room in which the type and certain other mate- 
rials used in printing are stored. Opposite this store-room 
is a stairway leading to a small room above which is set 
apart for the use of the proofreaders, where first and sec- 
ond impressions are carefully looked over, and- the errors 
corrected which have been made by the typesetters. In front 
of this last designated room is a long table or bench on 
which the final prints are placed as soon as they are brought 
from the press, and where they are left for a considerable 
time. In the story above is a table for the same purpose just 
indicated, at the extreme end of which, and over the room 
occupied by the proofreaders, is the type-foundry wherein 
the letters used in the printing of the various languages are 

"The foundation of this splendid building was laid in 
the year 1636, by John Blaeu's oldest son Willem Blaeu, 
and on the 13 th of the Fall month of the following year the 
printing establishment was here set in order. The original 
founder of the printing-house, who died in the following 
year, was John Blaeu^s art-loving father Willem, who, for 
a considerable time, had been a pupil of the great astrono- 
mer Tycho Brahe, whom he zealously followed, construct- 
ing many instruments for the advancement of astronomi- 
cal studies, for the promotion of the art of navigation, and 
of other sciences of like character, an interest in all of 
which he revived and furthered while at the same time he 
made new discoveries, as has become widely known from 


the publications which have issued from this printing- 

P. and J. Blaeu printed at Amsterdam in 1698 a French 
edition of Gerard Brandt's Life of Admiral de Ruy ter — 
Im Vie de Michel de Suiter — a more or less commonplace 
performance of seven hundred folio pages. The book is com- 
posed in a light variety of old style roman, with the numer- 
ous quoted documents arranged in italic. It is illustrated 
with large copper-plates — which, unlike the text, leave 
nothing to be desired as to incident and movement 

The name of Wetstein, the eminent Amsterdam printer- 
publisher, appears (with others) on the tide-page of Hooft's 
Nederlandsche Historien^ printed in 1703. Its types are char- 
acteristic Dutch fonts of the eighteenth century, but more 
lively than those in most contemporary work. The italic 
used has some delightful characters. Except for copper- 
plates, the volume has no decorations save some nine-line 
Dutch "bloomers,** used at the beginning of each of the 
thirteen books into which the History is divided. They 
" bloom " energetically ! 

Peter the Great, on his last stay in Holland^ from 1716 
to 1717, was fired with the idea of improving printing in 
Russia, and he made various endeavours to this end. The 
history of the only eflfort that succeeded — and that but par- 
dally — is a curious incident in the annalsof Dutch printing. 
There had been at the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury a Dutch Bible printed at the command of the States- 
General of the United Provinces, and taking this for a basis, 

* Filips von Zesiai*sBeachreibungder Stadt ^maierdam, 1664, pp. 215, 316; 
quoted in £. L. Stevenson's Willem Janszoon BUtcu^ Hispanic Society, New 
York, 1914. For a list of the principal geographical works of the elder Blaeu, 
see Bibliography in the latter book. 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 33 

the Czar ordered a Bible arranged in double column; the 
Dutch text (entirely in capital letters) on the right, the other 
column being left blank for a Slav translation of the Dutch 
text — to be printed later in Russia from Slavic types, cut 
and cast for this purpose by Clerk and Voskens, the Am- 
sterdam tjrpe-founders. The New Testament, in two folio 
volumes, was printed at The Hague in 1717, and the Old 
Testament, in four volumes, at Amsterdam. It appears that 
the greater part of the edition sent to Russia was lost, and 
that only a few copies of the New Testament ever were com- 
pleted by the addition of the Slav text Only four copies are 
now known/ 

The quarto edition of Brieven . . . den Johan de fFitty 
issued by H. Scheurleer at The Hag^e in 1 723, has a con- 
gested red and black titie-page, and apart from this is a 
perfectiy straightforward quarto, set from heavy, awkward 
old style types, moderately well printed, on moderately good 
paper, perfectiy respectable, and as uninteresting as all this 
sounds. Wetstein and Luchtmans — both good names in 
Dutch printing and publishing — brought out at Amster- 
dam and Leyden in 1738 a quarto Livy in seven volumes — 
a monumental work, and, like most monuments, depress- 
ing. The type of the text is a very square cut of old style, 
the notes a colourless variety of Elzevir types. The crowded 
titie, the allegorical frontispiece, the author's portrait, the 
preface in enormous italic, and page after page of crowded 
text, make these two volumes of something over one thou- 
sand pages each, a very sleepy affiiir. 

Bernard Picart, a French engraver and seller of prints 
who resided at Amsterdam after 1710, contributed a deco- 
rative note to early eighteenth century Dutch printing. An 

* Stockum's La UbrairiCf P Imfirimerie et la Prease en HoUande d travera 
Quatre Si^lea, &cs. 153, 154. 


example of his work is the CEuvres Diverses de M. de 
Fontenelle, published in 1728 at The Hague by Gosse and 
Neaulme. The book is full of Picart's exquisite engraved 
decorations, and is (except for the tiresome type border on 
every page) printed from old style types more French than 
Dutch in effect Another more imposing and more fa- 
miliar "Picart" book is the folio Temple des Muses^ pub- 
lished at Amsterdam by Zacharie Chatelain in 1733, the 
year of Picart's death. Apart from the engravings and the 
series of fine frameworks around them — so good that they 
have been often utilized by later printers and decorators — 
the typography is extremely handsome. The fonts used — 
of a bold, massive sort — are impressive in effect; and the 
composition, too, is adequate, and very much in the key of 
the pretentious plates {fig. 208). Such books were, I sup- 
pose, bought for their pictures, and were intended as luxu- 
rious pieces of book-making. Still another illustrated Picart 
work is the Cir^monies et Coutumes Religieuses des Nations 
de tous les Peuples du Monde in nine volumes, begun in 1 723, 
of which an English edition was published. 

Johannes Ensched6 and Jan Bosch of Haarlem very ap- 
propriately printed G. W. van Oosten de Bruyn's De Stad 
Haarlem en haare Geschiedenissen in 1765. It is not much 
of a performance. The dull, light, roman and italic types 
have lost all colour and spirit {fig. 209). Some black-letter 
(possibly Fleischman's) is here and there used for verse. 
Then, too, the composition of displayed and prefatory matter 
is tasteless and pretentious. As a whole, the book, — a folio, 
— weak as it is in its types, is yet interesting, because 
showing new tendencies in printing. 

The eighteenth century Dutch press brought out a great 
many famous books which were prohibited or in danger 
of suppression in France. These are often good examples of 





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NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 35 

current Dutch typography, though the student may easily 
be misled by Dutch imprints on work produced elsewhere, 
as in the first edition of Voltaire's Henriade. Books^ actu- 
ally printed in Holland were the first editions of Voltaire's 
J^lemens de la Philosophie de Neutoriy Amsterdam, 1 738,* and 
La Bble enfin Expliquie (dated London, 1776);* PAbbe 
Prevost's Manon Lescaut, 1731 and 1 753 ;* Montesquieu's 
Causes de la Grandeur des Homains et de leur Decadencey 
1734;* Rousseau's La Nouvelle Heldtse^ ll&ly and the 
Emile and Cantrat Social of 1762. All of these are respec- 
table pieces of printing from old style types ; neither better 
nor worse than the average typography of the time. 


FOURNIER le jeune^ in speaking of contemporary 
Dutch foundries, says that "Holland, having made 
printing one of the principal features of its commerce, 
erected with care and expense several celebrated foundries. 
At Amsterdam, Dirk Voskens, the celebrated engraver and 
founder of that city, set up a type-foundry at the end of the 
last century. His types are round in form, in the manner 
of our great masters, and very well engraved. This foundry 
has passed to his widow and to the Sieur Zonen.^ Another 
celebrated foundry at Amsterdam was established by Chris- 
tophe van Dyck, also an engraver, and has now fallen into 
the hands of M. Jean Bus. A third foundry established in 
the same town, not less excellent than the two preceding, is 
that of Isaac van der Putte. All three are well stocked with 
characters of difierent kinds, particularly with the Flemish 

' Stockum, £ac. 161. ' Ibid., &c. 163. ' Eid,, £ac. 164. 

• Ibid.y fiacs. 171, 172. * Ibid,, fee. 174. * Ibid,, fees. 195-198. 

^ I.e., and her sons. Foumier mistook the Dutch word "zonen" for a proper 



character, which has been very much used in the Nether- 
lands but which is now being abandoned. At Haarlem, M. 
Rudolph Wetstein, printer at Amsterdam and learned in 
types, having inherited some punches of Greek characters 
which G. Wetstein, his father, had cut for him at Geneva, 
added types to his foundry eng^ved by Sr. J. M. Fleisch- 
man, a very clever type-cutter. After the death of M. Wet- 
stein, which occurred in 1742, Messieurs Isaac and Jean 
Enschede, brothers, bought this foundry in 1743 and took 
it to Haarlem to form a complete typographical establish- 
ment in conjunction with the printing-house they had there. 
This foundry has received very considerable accessions 
through the work and talent of Sr. Fleischman, mentioned 
above, who is in their employ. At The Hague, Sieurs R. C. 
Alberts and H. Vytwerf established, about 1730, a foundry 
for which a part of the types were cut by J. M. Schmidt, 
a talented type-cutter. At Antwerp there is an old foundry 
which has been celebrated for a long time. It was set up by 
Christophe Plan tin, the accomplished printer, about 1561. 
He went to France, to buy types at the administrator's sale 
of the Garamond foundry. Guillaume Le Be also sold types 
to him, and he had other types cut by Henri du Tour,^ of 
Ghent, then living in Paris. Moretus, Plantin's son-in-law, 
having inherited it, it came through his descendants to M. 
Moretus, the type-founder and printer, who owns it to-day. 
This foundry has gready lost prestige through lack of em- 
ployment, or by the ignorance of some of those through 
whose hands it has passed. Another Antwerp foundry be- 
longed to M. Balthazar von Wolffchaten. In Holland there 
still exists the Athias foundry, called the Jewish foundry ; 
and at Leyden that of Blokmar, and one at [belonging to ?] 

* Van der Keere the younger. 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 37 

Plantings types and Van Dyck's characters, both men- 
tioned by Foumier, have been discussed. The first still re- 
main at the Plantin Museum. The second were finally ac- 
quired by the Enschedes. The Enschede foundry at Haar- 
lem is one of the most interesting establishments in Europe, 
and is a ^Mescendant'' of the oldest foundries in Holland and 
of ancient foundries in Basle and Geneva. Begun in 1703, 
and flourishing to-day, it possesses probably the best col- 
lection of ancient types, in private hands, in the world. Be- 
sides portions of the Athias and Wetstein foundries, it 
includes material from those of Dirk Voskens, Blaeu, Van 
der Putte, Ploos van Amstel, Elzevir, and others — almost 
every establishment mentioned by Foumier. Some of its 
types date from the fifteenth century. Had not many of Van 
Dyck's matrices been destroyed, it could have reproduced in 
type any Dutch book from the fifteenth century to our own. 
Its proprietors have been, from the first, learned men, and 
adepts in their work. 

Fleischman, a German, was employed by the Enschedes 
in the eighteenth century to cut types for their foundry, and 
his signature is found beneath many fonts shown in their 
specimen-books. In his hands their output was somewhat 
changed, though not much bettered. His types are singu- 
larly devoid of style, and usually show a drift toward the 
thinner, weaker, typography which was coming in Holland 
as everywhere else. But Fleischman's work was much the 
fashion in the eighteenth century, and it made such excellent 
fonts as Van Dyck's appear hopelessly obsolete. In 1810, 
when Didot type was the mode. Van Dyck's matrices and 
types were, without much thought, thrown into the melting- 
pot — a "gesture" no doubt regretted by later members 
of the Enschede family. 

Various books and broadside specimens of types and 


ornaments were published by the Ensched^s. One of the 
earliest books was the Epreuvedes Caradbres^ qui sefondent 
dans la Nouvelle FonderiedeLettres d^ Isaac et Jean Enschede 
a Haarlem. Augmentee ^ perfectionke jusqtih PAn 1744. The 
preface alludes to the abilities of Rudolph Wetstein as a 
printer and type-founder, and mentions that the Ensched6s 
bought his foundry in 1 743 ; Wetstein having died the year 
before. The Greek types are mentioned with special pride; 
and the deep cutting of counters, and the solid way in which 
the types are constructed to escape wear, are emphasized. 
The roman and italic types shown are all old style. In 1768, 
the Ensched^s published an elaborate specimen called Pmef 
van Lettereny fFelke gegooten worden in de JVieuwe Haer- 
lemsche Lettergietery van J. EnschedeyprtfRced by a portrait 
of Ensched6 and other engravings. An introduction, dated 
Haarlem, 1768, and signed by J. fjisched^, is printed in a 
very ugly cursive script letter (Jig. 210) — a fearful decline 
from the splendid cursive fonts in use a hundred and fifty 
years earlier. This is followed by a portrait of J. M. Fleisch- 
man, their type-cutter.Then begins a series of types — capi- 
tal letters in roman and italic of a very Dutch and ugly cut, 
a series of shaded capital letters, and a great variety of faces 
of roman and italic types, in some of which the size of the 
body of lower-case letters is unduly large in proportion to 
the capitals. Many of the types that we come upon which 
look more "modern" (some of them being as we should now 
say "condensed") were cut by Fleischman — whose name 
appears beneath them. He uniformly extracted all interest 
from his fonts, pardy through lightening the cut, which 
gave monotony of colour, and partiy by his large, round 
lower-case letters, made more rolling in effect by shorten- 
ing the descenders in a very modern way (Jtg. 211). The 
smaller types are extremely dull in colour, though here and 



.^Jti^wCdc Cf^anTumd 

Fr. GMrmtnd i dftix Points. 

^yccttn^cnap-p^iv ticn nic/r net t^ccac ^ yoor 
dc KjGacrocmfont JUctU/raUttTU> aeJ^ncedcfij 
Gc£cnrcc/9t^n OJcnrijlt ^ ooor wf^tcn acn 

cn Kon&iaMcn JUctUr-QJ tefnp-eZJ^nu&tr ^ dU 
cr ooit in qc yyae/rt/^d ac/w^ccJc ia y cn 
moacCuK Korncn zaC ^ in 1768 youinoiat/ 
t>unQC z/u^n Caa^Mc oton^- Wcj^'&uA '^oor dctzc 
U^cttcraictcru ^ cn qc caat&c Qoor ncm^ ac* 
iuitccroc Urbatrut^n. /z>un ^JVaam cn tA^n& 
iuiCj aoor tAihc tUtmuntcnac U^cttcrcn ^ cic 
ten actatc *)Hx/n ruim t^e/v^tntia onQcr-tcntidcnc 
QJcnrijptcn z^ia in dc fjhaarccfnj^cnc J^cttcr^ 
aictCTu ^e/v^inocn ^ ha *ycrCo<H> y^an ycctc 
(huuwcn y noa door dc Cf,cCccrdc /yacrcCd rnct 
TQcm ycrmcCd y/ordcn. 

5|U ^ 

210. Script Type: Ensched/^s Proef van Letteren, Haarlem, 1768 



Defcendiaan Roinein, Eerile Schnft. 

Fr. Pbihf»fhi€ JUmsim. 

Ettgl. Smal Pica Roman. 

Hoogd. DtftndUm jtntifus. 

II y a des gens qui les e(liinentbeaucoup;queIques 

^^ Protellans mdmes les louenc. Mr. Arnoldus indique i^ 

^ X plufieurs Paflages des Ecrivains Catholiques qui ont x ^ 

4^0 admir^ Rusbrocb. Mais il ne devoit pas mettre de 9^ 

^ J ce nombre Francois Swertius. Apparemment ce qui 8 ^ 

^X Ta brouill6 eft de s'fitre fouvenu qu*il y a un Livre x^ 

^ i intitule Athenae Batavae ,&c. fflfflffiffiABCDE 5/A^ 



TR ia34s6789oS»t! I J. 

^X J. M. Fleifchmtn fcQipflc 1734' A^ 

^A Defcendiaan Romein, Twcede Schrift. \^ 

^x At etiam literas, quas mefibi mififfe diceret, re- \^ 

^5 citavit homo & humanitatis expers, & vitse com- 5^ 

^0 munis ignanis. Quis enim unquam , qui paulum mo- C^ 

Xo do bonorum confuetudinem nolFet, literas ad fe ab XT^ 

^$ amico miflas, offenfione aliqua interpofita, in me- J§P 

^0 dium protuUt, palamque recitavit? Quid ell aliud, xd^ 

^0 tollerere fe vita vita focietatem , quam toUere amit oy 


XI WXYZiE. 1^34567890. IX: 

<^ X J. M. Fleifchman fcalpfic. Z753' C tilp^ 

^l Laatfle Defcendiaan Romein, Derde Schrift. c^ 

^|! Imprimis MarcumTullium opponebat, cuius X^ 

^ g Oratio optima fertur effe quae maxima. Plerifque enim 5 ^ 

^ o orationibus longiore traflu vis quaedam & pondus ac- ^ 

>w X ccdit. Utque corpori ferrum. Sic oratio animo non ic- X u^ 

^ g tu magis quam mora imprimitur. Videmus , ut ftatuas y §P 

Jg d figna , pi Auras , hominum denique multorumque ani- c ^ 

^ X malium formas , arborum etiam , fi modo fint decorae, X ^ 

4^ g Nihil magis , quam amplitudo commendet : idem ora- v ^ 

^v X tionibus evenit : quinetiam voluminibus autorita- AB ^ 



^X J. M. Fleifchman fculplit. 1761. X tt!^ 

^^a*^ *^X^ 

211. fletschman^s Roman Types cut in 1734, 1753, and 1761 
EnschedPs Proefvan Letteren^ Haarlem^ 1768 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 39 

there we find fonts with a good deal of movement, cut by 
Van Dyck. Fleischman's black-letter {Jig. 212) is tortured 
and fanciful, and does not stand comparison with Van 
Dyck's simpler and finer black-letter, still less with early 
Flemish gothic fonts* Fleischman's music, both in round 
notes and square, is also shown. The camdStre de finance, an 
unattractive script, was c\it by Rosart. Beyond these faded- 
looking characters comes a page of fine old civility {fig.212!). 
There is an interesting collection of Greek fonts, and the 
assortment of ligatured characters which supplement them 
should be examined. There are Arabic, Hebrew, Armenian, 
and other exotic types by various hands, and the specimen 
closes with ornaments which are mostly flat renderings of 
current English and French designs. Every page in the 
book is surrounded by type borders, many of them ingen- 
iously contrived. A supplement shows newer fonts added to 
the foundry between 1768 and 1773, which are not im- 
portant Two pages of splendid old Dutch black-letter fonts 
{figs. 45 and4f6) and a folding view of the Ensched^ foun- 
dry at Haarlem close a representative eighteenth century 
Dutch specimen. 

Charles Ensched6's Fonderies de Carac&res et leur Mate- 
riel dans les PayS'Bas du XV^ au XIX^ Sitcle contains every- 
thing in the early Enschede specimen-books, and reproduces 
interesting types from the Rosart, Decellier, and many other 
foundries. No other book on Dutch types is so valuable, and 
so complete. In illustrating it, the author had the enormous 
advantage of his own collection of types, and many of the 
examples are printed from them. He shows not only pages 
of type in mass, but also alphabets of capitals and lower-case 
letters, and the unusual "sorts," of which there were many 
in Dutch fonts. For instance, in the civilite cut by Van der 
Keere, which was purchased by the Enschedes from Ploos 


van Amstel in 1799, the type is first displayed as it appears 
in Van Hout's specimen. In an analysis of this font, its capi- 
tal letters, lower-case letters for the middle of words, and 
letters to be used at the ends of words, or phrases, are ex- 
hibited; together with double letters, punctuation, numerals, 
ligatured initials and medials, and final ligatures, with six 
ligatured forms of en, et, and in. This gives some idea of how 
thoroughly the work is done. Ornamental initials, deco- 
rations, and typographical borders are treated with equal 
fullness and completeness, and illustrated by a marvellous 
series of reproductions. No one who does not know this book 
can know much about Dutch printing from 1500 to 1800. 

A final specimen-book to be discussed is that of a certain 
Jacques FranQois Rosart (1714-1777), a native of Namur. 
He seems to have been self-taught, and to have established 
himself at Haarlem as type-founder in a small way, when 
about twenty years old. The establishment of the Enschede 
foundry there was a blow to him, although he cut many 
fonts for Enschede and so gained valuable experience. He 
thought, righdy or wrongly, that the Enschedes treated 
him shabbily and unduly favoured his rival, Fleischman. 

The dedication of Rosart's specimen is printed in one of 
his disagreeable script fonts, somewhat like that used for* the 
introduction to the Enschede specimen. In an address '^to 
amateurs of the art of printing," Rosart observes in a some- 
what acid manner that he does not praise the hardness of 
his type-metal, nor the depth of his counters, as some claim- 
ants do, who wish to make a great deal out of nothing. 
For printers whom he, Rosart, has had the honour to serve, 
know very well the quality of his types ! And he adds that 
he cannot conceal his surprise that the Enschedes in prais- 
ing Fleischman have forgotten to name the Artist who has 
brought honour to their foundry by supplying it with a 


Paragon Duits. 

Hoogd. T^xt Froltur. 

imitSi f mibtiS tat ^amaoa^: 
aDaet mi taeherom tteriten/ 
€n ottfe ^ggoetog ftefoecfien 

2 m fJriren /J|n taelcfe 
tap tegi Jleeten J)to?& ter^ 
fiijnWat gEfifien Joe foji 


J. M. FlcifduntD fcnlpfic. Z744> 

Text Duyts. 

Hoogd. Psragin FraBur. 

net (^ (^xjiAUt inmi taecfiit getM^ 
ien/ €n get fiolfi^niaen m %n ^M 
Uleffiegapen. &xn Mfiie tootii^tiB tie 

^esenatredE^ob^ftomton^tiQQ^Cn § 
maafiit tiat tug tafHen ; €n f0 ttalgt 
tm^etimaaftttiattoy fiionnen. Sd^C 

J. M. Fkifchmao fcnlpfic* 1/44, 


212. Fleischman^s Black-leUer: Ensched^^s Proef van Letteren 

Haarlem^ 1768 

fe o Text Oud Gefchreeven. O ij 

^3 ffff ^"^"^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ Wf f Wf It^ 

(vS Auguftijn Oud Gefchreeven. gj! 

r+g tu*nf Au fi^c ^e Q[)(VAr[ciffe/ [afuf Q^r-^^^dr* K+i 

gl-JS ^^ife ^QiKt/ (tfvui a raif Sire (t retH^mftrcir/ ^ue ||-« 
jfl-R Sc^fon^fetH* jF^eff cgcrccienf^jncir-fe* §+3 
R|.g ftcmicrci ^iiLcHvc4. ^^^ iim >y ^^^ ^ yc^ g^2 

^|pO $9 ej?^^*^^ contcn^ciH^nf ^ fvufccUQ i <|ui if S-H 

£t>M «f$^^^9 i^i ^^^ ^^^ Af f yenSrc 'de ^iLuij (t pvtiir %i^)| 

^R ^ ^Mcf^u^-i^arA^crt^rc^/ ^ui pourrt^nf fcr^iir- S+Ij 
ivO tfran^tycttfcH^ ^ f«>ufc^cy^ fcf Ay rrnn«^//m€(^ g^S 

H*g Dit laatllc Gefchreeven Schrift if gefneden voor den veroumrden Boekdnik- §^ 
WS ^1^ Quriftofiel Plantyn te Antwerpen, door Amcet Tivernier, Lctterfnyder. SjI* 

to/* ' **>oI^ 

^^.4% -T. ATm ^m ^m A% A»^l% *1% Ai *fc •!% H% ,1% JTm •^% ^f% ^T. /!% ^K^J 

213. Seventeenth Century Gviitt/: Ensched^^s Proefvan Letteren 

Haarlem^ 1768 

NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 41 

number of types — calling Fleischman the foremost type- 
cutter of the century, to the prejudice of persons whose 
talents are not yet much known, but who (it is to be hoped) 
will shortly make them so. 

There is something pathetic about Rosart's book. It is not 
very well executed. The capital letters with which it starts 
out are a little extreme in the delicacy of their serifs and in 
the thickness and thinness of contrasting lines. Three alpha- 
bets of flowered letters (detestably displayed) were cut by 
Fournier lejeune of Paris! Of the upper and lower-case 
types, not much is to be said. They are of the Dutch taste 
of the day ; but the italics are more elegant than most of 
those of the period. As the types become smaller, the bodies 
seem out of proportion to the height of the capital letters, 
and in these smaller sizes there are certainly many bad 
fonts. His music characters and plain-song notation are both 
shown. The caracfbre de finance {fig. 214), Rosart tells us, 
he engraved in 1753 to be printed with the music types 
which he offered to the public in 1750,^ "as," he adds, "the 
whole city of Haarlem can certify" {fig. 215). Some black- 
letter, some Greek, and a beautiful cut of civiliti eng^ved 
by "the late Grandjant [Granjon] at Paris" complete the 
specimen of types, and then come pages of ornaments {fig. 
216), among which the unpleasant marrow-bones, scythes, 
skulls, and crossed spades — which appear, too, in other con- 
temporary "specimens" — leave no doubt about the kind of 
notification they were to decorate ! Some of the simpler or- 
naments are pretty and delicately cut, but most of them, 
I think, were inspired by Fournier. Rosart's hand was rather 
mechanical, and his work is that of a good "technical" 
cutter of no g^eat taste. 

' Fournier, Brdtkopf, and Ensched^ produced their improved music types 
respectively in 1754, 1756, and 1764. 


In 1 759, Rosart left for Brussels, where, under the patron- 
age of the Duke of Lorraine, he established a foundry. He 
died May 26, 1777, at the age of sixty-two, leaving sev- 
eral children. A son, who was also a reputable type-cutter, 
did not succeed to his father's foundry. In 1779, Rosart's 
music characters, matrices, and punches were sold with 
the rest of his collection, and were acquired by a widow 
named Decellier, of Brussels.^ Whether Rosart cut good 
types or not, his priority in the improvement of movable 
music types will always give him a modest immortality. 

To round out properly the subject of eighteenth century 
Dutch types, consult the specimen issued by the brothers 
Ploos van Amstel of Amsterdam, of 1784, and its supple- 
ment issued about 1790 ; the specimen of J. de Groot, pub- 
lished at The Hague in 1791, which contains some of the 
Rosart material, and that issued by Harmsen & Co. at Am- 
sterdam at about the same period — "necessary where they 
may be had.'* The most interesting of these types and or- 
naments, however, are beautifully reproduced in Ensched6's 
monumental Fonderies des Carac&res. Those who are curious 
about the declension of excellence in late eighteenth century 
Dutch types may refer to that remarkable book. 

M. Enschede, speaking of this period, says that "the 
taste of the public changed, and in a manner which one 
could not approve of. The art of the type-founder retro- 
graded from all points of view. . . . The French Revolu- 
tion, which overturned so entirely the old order of things 
brought nothing better in place of it to our art, and the as- 
sortment of types by Fleischman . . . became, as if by en- 

* The Rosart specimen described was probably put out by J. F. Rosart at 
Brussels about 1761. Madame Decellier in 1779 issued a specimen entitled 
Efireuve dea Caracth'ea de la Fonderie de la Feuve Decellier, aucceaseur de 
Jacquea-Fran^cU Roaart. TYoiaihne Edition augmenUe, A Bnucellea^ Rue 
ditte Finckt, fir^a du MarcM aux Grains, 





nous unir f aw>c ^ Seittdictiofi iia Cjeion 
fuu^ I pa/r €co Mints nocaas ou moMoacj 
nous awn4 ^*non/iieur c^ wua comfmmi^ 
fUfiT p ^at nottc ptemiuc i/€n/nonct ^ 
a 2)im{mcnc p€0€nain^ 

jYoua fioaa jiuUtons , fut WHis wnir^ 
0€M wefi cten^c pait a nottc /(^^^ir 
£a/:tion , tt nous ccoUc ; ayco m puis 
pa^Jaitc con^dctation. 

^ottc ttts numS^ U ttts owMx/ns 
&&c/»iUu/r et &a/Mnt6. JY. JY. 

Ce Caracft^re Coul6 a it€ invent^ & Grav^ la 
premiere fois I'An 1753. fur le double Medlaan 
OU Cicero , pour fervir ^ la Mufique , que J, F 
RosART a invent^ &donii6 au Public le 3 de Jan- 
vier 17^0 dontleSr. Sancto Lapis & Antonio 
MAHouT&toutela Ville d'Harlem peut certifier. 





214. Roaarfa Caractire de Finance^ from his EpreuvCj Brussels 

{after 1760) 


J J y ,^ 1^ 

t/vn/ anfuc€ tou€fncnt pour ufi cocur 

ten ^ate, a*a^ ^ tcn^^o^c ^ mo^ 

4'VJ •'J^ J i 

fne/ntf (^doit i^re/iv^AuiMU/L et con^ 

M- l p 


<c/^*. %y€A! aa ^^um tour^ 

ment pour u/it cocar tcn^ « «^;^'^wft= 

te/iv^o^c ^ mo^mcfUf ful doU ^ 

r r r n" 

re/ruUt neuM4M U con=tfint , fui ooU ^ 

215. Rosaries Music Types^from his Epreuve^ Brussels 

(after 1760) 


N.I. :^^^^*,^^>^^^f 

N. 4. 

N. 5. A> | j|A4 |j |[l<fc ^p4 A | |<fe 
N. 7. 

N 8. 
N. 9. 

N. 10. %''fe%%%%'^%'^'"b'^%%% 

N. 1 2. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

N. 13. 
N. 14. 
N. 15. 


216. Rosarfs Ornaments^ from his Eprntve^ Brussels 

{after 1760) 


NETHERLANDS TYPES: 1500-1800 43 

chantment, old-fashioned, after the foundation of the Bata- 
vian Republic, and had to give place to characters of a 
more modem cut . . . The name of Foumier, formerly so 
weU-known among us, had already been eclipsed at this 
period by that of Didot What Fleischman had formerly 
been [to Dutch type-founding] Didot was at that epoch." ^ 
There was not a single foundry which did not try to adver- 
tise itself by Didot types or copies of them, and this was 
the case not only in Holland, but in Germany, and indeed 
throughout Europe. Those who recall the end of the chap- 
ter on German types will remember how true this was of the 
output of Unger. So, too, the eighteenth century in Dutch 
typography closes under the influence of the faults and mer- 
its of the great French founder. 

England was largely supplied with Dutch printing types 
in the seventeenth century, as we know from the James 
correspondence quoted in Rowe Mores' ji Dissertation upon 
English Typographical Founders and Founderies^ and from 
letters about Bishop Fell's gift of types to the University 
Press, Oxford. The Fell types were procured in Holland 
about 1693, through the intervention of Rev. Thomas Mar- 
shall, preacher to the English merchants in Holland and 
afterwards Dean of Gloucester; and negotiations consumed 
some four years, largely because Marshall did not know a 
punch from a matrix ! Moxon, the first English writer on 
type-founding, says that the "common consent of Book-men 
assign the Garland to the Dutch-Letters," and he himself 
greatly admired them. In the second paper of his Exercises 
he gives a very oft-quoted description of them, which I 
spare the reader.' Moxon particularly praised Van Dyck's i 

' Ensched^'s Fondtries de Caracth'ea, etc., pp. 382-386. 

' Moxon's Mechanick Exercises ^ or the Doctrine ofHandy^ Works afifilied to 

the Art of Printing, Numb. II, ITS, Of Letter; also pis. 11-17. 


types, and the engraved plates of them, enlarged, shown 
in his Mechanick Exercises^ have already been aUuded to. 
Dutch types were also in vogue in Germany at the end 
of the seventeenth century, and were imported in large 
quantities. Some roman and italic Dutch types of this 
date were shown in connection with BreitkopPs specimen 
in Gessner's Buchdruckerkunst und Schriftgiesserey^ Leipsic, 
1740. These came from a Leipsic foundry which Fournier 
considered second only to BreitkopPs — that of Hr. &hardt 
A head-line (omitted in our reproduction) reads: '^Real 
Dutch types, and a great number of other characters, which 
are to be found in the E>hardt foundry here.*^ These fonts 
resemble those given by Fell to the Oxford Press, and in cut 
belong to the seventeenth century. Their provenance I do 
not know. Although heavy, they retain considerable vivacity 
of line, and have great capabilities when used with taste. 
Our iUustrations (^^<^. 217 and 218) show the larger sizes 
of both roman and italic — the latter being the better of the 

The types which the Dutch supplied to Elngland at the 
commencement of the eighteenth century are shown in the 
specimen printed at the beginning of Watson's History of 
the Art of Printing^ of 1713 {Jig. 261). They had begun to 
assume a general uncouthness which helped the English 
to abandon their purchase for those more comfortable and 
"cheerful '^ roman letters designed by William Caslon about 

^Sfiecimen of Tyf^a in the PrirUing-HoMe of Jamea fVataon, Edinburgh, 
1713, pp. i-xLvm. 


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SPANISH types: 1500-1800 

THE great traditions of printing held their own in 
Spain during the first part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury somewhat persistendy — perhaps more so 
than in other countries/ This was no doubt due to Span- 
ish conservatism, and to the geographical position of the 
country, which isolated it from foreign fashions. Indeed, 
the Mozarabic Breviary of 1502, printed by Peter Hagen- 
bach, a German, at Toledo, the Mozarabic Missal of the 
same date, and some later volumes are — like very many 
Spanish fifteenth century books — simply copies of manu- 
scripts, rendered in type. The Hums printing-house at 
Saragossa produced fine work of this kind. The most re- 
nowned of its illustrated books, says Haebler, ^is the edition 
of the Officia quotidiana of 1500, which contains some fifty 
woodcuts and more than one thousand magnificent initial 
letters. The copy printed on vellum and illuminated, which 
was in the hands of Don Jose Sancho Rayon when Hidalgo 
wrote his enthusiastic description of it, is one of the finest 
specimens executed at any time and at any place in the 
world, and reminds us of the beaudful illuminations of medi- 
aeval manuscripts.** The splendid Missale Romanum on vel- 
lum, printed in 1510 at Saragossa by "George Coci Theu- 

* English authorities for the history of Spanish typography from 1500 to 
1800 are few. There appears to be no readily accessible survey of Spanish 
printing for the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, even in 
Spanish ; although there are essays on presses (during the whole or part of 
this period) in Palencia, Seville, Alcald, Valencia, Toledo, Medina del Campo, 
Madrid, Cordova, Tarragona, L6rida, Leon, the kingdom of Aragon, etc., 
many of w Inch are admirable. In English there is little in the way of a contin- 
uous narrative, though Mr. H. Thomas's paper on The OutfiiU of Sfianiah 
BookM in the ^xteenth Century (Transactions of the Bibliographical Soci- 
ety, Sept., 1920) may be consulted with advantage for this period.. 


tonic," ^ a successor of Hurus (and owner of this office after 
1506), is executed in a very Italian letter, in red and black, 
with music, and with a representation of the Crucifixion op- 
posite the Canon, which is surrounded by elaborate borders. 
It is a book typical in style of the fifteenth century. 

In the early years of the sixteenth century — between 
1514 and 1518 — one of the masterpieces of Spanish ty- 
pography appeared ; namely, the Polyglot Bible printed by 
Amald Guillen de Brocar at AlcalS; usually known as the 
Complutensian Poly got, from the Latin name of Alcalfi — 
Complutum.This was published at the expense of Cardinal 
Ximenez (or, as he is commonly called in Spain, Cisneros), 
Primate of Spain, Archbishop of Toledo, and founder of 
the University of Alcal^ whose patronage of learning and 
printing is now better remembered than his hand in the 
destruction of thousands of Arabic manuscripts — an or- 
thodox feat in which he was the principal actor ! This Bible 
— a very splendid performance for any period, and the first 
of the great Polyglots — was printed in Hebrew, Chaldee, 
Greek, and Latin, between 1514 and 1518, as has been 
said; but it was not published until after the Cardinal's 
death in 1522. The Greek types used in the New Testa- 
ment are particularly famous, for they preserve the char- 
acter of older Greek manuscripts, being based on an early 
book-hand and not (like the Aldine Greek fonts) on the 
fifteenth century cursive handwriting of Greek scholars. 
This font was possibly modelled on the Greek characters 
of a manuscript from the Vatican Library which the Pope 
lent Ximenez to aid in constituting his text But the Com- 
plutensian Polyglot was printed under special and ad- 
vantageous conditions, and cannot be considered typical of 
Spanish work of its period. Its printer, Brocar, was ap- 

* A copy is in the Hispanic Society's Library, New York. 






SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 47 

pointed typogfrapher to Charles V, for whom he executed 
in 1517, at Logrono, the Cronica de Don J turn 11^ by Perez 
de Guzman, which Haebler calls a masterpiece of typogra- 
phy. This and the Polyglot Bible, I shall describe later. Of 
the ninety-two books printed by Brocar but sixteen appeared 
before 1500. For some time after his death (which occurred 
probably before 1523), his office continued to be one of the 
most famous in Spain. 

How strongly the old traditions of Spanish typography 
persisted, is proved by books printed even after 15 50, which 
are almost indistinguishable from incunabula. There was 
the same love of a massive black-letter for the text; the same 
enormous heraldic emblems were popular ; the same xy lo- 
g^phic inscriptions in large, round Spanish black-letter 
appeared on title-pages. This round Gothic letter in all its 
splendour was used in Spain for lettering tides on vellum- 
bound books — printed in roman type — all through the 
seventeenth and well into the eighteenth century; and the 
illustration of part of a Gothic alphabet in this hand {Jig. 
219) may be compared^ with Plantin's canon d^Espagne 
{Jig. 197), and some examples of old gothic fonts {Jig. 220), 
which were its type equivalents. By 1560, as in other parts 
of Europe, there was a more general introduction of roman 
type, and a realization of the flexibility of printing when 
applied to preliminary matter; and this led to a change 
of style. The roman fonts used in these later books were of 
rather a coarse, rough kind, not particularly interesting, nor 
very distinguishable from the poorer roman types used in 
France and Italy at that date.^ In some folios, a tall, thin 
lower-case roman letter, something like the types of Gara- 

* For italic and roman alphabets of this period see ^rte de Escriruir of Fran- 
daco Lucas, Madrid, 1577. These are reproduced in Strange's Mfihabeta 
(third edition), plates 57 and 70. They are called type-letters by Strange, 
but are really calligraphic. 


mond or certain Italian roman characters, was used with 
great effect for head-lines and running-titles ; and it was 
sometimes employed in liturgical books in connection with 
plain-song notation. 

The influence of the Netherlands on printing in Spain 
was considerable. Plantin of Antwerp produced the Polyglot 
Bible commonly called after him, under the patronage of 
Philip II — whose patronage was about all he gave to it! 
Plantin printed, besides liturgical books for Spain (for which 
he later obtained a special "privilege" enjoyed for a long 
time in the Plantin-Moretus family), a large number of 
books in Spanish. These were mostly composed in his deli- 
cate early manner, which was more interesting and distin- 
guished than his later somewhat overblown style. Spain, 
in the sixteenth century, had more books printed abroad 
than any other country, on account of its preponderating 
political importance — the Netherlands ranking first in this 
output, followed by Italy. These foreign productions influ- 
enced the native Spanish press in both format and typog- 
raphy, and there are many volumes of this period printed 
in Spain which, in their small roman type, restraint in ar- 
rangement, and delicacy of decoration, are plainly inspired 
by foreign influence. 

Plantin was invited to establish a printing-house in the 
Peninsula. Being asked by Philip II in 1572 to suggest 
which of his sons-in-law could take charge of it, Plantin, 
probably not wishing to deprive himself of the help of either 
Moretus or Raphelengius, replied with diplomacy that they 
might direct it together, but that neither was capable of 
doing it alone. That particular plan, therefore, came to noth- 
ing. He did recommend to the King, however, in 1576, a 
printer of Flemish origin, Matthew Gast, who had been for 
some years previously in Spain. This Matthew Gast, who 





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SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 49 

had an establishment in Salamanca, had himself found dif- 
ficulties in procuring types, for in 1574 we find him writ- 
ing to Plantin, asking him to send him a type-cutter. Plan- 
tin replied that since the death of the type-cutters Guyot 
and Tavemier, he himself had found only one man who 
was good for anything, and he had continually to be told 
what to do in any work demanding initiative or judg- 

For Spanish printing, the seventeenth century was a dis- 
couraging period. The types in use were chiefly roman; the 
first edition of Don Quixote being printed from uncouth, 
old style roman fonts. The copj^er-plate title-pages in gen- 
eral European use had also some vogue there. As was the 
case wherever they appeared, printing fell oflF. Sometimes 
it only seemed to do so, because the contrast between the 
rough types of the time and the precision of a copper-plate 
was to the disadvantage of the typography; sometimes be- 
cause if the fashionable copper-plates were supplied, print- 
ers seemed to feel that they could print as badly as they 
chose — a point of view then current in England and else- 
where. Then, too, the close political relations with Italy 
played a part in Spanish printing, and Italian fashions in 
seventeenth and early eighteenth century printing were usu- 
ally bad. Spanish books of this period are much like the 
wretched productions of the Italian press — with congested 
title-pages, composed in letters too large for the page, ill- 
printed, and decorated (or at least supposed to be) with badly 
executed typographical ornaments. The type was generally 
a crude old style roman letter. 

The first quarter of the eighteenth century, however, saw 
some efforts toward more interest in national typography. 
The first Spanish king of the Bourbon family, Philip V, 
granted in 1716 certain privileges and exemptions for 


music-printing (not before attempted in Madrid), which 
had been begun on the initiative and at the expense of 
Don Joseph Torres, chief organist of the Chapel Royal. And 
in 1717 it was ordered that a press for liturgical books 
should be set up, so that both for Spain and in particular 
for the Indies, no foreign books of that class need be im- 
ported; but it was not done. In 1729, Antonio Bordazar, a 
native of Valencia (where he was bom in 1671), proposed 
the establishment of a printing-house in Spain to produce 
liturgical works for the use of the Spanish Church. In old 
days, a monopoly of such volumes seems to have been main- 
tained by the monastery of the Escorial, which procured 
missals, breviaries, etc., from the Plantin-Moretus Office at 
Antwerp; and they were still, apparently, imported under 
this privilege. In 1731, a royal decree again approved the 
native printing of Spanish liturgical books, and called for 
a discussion of ways and means to this end. Bordazar had 
already submitted to Philip V a carefully drawn-up me- 
morial in which he represented that types, paper, and ink 
could be as easily procured, and books as successfully pro- 
duced, in Spain as in the Netherlands, and he now received 
the royal authority to print this document 

This he did in the year 1 732, at Valencia, under the title 
of Plantijicadon de la Imprenta de el Rezo SagradOj que su 
Magestad {Dios le guarde) se ha seruido mandar que se estab- 
lezca en Espana, in a handsomely printed tractate of some 
twenty folio pages (Jig. 22 1). It is divided under the heads 
of paper, type, engravings, materials for calendars and mu- 
sic, inks, estimates of costs, choice of liturgical books to be 
printed, presses, administration, and time necessary for in- 
stallation. The most interesting thing about it for our pur- 
pose is the specimen of types — Caracteres de Espana — 
which it was proposed to use. These are shown in twelve 





Que Ce eftablezca en Elpana. 

Pot Antonio Bokdaiak di Aktazd, ImpteObi delSanto Ofido, 
i de U Uuitic Gudad , lEo de I? } >. 

221. Tnle-page of Bordazar^s Plantifcaclon, Valencia, 1732 
{redutrd ) 

- >• 


SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 51 

sizes — grancanon to glosilla; portions of Latin service- 
books, printed in red and black, being employed to display 
the types. These pages constitute the earliest Spanish sped-- 
men of types that I have seen, though these types were not 
Spanish but were cast from matrices imported from Flan- 
ders. In the paragraph concerning them Bordazar says: 
"Given the paper, about which there is no doubt, corre- 
spondingly one can have no doubt about type, for Carlos II, 
of glorious memory, had matrices brought from Flanders, 
and these are the ones now in the keeping of Juan Gomez 
Morales, a skilful and intelligent^ type-founder of Madrid,' 
whose variety of types, although they seem but few, are in- 
creased in different ways as may be required,* by means of 
spaces either separating letter from letter^ or line from line, 
making in each book such combinations as elegant arrange- 
ment demands; without any need of using for 76 books a 
like number of kinds of type, or even two or three kinds for 
each book, as is said by those ignorant of the subject For 
this would call for more than 200 varieties, a number that 
does not exist and has never existed in all the presses of 
Europe. Thus all the books which are now, or which ever 
have been, in the Royal Monastery of the Escorial are com- 
binations and arrangements that can be obtained from the 
types of Juan Gomez Morales, which are the following'' 
(here appears the specimen). Bordazar adds: "Regarding 
the durability and lasting sharpness which the contours of 
certain foreign types possess, because of which some per- 
sons have thought the moulds to have been made of silver, 

* curioBO, i.e., virtuoso — ^^a person curious about or interested in a subject — 
of an inquiring turn of mind. 

* en la Carte ^ i.e,, Madrid. 

' literally, "changing with the art that symmetry requires." 

* Qy.f word from word ? 


types of the same quality may be cast in future, since the 
alloy has already been made in Valencia, and has been ap- 
proved by the founder, Juan Gomez Morales himself, who 
rated it as of the quality of Dutch type-metal and thought 
it was of foreign make." 

The texto {Jig. 222) was used in Yriarte's Obras SueUas^ 
printed at Madrid by Francisco Manuel de Mena in 1774, 
and apparently, with the change of a few letters, in Bayer's 
De Numis Hebrseo-Samaritanis, printed at Valencia by Be- 
nito Monfort in 1781. Perez de Soto appears to have used 
it in the JBibliotheca Aralnco-Hispana Escurialensis of 1760. 
Mendez says that these types came from the "incomparable 
printing-house of Plantin," and that they were ultimately 
utilized in Carlos IIPs time,^ which carries out the attribu- 
tion I have given the teocto. This is still further confirmed 
by finding the same type, with a variant italic, in the Opera 
of Hubert Goltzius, published at Antwerp in 1708; whether 
an edition of Goltzius issued some sixty years earlier em- 
ployed the type, I have not been able to learn. It is one of 
the most beautiful roman fonts I have ever seen; and the 
best of the three forms of italic used with it — that in Obras 
Sueltas — is almost equally charming. 

Bordazar's farseeing and enlightened proposals created 
some stir, but he did not live to witness their realization. 
After his death in 1 744, Jose de Orga,^ also of Valencia, 
who had been brought up in Bordazar's printing-house, 
where he seems to have been manager or foreman, took up 
the plan and petitioned (in 1748) Ferdinand VI to be al- 

* Mendez' T)ftiogratthia Eafiantda, Madrid, 1796, p. 406. 

' An able printer, who was the ancestor of a very distinguished Valencian 
"printing family." Jos6 and Tomas de Orga, his sons, printed in 1790 an 
important edition of the Bible translated into Spanish, executed in types from 
Ihefonda of the Real Biblioteca de Madrid, and from the foundry of Eudaldo 





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SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 53 

lowed to establish a liturgical" printing-press in Madrid 
for the use and honour of the Spanish nation — setting forth 
numerous difficulties and inconveniences caused by the ne- 
cessity of having such books printed abroad ; and again al- 
leging that the work done earlier by Plan tin and Moretus, 
and by other printers in Venice and Holland, could be per- 
formed just as well in Spain, both as to material and exe- 
cution, at less cost, and without taking money out of the 
country.^ Orga removed to Madrid, where he died Febru- 
ary 19, 1756, and, as far as the native production of type 
was concerned, his efforts seem to have come to nothing 
at all. Foumier wrote, in 1766, "Spain is lacking in type- 
cutters: it has but two foundries, which are in Madrid; 
one belonging to the Jesuits, who let it for five or six hun- 
dred livres; the other was bought in Paris, from M. Cottin, 
who sold it for thirty thousand livres.^^ But the project to 
print liturgical books in Spain was finally taken up, in 
Carlos IXPs reig^, by a Compania de Impresores y Libreros^ in 
conjunction with the authorities of the Elscorial. This body 
obtained royal sanction, and the establishment of a com- 
pletely equipped printing-house for it was approved in 1787. 
A building was bought and the scheme was in operation 
when Mendez wrote of it in 1796,* and in 181 1 its director 
was Juan Josef Sigiienza y Vera — a pupil of the famous 

This fruition of a long-considered and interminably de- 
ferred plan came to pass at the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, a moment when some excellent Spanish printing was 

^ The various negotiations of Bordazar and Joa^ de Orga in relation to this 

subject are treated fully in Jos6 Serrano y Morales' ReMcfla HUtMca en 

forma de Diccionario de laa Imfirenitu que han exiatido en Valencia deade la 

IntroducMn del Arte lyiogrt^o en Etfiana htuta el ano 1 868, etc. Valencia, 


* Mendez' lyftografihia Eaftafiola, p. 410. 


done^ — the result of a general movement in industry and 
art at a prosperous national era. Carlos III, whose reig^ 
lasted for almost thirty years, and who died in 1788, was 
a Bourbon, half-brother to Ferdinand VI, and much influ- 
enced in his tastes by France. A most enlightened man, his 
efforts toward the rehabilitation or establishment of all kinds 
of Spanish industries, and his patronage of the fine arts, 
were very ably seconded by his ministers. It was under 
Carlos that the Buen Retiro porcelain was made, and the 
palace of San Ildefonso at La Granja was filled with charm- 
ing products from a glass factory there which he encour- 
aged. Trade in watches and optical instruments was fos- 
tered at Madrid; fine leathers were made at Cordova and 
Seville, and velvets at Avila. A royal decree of 1733 had 
already pronounced that hidalgos could engage in handi- 
crafts without loss of caste ! Then, too, the Crown granted 
various exemptions and privileges to the printing-trade. In 
1763, a decree had exempted printers from military service, 
and this applied to type-cutters and type-founders. Metals 
used in the work of the latter were reduced in price by one- 
third, and divers privileges and rights were conceded to 
printers — partly to help the industry and partly to im- 
prove book-making. 

About the middle of the century, Gabriel Ramirez was 
doing good work, and Perez de Soto, royal printer, pro- 
duced creditable books ; but Joachin Ibarra, who was bom 

* There was, too, an interest in printing in Portugal at this period. The 
ImpressSo Reg^ was established at lisbon in 1769 through the influence of 
the Marquis de Pombal, the reforming minister of Joseph I (1750-1777). 
The scheme was a splendid one — a national press, which was to be at once 
a school of all branches of typography, and a means of producing books for 
the educational needs of Portugal. It was begun under direction of Migud 
da Costa ; and still exists as the National Printing House of Portugal. Four- 
nier said (1766) that a type-foundry had been in existence at Lisbon for some 
thirty-five years, a Parisian named Vilkneuve being its owner. 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 55 

in Saragossa in 1725, was the Spanish printer who had the 
greatest reputation — not merely in Spain, but throughout 
Europe. Ibarra was evidently much influenced by Bodoni, 
and somewhat, perhaps, by Didot and Baskerville. To look 
to Bodoni was natural. Parma, like the Kingdom of the 
Two Sicilies, was then in Bourbon hands, and the relation 
between the Spanish G)urt and that of Parma was close. 
Carlos III (whose mother, EUizabeth Famese, was a Prin- 
cess of Parma) was himself made Duke of Parma in 1731. 
On his accession to the Kingdom of Naples, where he 
encouraged fine printing, — notably Baiardi's great work, 
Delle jintichi^ di ErvolanOy alluded to by Mendez, — his 
brother Philip became Duke of Parma. Philip, in turn, was 
succeeded by a son, Ferdinand, who was Bodoni's patron.^ 
Ibarra, therefore, as Spanish Court printer, must have been 
perfecdy familiar with the books printed for Carlos Ill's 
nephew by Bodoni, who held the same post in Parma that 
Ibarra held at Madrid. In fact, Bodoni had the honorary tide 
of Printer to the Spanish King ; and this accounts for the 
beautifully printed memorial discourses issued at Parma by 
Bodoni in 1789, on the death of Carlos III — Botteri's Ora- 
zione Funebre in lodi de Don Carlo III; and the OraJtw in 
Funere Caroli III of Ridolfi delivered in the Papal chapel 
at Rome on the same occasion. 

Ibarra's magnificent Spanish and Ladn edition of Sallust, 
printed in 1772, is generally considered his masterpiece {Jig. 
223). Other great books printed by Ibarra were the Royal 
Academy edition of Don Quixote of 1780, an edition of the 
Bible, the Breviarium Gothicum . . .ad usum Sacelli Mozara- 

' On the death of Ferdinand in 1802, the Duchy of Parma was governed by 
France, until, in 1815, the Congress of Vienna gave it to Marie Louise, wife 
of Napoleon I. This explains the dedication of the later books of Bodoni — 
who preferred rising to setting suns ! 


bicum or Mozarabic Breviary (1775), Mariana^s Historia de 
Espaha^ and Antonio's Bibliotheca Hispana^ Fetus et Nova 
(1783-88) — all of which are worth study. The Sallust, Dm 
Quixote^ and Antonio's work are later discussed. 

Ibarra's printing was greatly admired by book-lovers of 
that day all over Europe. The Chevalier de Bourgoing, 
writing in 1 782 of the Academy edition of Don Qtdxote^ calls 
it "equally admirable for the quality of the ink, the beauty 
of the paper, the clearness of the character, and to be com- 
pared with the finest productions of the kind in any other 
nation. This is not the first proof the Spaniards have given 
of their ability in the art of printing. Every connoisseur is 
acquainted with, and prefers to the editions of Baskerville 
and Barbou, the Sallust, which the Infant Don Gabriel has 
translated into his own language, and some other works 
from the presses of Ibarra at Madrid, and from those of 
Benedict Montfort at Valencia, which are masterpieces of 
the typographical art, and will one day be sought after by 
posterity, as we now search for those of the Elzevirs."^ 
Franklin, whose busy mind was always interested in the 
development of typography, was conversant with Ibarra's 
editions. Writing from Passy, December 4, 1 78 1, to William 
Strahan, he says: "A strong Emulation exists at Present 
between Paris and Madrid, with regard to beautiful Print- 
ing. Here a M. Didot lejeune has a Passion for the Art . . . 
He has executed several charming Editions. But the 'Sal- 
ust' \sic\ and the * Don Quixote' of Madrid are thought 
to excel them." This rivalry between Didot and Ibarra per- 
haps explains a rather sour allusion to the latter in the 
Epltre sur les Progris de Vlmprimerie written by Didot JiU 

^ Travels in ^ain, London, 1789, Vol. I, p. 244. De Boui^ing, who was 
secretary to the French embassy at Madrid, wrote a book about hb travels, 
translated into English under the above title. 



P O R 


usTJt cosa es que hs hombres , que de- 

-sean ceventajarse a hs demos vivien- 

tes , procuren con el mayor empem 

no pasar ta vida en sikncio como las 

bestias > a quienes naturaleza crio in- 

cUnadas a la tierra y siervas de su vientre. Niues- 

ttv vigor V Jacidtades consisten todas en el animo y 

el awpo : de este usamos mas para el servich , de 

aquel nos valemos para el mando ; en h uno somas 

iguaks a hs Dioses ^ en h otro a hs brutos. For 

C SALLUSTII CRJSPI veluti pewra ; qu» natura prona, 

r yiTTT ITJ j4 ^^^ yeaw'i obedientia finxit. Sed 

i,JilllAll\Ji. nostra omnis vis in anitno et cor- 

(%:»« MKis homines , qui sese stu- pore sita esc Animi imperio , cor- 

Ui^^jU dent praestare ceteris ani- poris servitio magis uiimur. alte- 

^^{| malibtis « summa ope niti rum nobis cum Dis, alterum cum 

decet , ae vitam sileotlo traoseant, belluis commune est. Quo imhi reo- 


223. Page ofSalhiati Ibarra, Madrid, 1772 (reduced) 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 57 

(Ani^ in 1784, who uses the names of both Ibarra and Bas- 
kerville as pegs on which to hang laurels in honour of his 
excellent papa! Bodoni — more generous — writes in 1774 
of "the stupendous Sallust not long since printed with 
so much Jinitezza at Madrid,'' and Bayne in his Journal 
reports a conversation with Franklin in which the latter 
said that, excepting the Sallust, he thought the Don Quixote 
equalled anything he ever saw. "Ibarra carried the perfec- 
tion of his art to a point until that time unknown in Spain,'' 
says N6e de la Rochelle,^ "and the emulation he inspired 
in his conffh'es caused greater advances in Typographic 
Art in twenty years than it had made in the two preced- 
ing centuries. He is distinguished for his magnificent edi- 
tions, in which sumptuous engravings are combined with 
sumptuous types, great accuracy, and superior presswork." 
Ibarra, it may be said here, introduced in Spain on his own 
initiative improvements akin to those made by Baskerville 
in Ejigland — first, an ink of particularly brilliant quality 
which he made for his own use ; and second, hot-pressed 
paper. Indeed, he invented a machine to produce the latter. 
Carlos III appointed Ibarra court printer, and he was also 
printer to the Primate and the Academia de la Lengua, for 
whom he executed their Dictionary. He died at Madrid, 
November 23, 1785 ; and the Imprenta Real published be- 
fore the new year a Soneto a la meurte de Joaquin Ibarra^ 
Impresor de Camara de S. M^ 

* RecherchcB . . . wr (^EtabliaBement de VArt J\ffiografihique en Eafiagne, 
etc., Pkris, 1830, p. 65. 

* Probably that quoted in Juan Josef Sigdenza y Vera's Mecaniamo del arte 
de la ImprenUiy etc. Madrid, 1811. In this beautifully printed little book, 
dedicated to Ibarra's niece, the author describes himself as "disciple of 
Ibarra and director of the Imprenta de la Compaiiia de impresores y libreros 
del reyno." It contains a "specimen" of Roman and Arabic t3rpes — aU but 
one from the "Catalan" foundry of Eudaldo Pradell — and Greek, Hebrew, 
and Arabic alphabets. 


In this revival of printing, Valencia stands out through 
the work of Monfort, whose particular claim to remem- 
brance is Fr. Perez Bayer's work on Hebrew-Samaritan 
coins, printed in 1781. Bayer was a great figure in all the 
scholarly undertakings of the period — the reformer of 
studies in the University of Salamanca, where he held the 
chair of Hebrew; a learned classical scholar, and preceptor 
to the Infantes of Spain. He it was who contributed the open- 
ing dissertation to the Infante Don Gabriel's translation of 
Sallust A native of Valencia,^ and archdeacon of its cathe- 
dral, he was familiar with Monfort's work, and naturally 
employed him. 

Benito Monfort, in contemporary opinion ranking next to 
Ibarra, was born at Valencia about 1716, and died (a few 
months before Ibarra) in 1785. He learned his trade in the 
office of Antonio Bordazar, where (as I have said) Jose de 
Orga, another eminent printer, was manager. Monfort set 
up his own office in 1757, and later became printer by ap- 
pointment to the city of Valencia, to its University, etc. His 
editions were praised by his contemporaries, who compared 
him, for no very intelligible reason, to Baskerville. In the 
first volume of his edition of Mariana's Historia de EspahOy 
a letter from the king, Carlos III, is quoted, "who has seen 
with special satisfaction the beauty of this edition." Among 
other books praised in a contemporary notice* are Perez de 
Guzman's Crxmica del Rey Don Juan II (1779), Pulgar's 
Cronica de los Reyes Catolicos (1780), and Perez Bayer's De 
JVumis Hebrseo-Samaritanis (l78l), "which for its beauty 
and accuracy has merited the highest eulogies from other 

^ Bayer was bom in 1711 and died in 1794. 

* Memorial Uterario , . . de Madrid, Nov., 1785, p. 363. A short notice of 
Monfort and titles of his more important books are g:iven by Ponz in an ac- 
count of Valencia in his Viage de Eafiana, Third Edition, Vol. IV, pp. 259» 
260 and 288, 289. 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 59 

nations.'^ The Mariana and these three books seem to have 
been his best achievements. 

Gabriel de Sancha, a Madrid printer, did some admir- 
able work at this period, and his best books are worth look- 
ing at His Don Quixote^ edited by Pellicer, in five volumes 
illustrated with copper-plates, was fairly well printed. His 
nine- volume edition in duodecimo is desirable on account of 
its charming and well-engraved designs. Some of Sancha's 
other printing I shall describe in detail — notably his edi- 
tion of Solis' Conquista de Mexico. 

There were also well-made books printed at Madrid by 
Ramirez, Marin, the Imprenta Real, and other houses, as 
well as by the widow and sons of Ibarra, who carried on 
his establishment in the Calle de la Gorguera, after his 
death. Among the works executed under their direction was 
a very uninspired one- volume edition of the Diccionario de 
la lengua Castellana, with the widow's imprint as Impresora 
de la Meal Academia EspanoUu A more creditable example 
of their work is the anon}rmous Relacion del Ultimo Fiage 
al Estrecho de Magallanes (in 1 785-86), a handsome quarto 
printed in 1788. The classic work by Mendez, Typographia 
Espmoloj of which the first volume only was printed, also 
appeared with the imprint Finda de Ibarra — a barely re- 
spectable piece of typography. There was great activity 
among Spanish printers about this time. Robert Southey, 
writing from Madrid in 1796, says rather tartly, "Lit- 
erature is reviving in Spain. The translation of Sallust by 
the King's brother made it fashionable." Coincident with 
this revival of printing, a number of Spanish "specimens" 
were issued, some of which are of considerable interest 

Printing had been introduced into the New World in 1539. 
Jacob Cromburger, who settled in Seville early in the six- 


teenth century, was the foremost printer of his period. He 
had a son (or brother) Johann, who succeeded in obtaining 
an exclusive privilege for printing in Mexico, but to take 
effective advantage of it gave him considerable trouble. He 
finally sent out from Spain a certain Juan Pablos, who, in 
the city of Mexico, in 1539, printed the first American book, 
the Doctrina Christiana eti la lengua Mexicana e Castellana. 
Antonio Ricardo of Turin, who had settled in Mexico, emi- 
grated to Peru, where at Lima he printed in 1584 a leaflet 
on the correction of the calendar and a catechism, the latter 
being the first book printed in South America proper. Early 
Mexican and South American typography was, in the main, 
a colonial copy of printing of that period in the Mother 
Country. The books bore to the best Spanish printing about 
the same relation that American colonial work did to the 
English printing of its time. Tide-pages in facsimile from 
many of these books may be seen by those who are suf- 
ficiendy curious by looking through VindePs Bibliograjia 
Grajica} The serious student — and he must be very seri- 
ous — should look at the books themselves. They had, how- 
ever, so little influence on typographical usage in general, 
that they are beyond the boundaries of the subject of this 


For our first example of a sixteenth century Spanish book 
we may take De las Tobias y Escalera Spiritual^ a Spanish 
translation of the Latin work of St Juan Climaco, printed 

^ P. Yindd's two volumes of fiu:similes, entitled Mbliografla Grqfica, Ma- 
drid, 1910, show 1224 reproductions of titles, colophons, portraits, etc., taken 
from rare Spanish books, or books in Spanish published elsewhere. The work 
contains practically no text and is haphazard in arrangement, but is valuable 
for the light it casts on Spanbh printing, especially from 1500 to our own 
day. Portugal, South America, and the Philippines are represented, as well as 

^ .o <& te» 5S 


S s ^ s ^c: 

If li Wi 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 61 

in quarto at Toledo by Peter Hagenbach by order of Car- 
dinal Ximenez in 1504^ — Hagenbach being printer by ap- 
pointment to the Cardinal. It was therefore published under 
distinguished auspices. Its tide-page bears a coat of arms, 
surmounted by a cardinal's hat, and below, in a rich, round, 
Spanish gothic letter, is the tide in four lines. The rest of 
the book is printed in a spirited Spanish black-letter set in 
double column — the principal divisions beginning with 
handsome block initials with black grounds, and the con- 
tents of each division being set in effective lines of large 
black-letter {fig. 224). Running-tides are also composed in 
this large type, with folios on right-hand pages only. At 
the beginning and end of the book, these large characters 
run across the page, giving a very noble effect The beau- 
tiful "texture" of the pages of type makes a very handsome 
book — but one which is practically a "fifteener" in gen- 
eral style. 

A similar black-letter volume — an edition of De la Na- 
turn Angelica by Franc. Ximenez (Burgos, 1516) — is inter- 
esting because it is an example of the work of Fadrique 
de Basilea, a famous printer, and one of the few in Spain 
who, in the fifteenth century, used roman type for entire 
books. Not so fine as the preceding, it is much the same 
in type and arrangement, except that the folios, similarly 
placed, are set in enormous capitals which much disfigure 
the page. 

"George Coci, Aleman," who acquired the Hurus oi&ce 
about 1506, and whom Haebler calls one of the most cele- 
brated printers of the century, issued some good editions 
of the classics at Saragossa in the early sixteenth century. 

' Of the volumes chosen as examples of sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
century Spanish printing, some may be found in the Ticknor Collection of 
books on Spanish literature in the Boston Public Library, and others in the 
Library of Harvard College. 


His Livy of 1520 — Las quatorze decadas de Tito Livio — 
is magnificent It contains the first example of "colour 
printing," as we now understand it, that I have found in a 
Spanish book. The title-page — a huge armorial device 
surrounded with the collar of the Golden Fleece — has be- 
neath it a scroll on which is the title and "privilege" in five 
lines of gothic letter, printed in red. The arms above are 
in four colours, black, red, yellow, and green, printed from 
wood-blocks. The text appears in a beautiful, rather con- 
densed gothic type, closely set {Jig. 225). The titles of the 
chapters are composed in a larger size of much the same 
font Fine woodcuts extending the full width of the page 
are very freely introduced, and accord splendidly with the 
type of the book. Haebler calls it one of Coci's most splen- 
did productions, and certainly it is a sumptuous perform- 
ance — of its kind. All the books printed by Coci that I have 
seen are interesting and distinguished. 

In another fine book — Pulgar's-£/ GranCapUan — printed 
by Jacob Cromburger at Seville in 1527, much the same 
gothic type is used — a littie rounder, perhaps — not so well 
printed or so finely imposed. The title is very characteris- 
tic — a large coat of arms, above three lines of tide and two 
lines of "privilege," all set in black-letter — the whole sur- 
rounded with rough woodcut borders. On the text pages 
{Jig. 226), the notes or glosses are set in a smaller size of 
godiic type. Many of the Spanish romances of the class of 
Amadis de Gaul (for instance, an illustrated small folio edi- 
tion of 1535) were printed by Cromburger, and had, typo- 
graphically, a finish and richness of appearance in contrast 
to like editions by other printers. They deserve careful at- 

These books are good examples of the earlier form of 
Spanish volume, and their style survived in certain classes 

i:2.a0 (igutentes glofaeque enlaemar' 

gmro oeftg obM Tfi.fon para oedarar fltonnoe palToB tidia dbirosa IM 
odla dtTWovnlaradaclnonibxOdqpalnomaiifftflD poi temot oda 

aCCfte epwniS 
KbdMnoraiNif OS 
■DM como at lo» 

iiKinKmKfiiBobiaedlaepocaKqusDeparieDeruvldac&itianoIitNeDe f^ottaman 

01 Sfpana/OondcactalcDltfibKQloqennueftrotieinpoviinosDeloe w loaMfetfirfDeS 
3bK«Ddlfl>ntaK)rabalafeDclasa}ra9bnma^»K|ueqiiantoma8|iItas DcnAaranbrftt^ 
Ecl9raeantie(liai>jrteron:tanti9ni3elq:oeceKiiradloe<rairo8la8cuai ha^idai/Motfwi 
tmi.^nbxDCBpox|DenoBCp9labMeqiiieba(taiapona'entanflliodH niKboebctbocaj 
loquatDrrqiiUrccrcraiirvfdaDetandarovaronAdgDalabefflaepar' ooswfiwpoaitfl 
nsodflmirniaytatUvatttnttBt)tlt<»fadOMBCodki3^ tarCSfih 

cmla8obM8Ddt£CllulbtCainanmpK)racainuft«tMncrcriiDtieni ifoi^mhomifo* 
ligiirarcfplandoj;l&iaeMi:|uoaB/cd»^dadDcgloria:qiKsaiioccnbon &aadbiiaoepo> 
dad|;n)3fla0OesuaTata'ato8Dcpa3.JCafucDet3iDVfltoidpMctoqiK qw&efiaiiMfcer 
sanooidla(^Jun6bKnoreatnataracntDdisIaBei]adts:t»e8(foca]o f<»iaimao(oiot9 
lbenemrgoedii6bxDegranJCapI(anataii03ijaiian.CfppMtt»toreEi ^^HSH^ 
tiaait^l»oixoninfl0drecoen9Dok8Oon5^a(H(VKtie2lragotikoie« dMOote^S! 
ranfflntotwnoioiantolomanindtan'iolxnloepriuiIegioeqKnpan nUlioeoHimrM 
ieDefireeltado8tKt!t»ioel(t)fer«i»aMn(idt90laraeqiKdreBJCai|po aniiacMdadorpit 
Uco^evadtrflaltbaanUarmalaeFodcnKniqiidaruinogcntDdoApx^ bUndogaiumfoia 
idkgfoeDefoIoewapmnooaipa'ponKlaBcabefae'iiUiiloeoekwoa^ ^''''^'^■"'''rai^ 
cadDeDeSantangdoiSerapoirerIflgrandoacicrualtodtaotak4rM JJSSS'n^^ 
BpxinfoatrerirtoeacpifJCnloquaire\)erafcTniiict)onia0loq|Deapoa) tb^udoalmou 
papdftotjequeqDantDsqulMirid'aineXUEOiranaaocadle. A»cMiiiaat>(Tt« 

qpricaobloerarMRdMWntilcoiafccon^arNncfcronlof ciicntee«0^B^ ow «>n tre» Ad 
4Bilem4Mr(iqv(Mi>MMcaBallo»jitiMn^coiic*»d4Bal^ nmcaMdoKomofrf (4>e> 

9 « 

226. Gothic Type used by Cromburger, Seoille, 1527 {reduced) 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 63 

of literature almost through the sixteenth century. All of 
them were set in gothic types ; but the earliest tjrpe used 
in Spain was roman, and the most famous book of the 
sixteenth century — the Complutensian Polyglot —7 largely 
employed it 

This, the first Polyglot Bible, the world owes to Cardi- 
nal Ximenez, who, to use his own phrase, produced it "to 
revive the hitherto dormant study of Holy Scripture." It is 
in six folio volumes. In the first volume, the title appears in 
medium sizes of Spanish gothic type arranged in an in- 
verted pyramid placed at the bottom of the page ; and above 
it, printed in red, are the arms of Cisneros surmounted by 
a cardinal's hat At the top of the tide-page, which is sur- 
rounded with a border of decorative strips of ornament, a 
four-line verse appears, in a smaller size of the gothic type 
used below. The prologue and introductory matter are set 
in a very handsome and Italian roman type, with head-lines 
of the fine gothic letter used in the title {Jig. 227). Then 
follows the polyglot Pentateuch in five divisions — first, 
Hebrew, in the outside column ; second, the Latin Vulgate, 
in a narrow column placed in the middle, set in roman; and 
on the inside, in irregularly spaced black-letter, a new Ladn 
translation of the Greek Septuagint, which is printed be- 
neath it in a crabbed Greek type. The three versions are 
printed parallel to one another, line for line. Short lines in 
the Vulgate version are filled out with ornaments made up 
of circles, and a similar trick is resorted to in the Hebrew 
text In a block on the inside of right-hand pages is a 
Chaldee version in Hebrew characters, and beside it a block 
of black-letter Latin translation, left-hand pages reversing 
this arrangement Hebrew and Chaldee roots are given in 
the margin. Granted the great diificulty of the problem from 
the type-setting point of view, and the necessary variations 


of colour of Hebrew, roman, black-letter, and black-letter 
with Greek types interlined — not to mention side-notes — 
the general solidity of eflfect is remarkable. Still more re- 
markable is the evenness of colour in the presswork. This 
first volume completes the Pentateuch. 

In the second volume of the Old Testament the page is 
made up of three columns of equal length, though of un- 
equal width — Hebrew, Latin, and Greek and Latin inter- 
lined. The third volume runs on in much the same manner, 
except that there is no Hebrew text for certain books ; and 
the fourth, similarly arranged, completes the Old Testament 
and the Apocrypha — the latter given in two versions only. 
Minute letters refer from every word in the Vulgate to 
every Hebrew word throughout the Old Testament^ 

In the New Testament, which occupies the fifth volume 
(though in point of date the first volume printed), no rubri- 
cation appears on the tide-page, and the text-pages are di- 
vided into columns of Greek and Latin — the Latin being 
set in roman.In this — the first printed Greek Testament 
(though not published until after Froben's 1516 edition, 
edited by Erasmus) — the wonderful Greek type is what all 
Greek type should be in style — a reversion to the fine early 
Greek manuscript-hands. It is very open and clear in de- 
sign and of a beautifully even strength of line throughout. 
Reference is made by small gothic letters above the text 
repeated in alphabetical order, from every word in the Greek 
text to each word in the Vulgate. While this somewhat dis- 
figures the page, it is so cleverly managed that it does not 
obtrude itself. To see how the famous Greek types look, 
normally printed, one must study such pages as that from 
which our illustration is taken {Jig. 228). The sixth volume 

^ For a detailed account of the Complutensian Polyglot, see J. P. R. Lydl's 
Cardinal Xtmenes, Illustrated, London, 1917, pp. 24-52. 

ft .s° 




11 J 





•CO ' 












0- ^ 



1= ^ 
-O »i 

-3 S 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 65 

ends the work with a Hebrew and Chaldee vocabulary, 
indexes, etc. 

The whole undertaking, which occupied about fifteen 
years, was started in 1502, and the printing, begun at Alcaic 
in 1514, was finished in July, 1517, **by that honourable 
man Amald Guillen de Brocar, master of the art of print- 
ing" — as indeed he was. Ximenez died in 1517. Leo X 
sanctioned the issue of 600 copies of the work in 1 520, but 
apparendy it was not published until 1522. It cost Ximenez 
50,000 gold ducats, to-day equivalent to considerably over 
a million doUars. The magnitude of the task, the efficiency 
of the plan, the even quality of its execution, make the be- 
holder pause. It was a splendid conception, and it was 
splendidly carried out 

A book of four hundred or more double-column pages, ru- 
bricated on almost every page, is the volume which Haebler 
praises so highly, printed by Brocar at Logrono (where 
he also had a press) in 1517. It is a folio edition in black- 
letter of Perez de Guzman's Crfmica del Rey Don Juan 11^ 
and is very fine of its kind, though not so fine, in spite of its 
lavish use of red ink, as Coci's Livy of 1520 or the books 
of the Granada printer Sancho de Nebrija (or Nebrissen- 
sis). It was executed by order of Carlos V, to whom Brocar 
was appointed printer on his first visit to Spain in that 

Haebler tells us that a series of books was printed at 
Granada by Sancho de Nebrija, "executed with the utmost 
accuracy and splendour," between 1533 and 1552. This 
printer's books are interesting because of their early and 
good use of roman fonts — type clear enough to be perfecdy 
readable, but without much distinction or beauty. Several 
books by the then celebrated grammarian, Antonio de Ne- 
brija (otherwise known as Antonio Martinez de Jaravia), 


sometime professor in the University of Alcalfi, and one of 
the editors of the Q)mplutensian Polyglot, were printed and 
published at Granada by his son Sancho, and employ types 
of this style. His Latin translation of Pulgar's Spanish 
chronicle of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella (a fine ex- 
ample of this press) opens with a title-page ornamented with 
a border in four pieces — meant to be Renaissance — en- 
graved on wood by some one very awkward with his graver 
and surrounding a brilliant armorial device. In what little 
space is left beneath is crowded : "Habes in hoc volumine, 
amice lector, JElii Antonii Nebrissensis Rerum a Fernando 
& Elisabe Hispaniaru fcelicissimis Regibus gestae De- 
cades duas. Necno belli Navariensis libros duos. Annexa 
insuper Archiepi Roderici Chronica, alijsq) historiis ante- 
hac non excussis. Cum imperiali privilegio. Ne quis alius 
excudat aut vendat Anno mdxlv." The last two sentences 
are in the nature of an early copyright The next page 
of the book (Jig. 229) might have been taken bodily from 
one of Froben's editions. This is true of all pages with dis- 
played headings, where lines of large capitals, ornamented 
at each end with florets, descend abruptly in the second line 
to a much smaller size of capital letter. The use of italic with 
roman capitals in the Aldine manner in tables of contents, 
also reminds us of Basle books. Each chapter begins with a 
wood-block initial. At first sight imposing, on examination 
the typography seems coarse and loosely put together,.pardy 
because it is so, but mostiy because it recalls better books, 
with more brilliant decorations and more massive roman 
types, printed in a like manner. The Chronicle of Roderigo 
of Toledo shows a titie-page with a border surrounding 
blocks of tide which, though a long way after those of 
Froben, is very striking. 

An earlier book, Introductiones in Latinam Gtwnmaticeny 

t~; 3 « y .3 la .w "Ts 
a> .g S a S -s 1 e 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 67 

by Antonio de Nebrija — a small folio printed at Alcalfi by- 
Miguel deEguia, successor to Brocar, in 1525, with text in 
roman, surrounded with notes set in a nervous and beauti- 
fully cut Spanish gothic type — is also of interest, both for 
its arrangement — very romantic for a grammar — and its 
fine fonts. The same author's edition of Persius, printed at Se- 
ville in 1504 by Cromburger, is another instance of text set 
in roman, surrounded by notes in an intricate weave of deli- 
cate gothic characters. Its title-page (an inscription in roman 
capitals in a panel of ornament) is wonderfully handsome. 
In the smaller books later printed by Sancho de Nebrija at 
Granada, he seems to have relied on roman both for text 
and notes ; as in his father's Hymnorum Recognition printed 
in 1549. Its title-page — diough but a feeble copy of similar 
Basle books — and index will repay examination. 

One of the few beautiful Spanish books of the late six- 
teenth century, printed in a pure and elegant roman type, 
was Alvar Gomez de Castro's De Rebus Gestis a Francisco 
Ximenioj Cisnerio — a contemporary life of Cardinal Xime- 
nez, still held as a very high authority. This book might 
have come from an Italian press, so spirited and delicate is 
the roman font used for it, compared with most contempo- 
rary Spanish roman fonts, and so simple and elegant is it in 
composition and imposition. To be sure, the tide-page bears 
a pretentious wood-block, out of keeping with the severity 
of the text-pages, and the prefatory matter is obtrusive. 
But its simple text-pages are almost Jensonian in their re- 
liance upon pure typography for beauty. The book was 
printed by Andres de Angulo at Alcalfi in 1569 (Jig. 230). 

The great Spanish book of the seventeenth century, and 
of every century since, is Don Quixote. The first edition of 


the First Part was published by Juan de laCuesta at Madrid 
in 1605. It is a square octavo. As to its type-setting, after 
some preliminary matter in a dull, heavy roman type, and 
in an irregular italic, and the familiar introductory poetry 
addressed to Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, arranged al- 
ternately in roman and italic, comes the text This is very 
solidly set in the same heavy roman, but is managed most 
simply, and I think for that day it was probably considered 
a very modem sort of book. The argument of each chapter 
is set in italic ; the text, as I have said, in a rough old style 
roman {Jig. 23 1). When poetry occurs in the text, it is some- 
times composed in a pretty and gay sort of swinging italic 
letter, sometimes in italic of a more commonplace cut Each 
Book starts with a head-line of t^pe ornament, and its text 
begins with a large block initial At the end of the book the 
"epitaphs,** etc., are set in italic with roman head-lines, and 
a table of chapters, chiefly in italic, closes this First Part 

The Second Part, issued at Madrid by the same pub- 
lisher in 1 6 1 5, resembles the First, except that chapter head- 
ings are smaller, and poetry is sometimes in single column 
in a roman letter like the text, or in double column in a size 
of italic slightly smaller. It is a respectable production, — 
nothing more, — but more readable than most seventeenth 
century editions of novels, which were usually very poorly 

' The Hispanic Society of America has reprinted in &csimile a number of 
rare and interesting Spaiush books, the entries in their catalogue of publica- 
tions running to some sixty-five titles. FacsimOes are supplied of Juan de k 
Cuesta's first Madrid edition of Don Quixote^ both first and second parts, 
which appeared in 1605 and 1615, respectively. Title-pages of 611 editions 
of Don Quixote , extending from 1605 to 1905, are reproduced in &csimile in 
Iconografia de las Edkiones del Quijote de Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 
(Barcelona, 1905) . Spanish and Catalan titles alone run to 233 numbers. Al- 
most a history of Spanish printing after 1600 can be had by comparing the 
different editions from its first publication to the present day. 

. -D i3 fi a § "3 
.o ~ J ^ cS 2 J 

- j^ 8 S § .3 S 

2 s §1 S3 i 

;g c -H 13 SP.s S 


Quixote de la Adancha. 171 

prouecho^di cnoluidalla^Y (1 algo fe ineacaerda,cs 
siquello del robajada,digo del foberana fenora , v lo 
Ylcimo , vueftro hada la muerte^ el cauallero de la 
trifte Figura. Y enmedio deflas dos cofas » le pufe 
mas de trcziemas almaSiy vidas,y ojos xnios# 

Cdj^.XXXL De losjkhrofis razfinamientosfUfdffa - 
ton entre ion Qmxote^ S^ncho Tanfafi efcud^^ 
roicon otrosfucejjos. 

O D O eflbno medefcomenra , profile 
gue adelance,dixodon Quixote. Llegaf 
te, yquehaziaaquella reynadelaher* 
mofura^a buen feguroique la hallafte en« 
fartandoperlas , obordandoalgunaeinprefa , con 
oro de canutillo>para eQe fu cautiuo cauallero. No 
gas de trago,en vn corral de fucafa. Pues baz cuen* 
ta^dixo don Quixocc,quclos granos de aquel trigot 
eran granos de perlaSitocados de fus manos. Yfi jnu 
rade amigo,el crigo era candeal,o trecheHNo era fi 
corubion,rerpondioSancho, Pues yo ce afTcgurO) 
dixo don Quixote > que ahechado por fus manot 
hizo pan candeal^fin duda algunatperopaflaadelan** 
te« QuandolediOe mi carta befola? Pufofela fobrc 
la cabe^a^hizo alguna ceremoniaidigna de tal care?? 
o que hizo? Quando y o fe la yuaa dar^rcfpodio Sian 
.cho,ellaenaoaenlafugadelineneo > de vnaboena 
parte de trigo,que tenia en la criua. Y dixom^e^ po^ 
tied ami go eifa carta fob re aquel coftal» ^ no la pue • 
^h leer hafla que acabe de acriaar t odo lo que aqul 

Y 4 dial 

231. Types used in first edition of Don ^ixote 
Juan de la Cuesta^ Madrid^ 1605 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 69 

A roughly executed but fine seventeenth century book 
is the folio edition of Pedro Salazar de Mendoza's Cronica 
de el gran Cardenal de EspanOj Don Pedro Gongalez de Men- 
doQOj printed by Donna Maria Ortiz de Sara via at Toledo in 
1625. Arranged in double columns, surrounded and sepa- 
rated by rules, it is greatiy superior to most books of the 
time in its finished effect and unity of conception. 

Another more characteristic seventeenth century book — 
G. Gronzalez de Avila's Teatro de las Grandezas de la Villa 
de Madrid oi 1623 — has an engfraved and much overloaded 
tide-page, followed by an equally elaborate engraved dedi- 
cation, in which heraldic arms and a figure of the Blessed 
Virgin and Child play a large part; and after the prelim- 
inary "approbation" set in roman type, and some italic 
which looks very Italian in cut, a dedication follows, Al Rey 
Nuestro Senor, in handsome old style letter. The preface is 
set in old style roman type, and then the grandezas of the 
city are described in five hundred or more folio pages, gen- 
erally in double columns of roman type with italic cap- 
tions. Awkward and over-large ornaments appear here and 
there. Decorations made up of florets appear occasionally. 
The only thing consistent throughout is lack of unity and 
taste! — like poor seventeenth century printing everywhere. 
The book was issued at Madrid by Tomas Junta, royal 

Francisco de los Santos' interminable Descripcion breve 
del Monasterio de S. Lorenzo el Real del Escorialj called by 
him ^^unica maravilla del mundo^ (and by others the eighth), 
written after the completion of the Pantheon in 1654, was 
printed at the Imprenta Real (which I take to be merely a 
term) in 1657. This is a like book to the Grandezas^ though 
a better one. It is set in a handsome old style roman type 
with patches of italic here and there. The presswork, how- 


ever, is miserable — most uneven in colour. The translation 
of royal bones to their gilt and marble charnel-house — 
corona de esta maravilla — and the discourses delivered on 
the occasion, close with a touch of horror a respectable and 
not very inspiriting piece of printing. A copy of the 1667 
edition formed part of the library of Samuel Pepys. 

The first edition of Antonio de Solis' Historia de la Con- 
quista de Mexico, printed at Madrid by Bernardo de Villa- 
Diego, printer to his Majesty, in 1684, is a good example of 
a late seventeenth century folio. The tide-page, set almost 
wholly in various sizes of roman capitals, is surrounded with 
a badly printed type-border. Then follow approbations, civil 
and religious, among which appear dedications to the King 
and the Count of Oropesa, by whose hands (the tide-page 
tells us) this volume was laid at the Royal Feet The work 
itself is set in double column in a rather fine roman letter, 
interspersed with masses of a vivacious condensed italic, 
not without charm {Jig. 232). The book, which is a late ex- 
ample of many similar volumes, is interesting to compare, 
both as to type and arrangement, with Sancha's edition 
of Solis, printed at the height of the "revival of printing" 
in the reign of Carlos III. 

For eighteenth century Spanish printing, our first exam- 
ple is a book printed at Madrid in 1726 by Francesco del 
Hurio, printer to the Spanish Academy — a folio Diccion- 
ario de la lengua Castellana in six volumes.^ Its tide-page is 

^ In a set of this Dictionary, given to the library of Harvard College in 1 767 
by Thomas Hollis, a manuscript note from the donor reads : "This Dictionary 
is much esteemed. There are good books in Spanish and I was willing to send 
it; that, as the N. Americans, many of them, are likely, more than ever, to 
partake of Spanish Wealth, some of them may also partake in Spanish Wis- 
dom and literature." 





D E L A 






ntc^mot^uje dividaen difirentes partes U Hifioria. 

deiaslimaStfara que^dacom^tbendtrje, 

Vrb aj^oQos diaA ieverancbenefteajiimofbdrc- 

^^'Xt ™ nueftra incli- tamcn,lo que tard6 en defcu- 

HifMtff' nadon, el inteit- brirfc la dificultad , hemos H- 

•wA' to dc cootinoar da,con diUgcnte obfcrvacion, 

laHiAoriaGene- loque antes, y defpues de fus. 

raldelas Indias Occidentalcs, £)ecadas,cfcnvieron de aquc 

Sue dcx6 el Chronica Antonio lies De{cubrinucntos,y Con- 

eHerrera,enelanoiff4. dtf quiftaSidiferentesPlumasnatU' 

laRepancioDHuiinaa.Vpa- nles,yeftrangeras)perD como 
A Us 

232. Opming^ of Sblis' Canquista de Mexico (^rst eeBtion) 
mia.Diego, Madrid^ \&»^ {reduced) 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 71 

set in twenty-two lines of type, of which no less than ten 
are rubricated, and the name of Philip V (to whom it is 
dedicated) is as large as Diccionario — the first word of the 
tide.* This page is bordered with type ornaments, in red 
and black — a fashion much copied in colonial Spanish 
printing. All its prefatory matter is composed in various 
sizes of good, but rough, old style roman and italic, and the 
Dictionary itself is set in a smaller font which is pleasant in 
feeling. In the main, it is a sober, solid piece of work; but the 
woodcut head-pieces and common, ornamented initials em- 
ployed are ugly, and the presswork is of varying degrees of 

Perez de Soto of Madrid produced between 1760 and 
1770 a work that was then, and still is, thought a g^eat 
achievement in scholarly printing — Csisiri^s Bibliothecajiru' 
bico-Hispana EscuricUensis. Miguel Casiri was librarian of 
the Elscorial, and this is a catalogue oi the Arabic works in 
that library. It was printed in Latin and Arabic, in two 
volumes folio, at the expense of the Crown by Soto, who 
was printer by royal appointment The roman and italic 
types used for the preface and text of this book — though 
much tried by too rough a paper — are remarkably beau- 
tiful, and appear to be the teocto shown by Bordazar in his 
Plantificacum of 1 732. The Arabic characters accord de- 
lightfully in colour with the roman types. In spite of sprawl- 
ing head-pieces and ill-managed preliminary matter, the 
work is a wonderfully able piece of printing. 

Of Joachin Ibarra's work, I describe first his Sallust — 
Cayo Salustio Crispo en Espanol — translated from the Latin 
by the Infante Don Gabriel Antonio de Borbon, second son 

* Placing the dedication on the title-page was a characteristic of many eigh- 
teenth century Spanish books. To honour the patron, his name was usually 
printed in very laige letters, which sometimes overpowered the title of the 


of Carlos III. It was printed in 1772 and vividly recalls 
Bodoni's ea^ly manner. The title-page is entirely engraved; 
and besides a few full-page plates there are some hand- 
some engraved head and tail-pieces and initials designed 
by the court painter Maella and others, which are agreeably 
combined with type. The Prologue is set in a very calli- 
graphic italic, the Life in a beautiful font of roman — both 
fonts produced by Antonio Espinosa. The Spanish text of 
the book is set in the same beautiful clear italic, in a larger 
size, which has still more the look of writing. Beneath each 
page of translation the Latin text appears, set in a small 
roman letter in double column. It is very even in composi- 
tion, if we allow for the spaces necessary for the figures for 
notes ; though an odd feature is the equal space before and 
after commas, semicolons, and colons — a trick common, 
however, in contemporary work {Jig. 233). At the end of 
two hundred and eighty-eight pages of text come notes, 
a treatise on the language of the Phcehicians by Perez 
Bayer,^and an index — these being set in double column, 
in a small, clear, old style roman type. Now this all sounds 
very simple — and it is; but as we turn page after page of 
this distinguished, lively, easily read italic and massive ro- 
man, we see how magnificent pure typography was made 
at an unexpected moment and place. It is really the beauty 
of these two fonts of type that, above all, makes such a won- 
derfully beautiful book. Like all great printing, it looks as 
if it could not have been planned in any other way; and like 
all great art, it appears so simple that only after seeing it 
repeatedly do we realize how fine it is. One hundred and 
twenty large-paper copies were printed on a rich, creamy, 
hand-made paper. Almost all of these were given away by 

* My own copy is one which was given by Bayer to a certain William Conyng- 

t *5 ^ ft) 

^ J5 ^ «i 

^^ ^^i-i'§ 

|iS^ 12 *- S 3 «'S 

'^i ^ 11 ill I 

^ ^ ^ « ^^^S 



Q ^ Q 

i^ « ^ Q ^ ^ e 










SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 73 

the translator, Don Gabriele, to the Royal Family, friends at 
court, persons of distinction, or learned institutions. He sent 
one to Franklin, then envoy to France, who (very character- 
istically) sent him in return the Proceedings of the Amer- 
ican Congress! The Sallust is one of the finest volumes 
produced in any country during the eighteenth century — 
though it could have been printed in this particular style 
only in Spain. 

Of Ibarra's excellent editions of Don Quixote^ there were 
three, all iUustrated with copper-plates — that of 1771, in 
four volumes octavo ; of 1780, in four volumes quarto ; and 
of 1782, in four volumes octavo. Of these the 1780 "Acad- 
emy Edition" was the most important — indeed, according 
to an authority^ on editions of Don Quixote^ "the finest edi- 
tion which Spain has produced and perhaps altogether the 
most estimable one we have." Ford, in his delightful dis- 
quisition on the book — too littie known — speaks of this edi- 
tion, saying, "the finest, that ^de lujo^ was published for the 
Academy of Madrid by Ibarra, and no grand library should 
be without it" * Ponz mentions as in process, in his account 
of the Academia Espanola, "a magnificent edition which 
is to be a definitive one, executed by the Academy under 
Royal patronage."' "There is now in hand," wrote Henry 
Swinburne, who visited Spain in 1776, "an edition oi Don 
Quixote^ with prints taken from the original drawings of the 
dresses and landscapes of the country, which has employed 
all the best engjravers for some time past . . . This work 
. . . does great honour to the editors and printers. . . . The 
works of Calderon have been lately reprinted ; and a new 

' C. R. Ashbee. 

' Ford's Guide-Book to TraveUer9 in Sjfiain, London, 1845, Vol. I, pp. 314 
et 9eg. 

• Ponz's Fiage de Etfiana, Madrid, Ibarra, 1776, Tomo Qiimto, p. 176. 


edition of Lopez de la Vega, on excellent paper, and with 
very fine types, is in great forwardness : Printing seems of 
late to be the branch they most excel in." * 

Of the "Academy Edition'' in quarto, the first volume 
opens with a simple tide-page set entirely in roman capi- 
tals, without engraved decoration {Jig. 234). The compli- 
cated preliminary matter — that introductory to the actual 
book, and the preface, poetry, etc., which form part of Don 
Quixote — is managed with delicacy and restraint, and with 
an entire absence of fussiness. As to type, the opening parts 
and text are set in a kind of modernized old style roman 
and italic {Jig. 235). Where poetry occurs in the text, it is 
set in italic, as are the "arguments " to chapters. All the type 
used in the book hangs together wonderfully, and the fonts 
are so full of colour, and so original and lively in cut, that 
they seem like the work of a man unhampered by profes- 
sional and mechanical traditions. They were of Spanish de- 
sign, being made by Geronimo Gil for the printing-house 
of the Biblioteca Real, and loaned to the Academy for this 
edition. The roman appears to be the atanasia gorda en texto 
of the Real Biblioteca specimen of 1787. 

Engraved head-bands, head-pieces, and tail-pieces orna- 
ment the Prologo de la Academia and the text, but otherwise 
the book is severely plain, except for a portrait and many 
full-page plates designed and engraved — like the more 
agreeable decorations — by Spanish artists. Though well 
executed, these large plates are somewhat stiff and academic 
in deaign. The paper used for this edition is a creamy linen 
(made for it at the paper mills of Joseph Florens in Cata- 
luna); the ink a vivid black; the press work clear and re- 
markably even, and the imposition of the pages easy and 

* Swinburne's lYavela through S^ain, in the Years 1775 and 1776 (second 
edition), London, 1787, Vol. II, p. 203. 














234. Title-page of Academy Edition of Don ^ixote 



tan linda carta come aquella. ^Y tienesla todavia en la me- 
moria, Sancho? dixo Don Quixote. No senor , respon- 
dio Sancho , porque despues que la di , como vi que no 
habia de ser de mas provecho , di en olvidalla : y si al- 
go se me acuerda , es aquello del sobajada , digo del S(h 
berana Senora , y lo ultimo : Vuestro hast a la tnuerte^ 
El Caballero de la Triste Figura : y en medio destas 
dos cosas le puse mas de trecientas almas , y vidas , y 
ojos mios. 


De los sabrosos razonamientos que pasdron entre 
Don Quixote y Sancho Panza su escudero, 

con ottos sucesos. 

X odo eso no me descontenta , prosigue adelante , dixo 
Don Quixote. Llegaste ^ y que hacia aquella Reyna de 
la hermosura? A buen seguro que la hallaste ensartan* 
do perlas , 6 bordando alguna empresa con oro de canu- 
tillo para este su cautivo caballero. No la hall6 , respon- 
dio Sancho y sino ahechando dos hanegas de trigo en un 
corral de su casa. Pues haz cuenta , dixo Don Quixote, 
que los granos de aquel trigo eran granos de perlas to- 
cados de sus manos : y si miraste , amigo ^ el trigo era 
candeal, 6 trechel? No era sino rubion, respondio San- 
cho. Pues yo te aseguro , dixo Don Quixote , que ahe- 
chado por sus manos hizo pan candeal sin duda alguna; 
pero pasa adelante : quando le diste mi carta ^besola? ^pu^ 
sosela sobre la cabeza? ^hizo alguna ceremonia digna de 
tal carta ? ^ 6 que hizo ? Quando yo se la iba i dar , res- 
pondio Sancho , ella estaba en la fuga del meneo de una 
buena parte de trigo que tenia en la criba , y dixome: 

235. Types used in Academy Edition of Don ^ixote: Ibarra^ Midrid^ 1780 


SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 75 

distinguished. As a whole, excepting, perhaps, the full-page 
plates, everything prophesied of this edition, or said about 
it on its completion, is true. And this, the finest edition of 
Don Quixote that has ever been printed, was wholly the 
product of Spanish skill. 

Two years later (1782), Ibarra published his pretty 
"reading edition'' in four octavo volumes, printed from a 
somewhat modelled old style type, very straightforwardly 
arranged, and ornamented by many pleasant copper-plates. 
It is an example of what might be called Ibarra's quieter 

The four noble volumes of Nicolas Antonio's Bibliotheca 
HispanQj Fetus et Norua, dealing with the works of Spanish 
authors from the time of Augustus to 1684, were begun 
by Ibarra at Madrid about 1783 and finished by his widow 
in 1788. They are in folio and printed throughout in a series 
of workmanlike old style fonts. These dignified pages, so 
practical in arrangement, are well imposed and printed on 
a fine rough linen paper. They are undecorated save for the 
heraldic trophies on the title-pages, and in the second series 
(JVova) an occasional engraved head-piece and initial, which 
do not add to the effect The first two volumes are among 
the soberest and most satisfactory of Ibarra's editions — 
though the preliminary matter (as usual with this printer) 
is not as well handled as the text itself. The second part of 
the work was edited by Perez Bayer, who had a hand in so 
many of the great typographical and literary undertakings 
of that day. 

Sancha's imprints show a general tendency to copy 
contemporary French work, and such books as Malo de 
Lugue's Establecimientos Ultramarinos de las Naciones Eu- 
ropeos of 1784, in five volumes, might easily be mistaken for 
a French edition of a littie earlier date. Its text is very simply 


arranged in leaded old style types, with plain old style let- 
ters for initials, printed on good paper, with ample margins 
— a very satisfactory " library edition." Las ErvticaSy y Tra- 
duccion de Boecio, by Villegas, brought out in 1774, are 
pretty volumes — for Spain — and the engraved title-pages, 
with doves, clouds, garlands, torch, and lyre, remind us of 
attractive Parisian volumes of poetry by fashionable ver- 
sifiers. The simple pages of poetry, without decorations, 
strike a comparatively modern note {Jig. 236). Sancha pub- 
lished many such agreeable books. 

To see the progress that printing made in this Spanish 
revival, compare Villa-Diego's edition of Solis' Historia de 
la Conquista de Mexico, issued at Madrid in 1684 {Jig> 232), 
with Sancha's beautiful quarto edition of the same book, 
printed under distinguished patronage, also at Madrid, 
in 1783 (Jig. 237). This is still considered the great edi- 
tion of Solis' work. The types used are frankly old style, 
and of these the larger sizes are the best Introductory mat- 
ter fills fifty pages, and this prefatory material is divided into 
eleven sections. To arrange it successfully, as Sancha has 
done, would tax the ingenuity of any printer. On arriving 
at last at the History, how fine it is ! The first page is faced 
by a portrait of Cortes after Titian ; the opening page is 
really ornamented by its engraved head-piece and initial; 
the type of the text is a large, beautiful old style, printed on 
laid paper in a sharp, brilliant impression. A series of twenty- 
four delightful and rather ingenuous full-page engravings 
designed by Josef Ximeno are scattered through the work, 
each Book of which begins with an engraved head-piece 
and ends with a tail-piece. The engraved lettering beneath 
the full-page plates shows how magnificent was the style 
of calligraphy which still survived in Spain. This vol- 
ume, which Sir William Stirling Maxwell called "the tri- 



YO apostar^ que es Jove 
aquel toro, muchacha 9 
que i la Sidonia Ninfa 
se lleva en las espaldas. 
£1 denodadamente 
los hondos mares nada, 
y presuroso hiende 
las ondas con sus patas : 
y ^ no ser ^1 , no hubiera 
tore que de las vacas 
asf dejira el puesto , 
ni el Ponto asi nadira* 



DE retires niaestros 
perftos y elegantes 
2 que me enseiian las reglas? 
i qu^ las necesidades ? 
i De qu6 tantas arengas 
que persuadan facil , 
si ninguna me vuelve 


236. Type used by A. deSancha^ Madrid^ 1774 






L I B R O L . 

for necesarto ^ue se dwida en diferentes partes 
la Sistoria de las Indias , far a que fueda com* 

Vt6 algimos dias en nuestra inclinacion DificukadM 
el intento de contmuar la HIstoria general tL geocnL 
de las Indias occidentales,que 6ex6 el cro 
nista Antonio de Herrera en el ano mil 
quinientos cincuenta y quatro de la Reparacion bu- 

237- Opening of Solis" Contpjista de Mex. 
Sancha, Madrid, 1783 (reduced) 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 77 

umph of the press of Sancha/' much increases one's respect 
for him. 

Benito Monfort's edition of Juan de Mariana's Historia 
General de Espaha, printed at Valencia in two quarto vol- 
umes in 1783, is a really fine book, though far less elegant 
and studied than Sancha's Mexico. The title-page, with its 
brilliant copper-plate heraldic vignette, is effective, though 
its mixture of sizes and kinds of types is not worthy of the 
text-pages. A prospectus of the work (which was published 
by subscription) alludes to the encouragement that Carlos 
III gave to printing, as one of the means of its publica- 
tion. For it appears that the King — "to encourage an art 
and business which so greatly contributes to general cul- 
ture, to the promotion of science, and to useful knowledge'' 
— permitted Monfort to reprint it in spite of some legal ob- 
stacles; His Majesty having also in mind the reestablish- 
ment of printing-houses that had formerly existed in al- 
most all Spanish cities, in many of which the industry 
had died out Twelve pages of subscribers' names, which 
attest the results of this prospectus, are followed by a pro- 
logue, an account of Mariana and his works, notes thereto, 
etc. This preliminary matter is not successfully managed, 
but the text itself, in a good, modelled, late eighteenth cen- 
tury old style font, is well arranged and very handsome. 
The paper and ink are excellent, the imposition most ele- 
gant, and as a whole it is a successful piece of printing. 

Monfort's 1779 edition of Perez de Guzman's Cr6nica de 
Don Juan II is a readable folio. The tide-page, to be sure, 
is a wretched mixture of shaded, decorated, and plain 
roman capitals, with italic added thereto ; but the simple 
pages of text, set in double column, with chapter heads in 
roman capitals, and the argument of each chapter in italic, 
are dignified in effect; the presswork is fair, the paper de- 


lightful. The same printer's edition of Pulgar's Cronica de 
los Reyes Catolicos of 1780 shows progress, and has a much 
better and simpler title-page. It is ornamented here and 
there with copper-plates, evidendy of Spanish origin. The 
text is arranged much as the Juan II^The type in both 
books is a very Spanish-looking early "old style," though 
the hand-made paper on which it is printed makes it look 
rougher than it is. Where they go to pieces is in the intro- 
ductory and "displayed" typography. 

The book most quoted as an example of Monfort's print- 
ing is Perez Bayer's learned Latin work on Hebrew-Sa- 
maritan coins — De JVumis Hebrseo-Samaritanis — a quarto 
printed in 1781. The type is about fourteen-point in size, 
well leaded, with some Hebrew introduced. The notes are 
set in smaller type, in double column, at the bottom of the 
page. Here and there, small engraved plates of coins are in- 
serted in the text with great taste. There are also a few full- 
page plates. The book ends with notes, set in a handsome 
roman type, and an index {Jig. 238). 

It is easy to understand why this piece of printing had 
great reputation at that day. In the first place, the types 
(the texto of the specimen shown in Bordazar's Planttfica' 
ci(m\ beautifully displayed by Latin, are of severe classical 
form and lighter in effect than most types used in Spain at 
that time. They have, especially lines set in capitals, a noble 
"inscriptional" quality, and all that Monfort had to do to 
make a masterpiece was to stick to them ! But he lacked 
the courage and taste to do this in the preliminary matter. 
Then, too, the engraved initial, head-piece, etc. — attractive 
enough in themselves — ^^have nothing to do with these dig- 
nified types. On the other hand, it is in conception im- 
mensely ahead of its time in its typograj)hical harmony 
with the serious scholarship of Bayer's work. With the ex- 


















-s i 








sin ^ 






3 "p 








•a c 

(O .Ch 



< I 













1 PH^ 





S > 

c/> y 

o 3 

§ .a 

o <^ 

I § 









5 ^ 


SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 79 

cepdon of the first twelve or fourteen pages, it is as classi- 
cal in feeling as any Spanish volume I have come upon — 
except Alvar Gomez' life of Cardinal Ximenez, printed more 
than two hundred years earlier {fig. 230). 

This roman was employed seven years before in Yriarte's 
Obras Sueltas^ published at the expense of his friends, and 
honoured by subscriptions from the Infantes Gabriel, An- 
tonio, and Luis. It is a most beautiful piece of printing, and 
one of the very best examples of the Spanish revival. The 
delicate but virile roman, with an italic superior in style to 
that used in the De Numis^ its exquisite paper, ample, well- 
disposed margins, and the great reserve of arrangement 
make a distinguished book, and one of classical effect This 
came from the press of Francisco Manuel de Mena, of 
Madrid, in 1774, and suggests how much good work was 
being done in Spain, at that moment, by printers whose 
names are forgotten {fig* 239). 

Good examples of eighteenth century luxurious printing 
of a more ephemeral kind are the pamphlets for the Span- 
ish Academy on gala occasions — orations on marriages of 
the royal family printed by the " Imprenta" of that body ; An- 
tonio Marin's distinguished brochure recording the open- 
ing of the Academy of San Fernando (1752); "relations'' 
of the distribution of prizes for the same Academy, printed 
by Gabriel Ramirez in 1754, 1755, and 1756, including 
some admirably arranged verse ; the Address of the Acad- 
emy on the accession of Carlos III, by Perez de Soto ; and 
similar examples of work by Ibarra. Almost all of these are 
carefully executed from old style types, some fine of their 
kind, and embellished (to use the word of that day) with 
handsome copper-plate decorations, intended to resemble 
the similar engravings in current French books. 

It is because this eighteenth century revival is so litde 


known, and its work is so individual and so good, that I have 
described at some length a number of its best books. I am 
tempted to say that, as a class, Spanish books show the most 
characteristically national typography of Europe. Yet, al- 
though this seems so, I think it i^ chiefly because we are 
so unfamiliar with them that their peculiarities strike us 
freshly ; whereas our eyes are accustomed to the equally 
strong national traits latent in French or Italian books of 
corresponding periods. However this may be, Spanish typog- 
raphy has its stately charm ; though its primitive and un- 
compromising character may not be fully realized until — 
amid a collection of old Spanish books — one comes across 
some elegant French version of a Spanish classic.^ This 
brings us back to European printing with a start, and makes 
the old saying that "Europe ends at the Pyrenees'' seem for 
a moment true. But — cosas de Espana! — there are those 
who love things Spanish, and I am among the number. For 
those who do not, in the phrase of Cervantes, "Patience, and 
shuffle the cards ! '' 


THE eighteenth century Spanish "specimens" to be 
considered in closing this chapter are those of Espi- 
nosa, 1771; a Barcelona specimen of the Convento de S. 
Joseph of 1777; the first Real Biblioteca specimen of 1 787; 
the Pradell specimen of 1793; Ifern's book of 1795; and 
that of the Imprenta Real of 1 799 — all (except the second) 
issued at Madrid. 

The first book is entitled Muestras de los Camcteres que 
sefunden por direccion de D. Antonio Espinosa de los Man- 
tews y Abadioy Academico de la Real de San Fernando^ uno 

' For instance, D'Herberay's jimadia de Gaul, in four volumes, folio, printed 
by GrouUeau at Paris, for V. Sertenas, in 1548. 

Sordidulus saltern, non sordldus, ire per urbcm, 
Huic summo pcde subsulcim per compita cunduni, 
Librandusque levis justo moderamine saltus. 
Olli poscerior maneac pes pensilis , anceps 
Incertiisquc vis , donee responsa prioris 
Accipiac. Non si Statics toiam advocet artem 
Sic alterna pedum vestigia lemperet, ut tot 
Impuras lustrare queat pede virgine sordes. 
Dextera si baculum gestat de more nunistrum, 
Infido vcluti m oderans in fluminc cymbam, 
Navita prudenti vada tentat inhospita conto 
Sollicitus, fiindoque latentia saxa maligno, 
Parvula ne scopulis pereat fallacibus Argo: 
Non aliter baculo cautus rimare sagaci 
Stagnantis vada czca viae , luteasque paludes 
Sedulus explora , sitne alto in gurgite Hindus, 
Ne temere instabili credas vestigia limo, 
Ne cedente solo, tacitaque repente ruina 
Tibia, sura, genu tumulentur mersa barathro. 
Nimirum quodcunque premunt vestigia, complent 
Stercora , sordidiusque ipso vel stercorc ccenum. 
Pcsiiferis stratam cumulis invcneris urbem: 
Illuvic iatct omne solum , nee scrupulus cxtat 
Sorde carens. Hinc congestis via squallida surgit» 
Faecibus, liinc foe dis putret intcrsecta lacunis. 

239. Page from Triarte's Obras Sueltas: Mena, Madrid^ 1774 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 81 

de sus primems Pensionados^ en Matrices hechas enteramente 
par el mismOy con PunzoneSy que igualmente pwsigue traba" 
jando hasta concluir un surtido completo. It shows a series of 
slightly condensed old style types which are remarkable 
in one respect — that roman characters in some cases, and 
italic in all, have an extraordinary quality of pen-work. 
The italic — 2>., that used in the prefatory VidAress preced- 
ing the tide-page {Jig. 240) — the texto gordo and its cur- 
siva {Jigs. 241 and 242), texto en Atanasia cursiva, cursiva 
de letura chica {Jig. 243), and the curious entredos {Jig. 244), 
are not altogether pleasant in eflfect, but they are among the 
most thoroughly calligraphic characters to be found in any 
existing specimen-book; and, too, they are very Spanish 
letters. The italic of the pamngona Salustiana is that used in 
Ibarra's Sallust, though so badly printed as to be almost 
unrecognizable. Spain is writ large on every page of this vol- 
ume, in tjrpes, ornaments, and their arrangement — though 
the borders on some of the pages are copies of Baskerville's 
and Foumier's type "flowers." 

The second specimen is entided Muestra de los Carac- 
teres que se hallan en la Fabrica del Conx^ento de S. Joseph, 
Barcelona. Por el Ho. F. Pablo de la Madre de Dios, Religioso 
Carm.Des.j 1777 — a title-page the arrangement of which 
is a copy of the title-page in Bodoni's Parma specimen 
of 1771 — in turn modeOed on a title in Foumier's earlier 
Manuel. This rare littie 32mo specimen is interesting for its 
showing of ancient black-letter types which were employed 
in early Spanish printing — Muestra de los Caracteres que se 
usaron en las Impresiones Antiguas de Espaha — of which 
two sizes are reproduced on an earlier page {Jig. 220). 
The larger is somewhat pointed, though not as much so as 
many other Spanish gothic types: the smaller is a rounder 
letter and perhaps resembles the Spanish equivalent of the 


lettre de somme — in Spain called letra de Tortis} The roman 
and italic types in the book are old style of the usual kind, 
though here and there fonts appear which are somewhat 
calligraphic in appearance. The eleven pages of borders or 
vinetas are, most of them, Spanish renderings of French 
designs. The book (dedicated to Carlos III) was evidendy 
printed by some one familiar with Fournier's style of type- 

In the volume of Ponz's Fiage de Espaha devoted to 
Madrid, the author, in his account of the Real Biblioteca, 
says that it is much to be hoped that the works of national 
writers will be published under the direction of the Royal 
Library when the Imprenta Real is actually established, as 
it shordy will be by the King's instruction; the principal 
difficulty — that of obtaining suitable matrices — having 
been overcome. Ponz adds that these have been engraved 
with the utmost perfection by Don Geronimo Gil, and that 
specimens of them have been submitted to the King by Don 
Juan de Santander, chief librarian. The volume in which 
this passage occurs, Ibarra published in 1 776." Allowing 
for the leisurely deliberation with which the development 
of type-cutting ambled along in Spain, perhaps eleven 
years was not a long period to wait for a specimen of the 
types themselves. Ibarra had already used some of them 
(loaned by the Real Biblioteca) in his quarto Academy edi- 
tion of Don Quixote issued in 1780. It was not until 1787 

^ Lctra de TortU — probably derived from the name of a Venetian printer, 
Battista de Tortis, who largely employed it. Other forms of Spanish black- 
letter were called — according to Mendez — Bu/a, Antigua^ Goi/iica, For- 
mata, Veneciana^ Lemoaina, and de Calderilia. For explanation of these 
names see the nodce of Del Imfireaor BautUta de Tbrtia in Mendez' 'I)ffio- 
grafihia Es/ianoia, Madrid, 1796, pp. 385 et 8eq, 

* Viage de Esftana, Madrid, Ibarra, 1776, Tomo Quinto, p. 174. This was 
the work which the French are said to have used as a guide in looting objects 
of art during the Peninsular War. 

tyftu.'x/ Sener 


G/ nrac/o triads peaaeuo ^ aue^ co- 
fnutim&nie^ clamafi Q/ro/npare/i^ 
*fe esia acavanao ae. faticlir bttra 
el fiuevo r&izaxlo ^ pero c&mo poco 
-usual eti fiu&s6ras ^Ltnpr&nias ^ se> 
as/xO' su niu&sirapara cuctnao sa^ 
nan lasae ^LyPitsa/ , ^arana&na^ 

oiianasta y y ^reatarto ^ au& 
atscurrOy stenao CiO tos serviao . sal 
draft per el nn cle^ es6e ano ^ 
ac&mbanaaas J ast a&sus respec- 

240. Itaiic in Prefatory Address: Espinosd^s Muestras de los 

Caracteres^ etc.y Madrid^ 1771 


EN este maniiscrito tenemos un exem- 
, plo sumamente persuasivo de quan 
necesaria es la cridca para hacer juicio de 
los libros ; y de que para leer con udtidad 
algunos , es menester haver leido muchos. 
Qualquiera que tuviese no mas que una 
superncial noticia de este manuscrito , 6 el 
que le leyese , sin mas noticias de su asun* 
to , que las que hallase en ^1 , tendria , k 
su parecer , un argumento demonstradvo 
de que las Artes Ma^cas se ensenaron pu< 
blicamente en las Escuelas de Toledo*, y 
Cordoba : porque , ya se v6 , qu6 prueba 
mas clara , que un manuscrito de notoria 
antiguedad , en que el mismo Autor con- 
fiesa , que sabe la Nigromancia : que la es- 
tudlo en Toledo : que en el mismo libro 
propone ensefiar al Mundo cosas arcanas, 
que le ensenaron los Espmtus ; y en fin, 
que nombra los Maestros , que en su tiem- 
po ensenaban en Toledo , y Cordoba 

las Artes Maglcas ? 

241. Texto Gordo (roman): Eapinosd's Muestraa, etc., Madrid, 1771 


TTTiV quanto al Autor d\go , que no pudo 
JjJl ^^^^^ ^l ^^^ ^^^^^0. ; esto es ^ sugeto con- 
tempordneo da algunos de los Macstros y que 
nombra. no Imvo tal Flrgilio Cordubense en 
el Mundo , 6 si le huvo ^ no fue Autor del ma- 
nuscrito en question \ 6 silo fu0 , el tal Virgilio 
Cordubense era un fwmbre ignorantisimo ^ y men-^ 
tirosisimo. Dicese contempordneo de Avicena , y. 
de Abenrroizy que nosotros llamamos Aver roes ; y 
asimismo supone contempordneos d estos dos Au- 
tor es J lo que estd muy lexos de ser verdad , pues 
Avicena Jlorecio d los principios del siglo un-- 
decim , y Aver roes d los fines del duodecimo': 
de modo , que precedio casi dos siglos el prime- 
ro al segundo. Mas : Rejl-ere que Avicena en- 
p send en Cordoba. Esto es tier to que otros mu- 
chos lo dicen j y aun que fue Espafiol por naci- 
miento ; pero tambien es cierto , que no solo no 
fue Espafiol , ni enseno en Cordoba , mas ni en- 
trd jamds en ESPANA^ ni aun se acerc6 
a sus vecindades : de que hace evidencia 
D. Nicolds Antonio. 

242. Texto Gordo {italic): Espinosa^s Muestras^etc.^ Madrid^ 1771 



Bt elevavit manum fuam fupcr eos : ut projlermret eos in dc^ 
ferto : Et ut dejiceret semen eorum in Nationibus , & difperge* 
ret eos in regionibus. Et initiatifmt Beelphegor , & comedermt 
faerificia mortuorum.Et irritavcrunt eumin adinventimbus suis^ 
dr multiplicata eft in eis ruina. Etftetit Phinees ^ & placavit^ 
cr cejfavit quajatio* Et rcpuidttm eft ei in Juftitiam , in gene- 
rationem & generationem ufque in fempitemum^ Et irritavmmt 
eum ad Aquas contradiclionis : & vexatus eft Moyses propter 
eos : quia ejtacerbaverunt fpiritum eju/^ Et diftinjcit inlatiis suis: 
non difperdidcrunt gentes , quas dixit Dminus illis. Et commi/' 
ti funt inter gentes , ^ didicerunt opera corum : & servierum 
fculptilibus eorum : & factum eft illis in fcandalum. Et i/n- 
molaverunt filios fuos , & ftliasfuas datnoniis. Et effudervnt 
Jangmnem innoccntem : sanguinem filicrum fuortim ip* ftliarum 
fuarum , quas facrificaverunt fculptilibus Chanaan. Et infecJa 
eft terra in fanguinibus , & contaminata eft in operibus eorum: 
& forfucati funt in adinventionibus fuis. Et iratus eft furore Do- 
minus inpopulumfuum : et abominatus eft hereditatem fuam. Et 
tradidit eos in manus gentium : & dominatifimt eorum qui ode- 
runt eos. Et tribulaverunt eos inimici eorum , & humiUati funt 
fub manibus eorum ifape liberavit eos. Ipfi autem exacerbax^- 
runt eum in conftliofuo , & humlUati sunt in iniqtutatibus suis. 
Et vidit cum tribularentur , & audivit orationem eorum. Et me- 
mor fmt teftamenti sui , & poenituit eum secundum multitudi- 
nem misericprdia sua. Et dedit eos in miscricordias in conspeclu 
omnium qui ceperant eos. Salvos nos fac Domine Deus noster: 
et congrega nos de Nationibus : Vt confttcamur nomini sanclo tuo: 
et gloriemur in laude tua. Benediclus Dominus Deus Israel a 
saculo et usque hi saculum : et dicet omnispopulus : Fiat ^ftat. 




243. Italic of Letura Chica: Esptnosa^s Muestras^ etc.j Madrid^ 1771 


Pn«era prueia. 

JVadix omnium bonorum eft chaiitas^ & radix omnium 
malorum eft cupldltas^ & dmul ambae esse non possunt ^ quia 
nisi una radlcltus eviilsa non fuerlt ^ alia plantarl non potest. 
Sine causa allquls conatur ramos Inddere ^ si radlcem non con- 
tendlt evellere. Habere omnia facramenta^ & malus esse 
potest : habere autem charltatem ^ & malus tsx non poteft. 
Mon numerosltas openim ^* non dluturnltas temporum ^ sed 
ma jor charltas mellorque voluntas auget meritum* Nam quod 
patet ^ & quod latet In dlvlnis codlclbus ^ tenet ^ qui charlta- 
tem servat In morlbus. Sola charltas eft^ quae vlnclt omnia & 
sine qua nihil valent omnia ^ & quae vblcumque fuerlt ^ trahlt 
ad se omnia. Scientia d sola sit ^ Inflat ^ quia vero charltas 
aedlficat ^ sdentlam non permittlt Inflarl. Charltas eft adlo 
redlltudlnls ^ oculos semper habens ad Deum ^ glutlnum anl* 
marum^ socletas fidelium^ otlo non frlglda ^ aftlone non fi-ac- 
u y non fugax ^ non audax ^ non praeceps. 

Las mas exquisitas producciones de la Prensa se 
hermosean y enriquecen con las del BurU ; ayudan^ 
do d la memoria ^ y d la comprension ^ delineados con 
espiritoso ademan los Hiroesy y personalizadas las pas- 
mosas ocurrenciaf de sus mas singulares acetones, hos 
Gahinetes de los JEruditos no piendigan otros adomos^ 
que los que ahundantemente tributa el Grahado en 
VLapas Geograficos ^ y Astronomicos ^6 en Tobias Cro- 
nologicas ^ para registrar y medir la anchurosa capaci- 
dad del Mundo ^ la admirable immensidad de las E^e^ 
ras ^ y las puntuales Epocas del tiempo ^ sin apartarse 
de la quietud de su do^o retire. 

244. Entredos (roman and italic): Espinosa^s Muestras^ etc. 

Madrid^ 1771 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 83 

that a specimen-book appeared, entitled Muestras de los 
JVuevos Punzones y Matrices para la Letra de Imprenta exe- 
cutadospor Orden de S, M. ydesu Caudal destinado a la Do- 
tacion de su Real Biblioteca. These were probably all cut by 
Geronimo Gil, though no supporting statement is made ex- 
cept on the first page, where we are told that a minute type, 
proudly called Pltis Ultra and described as the smallest 
letter in Europe, was cut by Gil, although he left it unfin- 
ished. These types are very Spanish in efiect — notice par- 
ticularly the parangona in roman and italic {Jigs. 245 and 
246), the roman otra parangona on page 30, and the cursivo 
nueva — a version of the condensed French italic then popu- 
lar {Jig. 247). Specimens of Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic 
characters are included in the collection. The tiding-letters 
resemble some Holland fonts, and n(\any of the ornaments 
are derived from Foumier, from Caslon, and from Basker- 
ville — with a difierence. It is a fine assemblage, and is one 
of the first I know of, where the number of matrices and 
punches is appended to the display of each font. Many 
of these types and ornaments ultimately found a place in 
the Imprenta Real of Madrid and appear in its specimen 
of 1799. 

The next book in the group is Muestras de los Grados de 
Letras y Vinetas que se hallan en el Obrador de Fundicion de 
la Viuda i Hijo de Pradelly Madrid. En la Oficina de Don 
Benito Cano, Ano de 1793. Eudaldo Pradell, the founder of 
this establishment (sometimes called the Catalan foundry), 
was a country boy of good family. He was first apprenticed 
to an armourer — as was Caslon to a gunmaker. He went to 
Barcelona when twenty years old, and there met the head of 
the Imprenta Real, Pablo Barra. This man urged Pradell to 
become a type-cutter, as Spain needed such a workman. 
After a good many difiiculties, Pradell produced four fonts 


which were brought to the attention of Carlos III, who gfave 
him a pension in 1764. Pradell, in a biographical note to 
this specimen, is called el primer inventor en Espma de esta 
Arte. He set up a foundry in Madrid, where he pursued 
his trade successfully, and he departed this life in 1788. In 
the next year his son Eudaldo, who continued his father's 
business, was also pensioned by the King. 

The peticano {Jig. 248), lecturoj texto, and entredos were 
the first types that the elder Pradell finished. The body of 
the letter is, in some cases, large compared with its ascend- 
ers. The descenders are generally short, which pardy ac- 
counts for the rolling look of the fonts in large sizes. Pradell's 
italic fonts have the pen-work appearance which was such 
a feature of Spanish eighteenth century types. The orna- 
ments in his book show the Bodoni and Foumier influence, 
modified by Spanish rendering. There is an assortment of 
mathematical signs and some large arable numerals — the 
latter reminiscent of BodonL Music-types, a supply of awk- 
ward, heavy dtling-letters, flowered letters, and nine pages 
of "flowers" complete a very interesting volume. 

The next specimen is Muestras de los Carac^res que tiene 
en su Obrador Pedro Ifem^ Fundidor en esta Corte. En la Im- 
prenta de Fermin Thadeo FilUUpando (1795). The prefa- 
tory note to this 16mo volume reads : "These printing char- 
acters are cast from the punches and matrices which were 
entirely the work of Don Eudaldo Pradell, first inventor of 
them in Spain, for which he was pensioned by His Majesty 
in the year 1764, which matrices are now the property of 
Pedro Ifem, being part of the dowry of his wife. Dona Mar- 
garita Pradell, and which are dealt in by virtue of the royal 
order following" — which is appended, dated August 16, 
1790. Ifern's specimen is a pretty litde book, got up with 
considerable taste and showing naturally much the same 



e esta manera viven los 
malos como olvidados de 
Dios, y asi estdn en este 
mundo comb hacienda sin 
duefio^ como escuela sin 
maestro, como navio sin go- 
vemalle , y finalmente co- 
mo ganado descarriado sin 
pastor. Y asi les dice Dios: 
no quiero ya tener mas car- 
go de apacentaros. 

Ticne este grado en el keoomdo ,44 matmcis de ca- 
jabaia,de la alta6j, de versales29, de versalillas 
39 , 50 de estas con acentos , y ,13 de tttulares. 

PVMZOMCS de caja baja 3i ,'it alta 40 , de versales 
38 1 de versalillas 2^ , con acentos solos paia versales 
7 versalillas 9 > y 33 de titulares. 



— ioi 


245. Roman cut by Gil: Specimen Real Biblioteca 

Madrid^ 1787 



Jl^ues dime ahora ^que mor 
yor peligro y que mayor mi- 
seria que vivirfuera de esta 
tutetay cuidado paternal de 
JDios J y quedar expuesto d 
todos los encuentros del mun^ 
do? P or que si le falta esta 
sombray favor de JDios ^que 
hard etsoloy desarmado en- 
ire tanpoderosos enemigos? 

Hay en esta cvksiva 32 matjljces de caja baja « de 
alta 55 9 de versales y versalillas 58 » de estas dos con 
acentos $2^ de vlfletas 3 > de espados de imprimir % , 
y 3 3 detitulares. 

ruirzojfxs de caja baja 33 » de alta 31 » de versales 
a8 , de versalilJas 2%, con acentos a?, ^ 33 de titulares. 
TOTAL de este grado: 441 matrices : y 344 pun- 


^ HI ■ VF ^SSi 

246. Italic cut by Gil: Specimen Real Biblioteca 

Madrid^ 1787 


N? LXXIV. 74 


R^egla es tamhien de prudm- 
da nomrarila antigueJad y 
novedad de las cosas para apro- 
harlas 6 condenarlas ; porque mu- 
chas cosas hay muu acostum- 
hradas y muy malas , y otras 
hay muu nuevas y may huenas, 
y ni la vejez es parte para jus- 
tificar lo malo , ni la novedad 
dehe ser para condenar lo hue- 
no J sino en todo y por todo hin- 
ca los 1 ojos en los meritos de las 
cosas, y no en hs anos. 

OffFF'*— i l^ C^ 




247. New Italic of Texto {shonving French influence) 
Specimen Real Biblioteca^ Madrid^ 1787 




N.' I. 


JtLste Rey Agesi- 
lao , como en su ex6r- 
cito tuviese poca gen- 
te de caballo, fiiese a 
la Ciudad y tierra de 

su CURSir^. 

Efeso, donde habia 
gente muy rica , y p(h 
CO codiciosa de guerra. 
El gran mandato, ^c. 



248. Pettcano^ cut by Eudaldo Pradell 
Muestras de la Viuda i Hijo de Pradell^ Madrid^ 1793 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 85 

collection as his mother-in-law's more ambitious volume; 
but the paper is lighter and more attractive than the Pradell 
specimen, and shows off both types and ornaments better. 
The ornaments are not quite the same. Many of them are 
derived from French sources and some from English, but 
they are all treated in a very Spanish way {Jig. 249). 

A final volume to be described is the 1799 specimen-book 
of the Imprenta Real of Madrid, which was at last started 
and which seems to have absorbed the material cut by Gil 
for the Biblioteca Real Richard Ford in his classic Hand- 
Book for Travellers in Spain — "the best guide ever written 
for any country"^ — speaks of the Imprenta Real as being, 
in his day, in the Calle de Carreteras — the same street in 
which, about a hundred years earlier, Baretri,* then trav- 
elling in Spain, visited a printing-office. Housed in a cum- 
brous building, the work of an architect named Turillo, it 
contained. Ford tells us, "the royal printing and engraving 
establishment From this press have issued many splendid 
specimens of typography,*' though he, unhappily, neglects 
to say what they were. This establishment was later situ- 
ated in the Calle del Cid, but to-day no longer exists. 

The tide of this specimen is Muestras de los Punzones- y 
Matrices de la Letra que se funde en el Obrador de la Im-^ 
prenta Realy Madrid, Afio de 1 799. The book is in two parts. 

' The fiunous edition is that of 1 845. Gmsult the amusing account of Spanish 
booksellers. Vol. I, pp. 138 et seg. 

* The Italian, Joseph Baretti (remembered chiefly for his Italian-English and 
Spanish-English lexicons, and as one of Dr. Johnson's circle), who was in 
Madrid in 1760, mentions visiting "a large printing-office in the Calle de las 
Carretas [jnc] , a street so called, and chidly inhabited by printers and book- 
sellers." Speaking of the fifty workmen employed in this printing-office and 
the rate of production, he says, "I asked two feUows at one press, how many 
sheets they could work off in a day, and was answered five and twenty hun- 
dred, which I thought a pretty good number, especially as they were none of 
the most muscular men." Baretti's Journey from London to Genoa, etc., 
London, 1770, Vol. Ill, pp. 8, 9. 


The first comprises an ambitious collection of excellent ro- 
man and italic types, followed by some Greek types (fine in 
the largest and smallest sizes), a few pages of Arabic, and 
a litde Hebrew. Apart from GiPs fonts, and others of that 
style, there are a number of lighter fonts, both in roman and 
italic, that, while distincdy "old style," show the taste for 
lighter letter-forms which was then making headway in 
Spain. A second collection of type of decidedly more mod- 
ern cut begins on page 75. The tendency toward less "nour- 
ished," lighter letters is clearly seen in these over-finished, 
monotonous characters {Jigs. 250 and 25 1) — types by no 
means so interesting as those in Part L Following these is 
a large display of capital letters in roman and italic, shaded 
initials, Greek capital letters, and a repertoire of "flowers," 
some of which we reproduce {Jigs. 252 and 253). A few 
are original, but a great many of these "flowers" were de- 
rived from Holland,^ France," and England,' and others from 
various perfectly recognizable sources ; but they are ren- 
dered in such a way as to be transmuted into very Spanish 

Late eighteenth century Spanish specimen-books, when 
compared with English or French "specimens," show (l) 
that the prevailing European taste was active in Spain, 
though retarded; (2) yet that type and ornaments both pos- 
sessed a marked national character ; and (3) that Spanish 
types — especially in italic fonts — had a surprisingly calli- 
graphic quality. 

This third point is perhaps capable of elucidation. These 
callig^phic types were (it seenis to me) modelled directly 

* Page 138, No. 155 ; page 139, No. 172. * Page 131, No. 63. 
"Page 136, No. 132; page 137, No. 142. 

* The ** modern face " type which was in use by 1800 in other parts of Europe 
does not appear to be commonly employed in Spain until some years later. 



JLJstas voces convienen porque son califi- 
caciones gen6ricas de los animales que co- 
men came. Difieren en que carnivoro sig- 
nifica simplemente el que come came ; y 
camicero el que hace su comida de ella. La 
primera designa el hecho , y la segunda el 
apetito natural, el habito constants £1 
animal carnicero no come otra cosa que 
came; su naturaleza le obliga & vivir de 
ella sola ; el carnivoro es el que entre otras 
cosas come carne ; pero puede vivir sin co« 
merla, como que no es su t^ico y propio 
alimento. £1 tigre , el leon , el lobo se man^* 
tienen solo de came,y por consiguiente son 
carniceros. £1 hombre, el perro , el gato 
comen y gustan de carne ; pero no la nece- 
sitan para vivir, pues pueden pasar con 
otros alimentos , y de consiguiente son car- 
nivoros. £n las especies camivoras sella- 
man carniceros los individuos que gustan 
mas de came , y la comen mas k menudo 
que los otros ; pero ya en este caso se usa 
impropiamente de la voz camicero* 

250. Soman teru&ng to ^^ Modem Face^'* from Muestras^ etc. 

Imprenta ReaU Madrid^ 1799 




fstas voces convienen porque son califi^ 
caciones genericas de las ammales que co- 
men carne. Difieren en que carnivoro sig" 
nifica simplementeel que come carne; y car^ 
nicero el que fuzce su comida de eUcu La 
printer a designa el hecho ^ y la segunda el 
apetito natural J el kdbito constants El anir^ 
mal carnicero no come otra cosa que carne; 
su naturcdeza le obliga d vivir de ella sola, 
el carnivoro es el que entre otras cosas come 
carne ; pero puede vivir sin comer la , co^ 
mo que no es su unicoypropio aUmento. El 
tigre, el leon, el lobo se mantienen solo de 
carne , y por consiguiente son carniceros. 
El hombre, el perro, el goto comen y gus^ 
tan de carne; pero no la necesitan para m- 
vir, pues pueden pasar con otros alimentos; 
y de consiguiente son carnivoros. En las e5- 
pecies carnivoras se Ua/nan carniceros los 
individuos que gustan mas de earner y la 
comen mas d menudo que los otros ; pero 
ya en este caso se usa iny^ropiamente de la 
90Z carnicero. 

251. Italic teruRng to ^^ Modern Face^'* from Mueatras^ etc. 

Imprenta Real^ Madrid^ 1799 

252. Ornaments from Mueatras^ etc.^ Imprenta Real 

Madrid^ 1799 





253. Ornaments from Miestras^ etc.^ Imprenta Real 

Madrid^ 1799 

SPANISH TYPES: 1500-1800 87 

on the Spanish handwriting then considered ideal for docu- 
ments or letters meant to be handsomely rendered. For in- 
stance, italic letters, in some fonts in these specimen-books, 
end in litde "dabs," as if written with a pen overfull. This 
was much like some of the writing of the great seventeenth 
century Spanish calligrapher Diaz Morante, an edition of 
whose jirte Nueva de Escribir was republished by Sancha in 
1776. Morante and his son profoundly influenced Spanish 
writing for two centuries.^ 

Though craftsmen in other countries of Europe had 
learned the futility of copying too closely a written letter, 
an effort appears to have been made in Spain to translate 
the formal calligraphy of the eighteenth century into type- 
forms. This was a beginner's blunder, but all earlier be- 
ginners had "begun" so long before, that for a moment the 
student of types is puzzled at the recurrence of the error, 
and takes it for something new. If Spanish * specimen- 
books were filled with very calligraphic types, perhaps it 
was because the Spanish type-cutter — with no native tradi- 
tion or experience to guide him — was working out an old 
problem in his own way. 

* See plates in Reflexionea y Arte de JEscrilrir del Abate D"^ Domingo Maria 
Servidori, Romano, Imprenta Real, Madrid, 1788. 



IF the earliest types cast in England were somewhat 
unattractive in design and rough in execution, it was 
not because the types were early types, for at that same 
time in other countries types were better; nor because of 
any lack of good models, for Elnglish black-letter manu- 
scripts were often very beautiful But in England few early 
native types had what we should call "feeling.'' Type-cut- 
ting and type-designing did not, apparendy, at first come 
easily or instincdvely to the English. Their best early tjrpes 
were imported. 

Most of Caxton's types were poor in design compared 
with those chiefly employed on the Continent at the same 
epoch. In Caxton's day, gothic letter was in vogue for all 
English printing. Later, this gothic crystallized into an 
English pointed black-letter character, similar to some of 
the black-letter of the Netherlands, from which, tempered 
perhaps by French influences, it was derived. It was the 
characteristic type of England, and we find it in the Eng- 
lish workrooms of De Worde, who gready perfected it, at 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, as well as in use by 
Pynson and Berthelet This character was commonly em- 
ployed throughout the sixteenth century, and until the end 
of the seventeenth century, and even in the eighteenth cen- 
tury it was still used for law-books, proclamations, licenses, 
etc. The poet Gray, in a letter to his friend West, who was 
discouraged about his legal studies, alluded to this when he 
said, "Had the Gothic character and bulkiness of those vol- 
umes ... no ill effect upon your eye? Are you sure, if Coke 
had been printed by EUzevir, and bound in twenty neat 
pocket volumes, instead of one folio, you should never have 

^ ^ 







^ «^ 



p-« ^ 
















^S ^ 





^ ^3 ^ 














5 C»J 

^rO S 

JO et 

CO '* 
^ CO 





S -^ 



- 3 










^ ^ 

r Hi 

^ Co 










ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 89 

taken him up for an hour, as you would a Tully, or drank 
your tea over him?"^ While there were some forms of grvs- 
batarde types (like Mansion's) used in England in the first 
thirty-five years of the sixteenth century, this pointed 
gothic letter drove them out Types modelled on the old Nor- 
man law-hand called "set court,'' "bas secretary" (or en- 
grossing), and "running secretary," — the latter the cursive 
of the law courts of Queen Ellizabeth's time, — also existed 
ijig^ 254) ; but (like the civiiite in France) they were never 
much used, and made litde impression on English typog- 

In England, the first roman types were sometimes called 
Italian letter or " white-letter," in distinction to the common 
English black-letter. Pynson's Sermo fratris Hieronymi de 
Ferraria appears to have contained the earliest roman letter 
used in England, but the first English books printed en- 
tirely in roman were his two 1518 editions of the Oratio of 
Richard Pace. In the next year Pynson printed, in two sizes 
of roman type, a work by Horman, entided Vulgana {Jig* 
255). Since he was of Norman birth and had intimate re- 
lations with printers at Rouen and with Froben at Basle, 
he may have bought these fonts abroad; although he cut 
some types of his own." Pynson succeeded Machlinia as a 

* Mason's Life of Gray (second edition), London, 1775, pp. 100, 101. 

* "The frequent indications to be met with of the transmission of founts from 
one printer to another, as well as the passinj^ on of worn types from the 
presses of the metropolis to those of the provinces, are suggestive of the exist- 
ence (very limited, indeed) of some sort of home trade in type even at that 
early date. For a considerable time, moreover, after the perfection of the art 
in Ekigland, the trade in foreign types, which dated back as early as the estab- 
lishment of printing in Westminster and Oxford, continued to flourish. With 
Normandy, especially, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, a brisk 
commerce was maintained. Not only were many of the English liturgical and 
law books printed abroad by Norman artists, but Norman type found its 
way in considerable quantities into English' presses. M. Claudin . . . states 
that Rouen, at the beginnmg of the sixteentii century, was the great typo- 


printer of English law-books — for which his knowledge of 
Norman French proved a recommendation. De Worde's first 
roman type was introduced about 1520. This he used for 
printing entire books and also for emphasizing special words 
or quotations in books printed in black-letter. Apparently 
it was De Worde who first introduced an italic type into 
England, employing it for marginal notes in Wakefield*^ 
Oratio^ published in 1524 — the first book printed in Eng- 
land showing Arabic and Hebrew types. De Worde's skill 
in producing the best English black-letter forms has already 
been alluded to. He seems to have been his own type- 

Thomas Berthelet, royal printer and famous for his beau- 
tiful bindings, maintained good traditions in printing. So did 
Richard Grafton, Berthelet's successor as King^s Printer; 
remembered for his Bibles and service-books, and espe- 
cially for the edition of Cranmer's Bible which he printed in 
association with Whitchurch in 1539. Thomas Vautrollier 
was responsible for the printing of what is called one of the 
handsomest Elizabethan books — though a very tasteless 
performance in reality — North's Plutarch, issued in 1579. 
In types and presswork he excelled most of his craft But 
the London printer John Day left the most distinct mark 
on early sixteenth century English typography. He was 

graphical market which furnished type not to England only, but to other dties 
in France and to Switzerland. ' It evidently had special typographical foun- 
dries,' he observes. ' Richard Pynson, a London printer, was a Norman ; Will 
Faques learned typography from J. le Boui^geois, a printer at Rouen. These 
two printers had types cast expressly for themselves in Normandy. Wynkyn 
de Worde must have bought types in Normandy also, and very likely from 
Peter Olivier and Jean de Lorraine, printers in partnership at Rouen.' And 
with regard to the first printer of Scotland, M. Claudin has no doubt that 
Myllar learned his art in Normandy, and that the types with which his ear- 
liest work was printed were those of the Rouen printer, Hostingue." Reed's 
Mstory of Old Engliah Letter Foundries ^ London, 1887, p. 103. 


ct re&o culta cum fuis cen'moni) s et vltione 
circa ncgkaum vel cotemptnm eorudem. 

{ E R B is no thyngt in the 
porlde to cdneniet to a man 
ts to te holy andtolone god 
tnd worfhyppe hym* 
Mihil in numani'stdigio 
M (adius / nihil homini 
:am proprfum ^ pictas 
As cultus* 
Man is natnrallye dyfpofyd to haoe a ttiynde and 
Teoetencetowarde god. 
Homini ingenita efl religiom's cura. 
There be many & diueife manen of tratOiyppyng 
and doynge of facryfyce* 
Multiplex eft varia cf coledideS tatio/mut 
tiplex factotum ritus, 
Therriigyon that Adam tawght fytft Ws chyl» 
dteneand all that camof tliemrwastohetalcyn 
for the mod ryght and fare way that ledythe man 
to thepryuyte ofgodtyllMofeslaxvcam* 
Religio quam prothoplaftus a ptihcipio li>s 
ben's etomnipoft<tieatij>poruit/omnium 
redtiflima iiiit loge^ tutlilima cenfcda/qu; 
advctinuim'nisducitara Mofaica ten' lege 
Mofes tabuli vctc caiyd vith the AtEe. 

255. Roman Types used by Pynson, London, 1519 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 91 

born in 1522, and began work on his own account in 1546. 
Taking refuge abroad during the Marian persecutions of 
Protestants, he returned and began printing again in 1557, 
and on the accession of Elizabeth (who merely persecuted 
Catholics), worked on a larger scale. Cunningham's Cosmo* 
graphicall Glasse, which Day printed in 1559, was, from a 
decorative and pictorial point of view, an ambitious book. 
It is described on a later page. 

Matthew Parker, Archbishop^JCanterbury, was Day's t 
chief patron. Day cut a font ofSaxJh which was used in a 
book edited by the archbishop/iSsued about 1566, and in 
some later volumes, notably Parker's edition of jElfredi 
Regis Res Gestae^ printed in 1574. This book shows the re- 
sult of the best efforts in type-founding up to that time, and 
the archbishop's preface alludes to Day's skilful punch- 
cutting: "And inasmuch as Day, the printer, is the first 
(and, indeed, as far as I know, the only one) who has cut 
these letters in metal ; what things have been written in 
Saxon characters will be easily published in the same type." 
The roman and italic used in the volume are of extreme 
importance in the history of early English type-founding. 
The roman, or, as it was then called, "Italian letter," resem- 
bles some fine fonts used on the Continent {Jig. 256); and 
the italic (that used in the Cosmographicall Glasse) is no less 
distinguished {Jig. 257). Reed says: "The typography of 
the JElfredi is superior to that of almost any other work of 
the period. Dibdin considered it one of the rarest and most 
important volumes which issued from Day's press. The 
archbishop's preface is printed in a bold, flowing Double 
Pica Italic, and the Latin preface of St. Gregory at the end 
in a Roman of the same body, worthy of Plantin himself." ^ 
A new italic was first used in 1572 in Parker's De Anti- 

* Reed, p. 96. 



quitate BritannicsB Ecclesix — the first privately printed book 
brought out in England. Day, by the way, was printer of 
the English edition in black-letter of that very famous Pro- 
testant martyrologium, Foxe's BookofM(atyrs^ in 1 563 ; and 
in 1569 he produced A Book of Christian Prayers^ — com- 
monly called "Queen EHizabeth's Prayer Book,** — a rough, 
tasteless black-letter volume, clumsily modelled on French 
Horm, but which had great popularity. He also cut a fine 
Greek letter and some attractive musical characters, and 
mathematical signs, etc., not before cast in type. The use 
of his roman and italic fonts was probably restricted to the 
See of Canterbury. Some of them were used a hundred 
years later by Roycroft in Bishop Walton's Polyglot Bible. 
Day was one of the first Ejiglish printers to cut roman and 
italic letters on uniform bodies. Before that time, roman and 
italic types had been considered characters without me- 
chanical interrelation; as examination of books in which 
they are both employed too plainly shows. 

Until the middle of the sixteenth century, the roman 
types used in fjigland were respectable — in a few cases, 
handsome. By the middle of the century, however, there 
was a decline, attributable to a variety of reasons. English 
typography shared the general falling oflf which began as 
soon as the restraining traditions of the manuscript volumes 
had passed away. Then, too, as in other countries, new and 
more complex problems of book-making were coming into 
being — changes caused by a demand for cheaper books, 
by the realization of the possibilities of type, and by prob- 
lems arising from the difference between the arrangement of 
a modern book, as we understand it, and the old traditional 
manuscript volume. Nor was the English printer very skilful 
or tasteful in the arrangement of types — good or bad; and 
thus English books did not equal those printed by good 




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-Q O 


o -a 




2 t2 




<2 .^ 

^ a" 

~^-«-S^C ■a 
5^ ■S 




ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 93 

presses on the Continent — either in workmanship, beauty, 
or correctness. 

The decline of typc^aphy from 1550 to 1650, as McKer- 
row points out, was also due (l) to the fact that printing fell 
into the hands of a class of masters and men less able, enter- 
prising, and socially important, who looked at it solely from 
the commercial side; (2) that Ejiglish presses printed books 
chiefly in the vernacular, and that more scholarly volumes, 
like the classics, were largely brought from abroad; (3) and 
chiefly, to the beginning of a burdensome censorship of the 
press, which became increasingly restrictive. Separately 
and collectively, all these contributed to the decline in Eng- 
land of printing as an art^ 

"Some explanation," says Reed, "of the marked supe- 
riority of our national typography at the close of the fif- 
teenth century over that of half a century later, is to be 
found in the fact that, whereas many of the first printers 
used types wholly cut and cast for them by expert foreign 
artists, their successors began first to cast for themselves 
from hired or purchased matrices, and finally to cut their 
own punches and justify their own matrices. Printing en- 
tered on a gloomy stage of its career in Elngland after Day's 
time, and as State restrictions gradually hemmed it in, 
crushing by its monopolies healthy competition, and by its 
jealousyforeign succour, every printer became his own letter- 
founder, not because he would, but because he must, and the 
art suflFered in consequence." The first man recorded as a 

^ For the state of the sixteenth century English press (its relations to the gov- 
eramenty etc.)> see the chapter by R. B. McKerrow on the "Booksellers', 
Printers', and Stationers' Trade," in Shake^fiear^a England, Oxford, 
1916, Vol. n, chapter xxiii. For an account of earlier English legislation in 
reference to printing, publishing, and bookselling, see the Introductions to 
Mr. E. Gordon DufPs Century of the English Book TYade, 1457-1557; to 
McK€miw*s Dictionary of I^4nter9f 1557-1640; and to Plomer's DM'onary 
of Booksellers and Ftinteri, 1641-1667. 


type-founder was Hubert Dauvillier, who came to Elngland 
in 1553 and whose shop was in existence in 1594; the first 
Englishman in the trade being Benjamin Simpson, who 
worked as a type-founder in 1597. 

By the middle of the sixteenth century, the State had so 
seriously interfered with the liberty of printing, that by 
1557 no press could be erected outside London except one 
each at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. In the 
seventeenth century, the Star Chamber decree of 1637^ 
placed the number of letter-founders at four, vacancies being 
filled by a commission. From 1640 to 1662 was a period of 
liberty; but this restriction was revived in 1662 and lasted 
until the end of the century — or to be exact, 1693. "During 
this period,'' Pollard tells us, "of nearly a century and a half, 
no printing was permitted, and, with the most insignificant 
exceptions, no printing was done, except at London, Oxford, 
and Cambridge. If a school-book or a prayer-book, or a 
Bible, or a book of any kind were wanted at Falmouth or 
at Berwick-upon-Tweed, it was from London or Oxford or 
Cambridge that it had to be procured, and procured more- 
over from a closed ring, more or less able to charge what 
price it pleased. If a poll-tax of a few pence apiece had been 
imposed on the people of England the whole country would 
have been in revolt But because this piece of oppression, 
which had no parallel in any other civilized country, had to 
do with books, this land of liberty bore it, apparently with- 
out a murmur."* 

The earliest English specimen-sheet was that of Nicho- 
las Nicholls, submitted to Charles II in 1665, with a peti- 
tion for the post of royal letter-founder — which two years 

* It was this decree which caused Milton to write his AreofiagUica, 

* A. W. Pollard in Transactions of the Bibliographical Society, Vol. XIII, 
p. 26. 

AufttOiffliio Mourrk^ Ir srrraiffia* 

Principi ft Oonino 

C A » O I O |I«» 

BrluoBUmn, ft rn»€i» Ret* 
•lorioftttoo Tidri 0(f»refi,ftc 

Viva» O Re* In ofrT" u«ik 

nAT • AQ»1A : AJti^ » AfKlli i 
^ . • • • • »• . 

tarraiiAiBV f rtm MairftAfi 
Mtfuilliar offm. ft dfldtui 

Misiai tcf M vibdironi* iii«toiw« 
NtcboUs Hicito<U 

258. Earliest English Specimen-sheet 
JVtcholtu JVtchoila^ London, 1665 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 95 

later he obtained. The types were probably cut expressly 
for the specimen, and besides roman include Greek, He- 
brew, Syriac, Samaritan, Ethiopic, and Arabic {Jig. 258). 
Moxon, author of Mechanick ExerciseSj published a speci- 
men in 1669. A specimen of the Fell and Junius types was 
issued by the University Press, Oxford, in 1693. 

The Oxford Press began its work in 1585, and has 
been in continuous activity to our own day. In 1629, Sir 
Henry Savile* gave the press some fine Greek types (bought 
at Frankfort possibly from WechePs successors), called the 
"Silver Letter,'^ in which the Eton Chrysostom had been 
printed.^ Later, Archbishop Laud obtained Letters Patent 
for it (allowing three printers, each to have two presses and 
two apprentices), and a Charter extending its rights, and 
he also presented it with some Oriental types. Between 
1667 and 1672, the press received some fine types imported 
from Holland by Dr. John Fell, Dean of Christ Church 
and later Bishop of Oxford (Jigs. 259 and 260). A col- 

' It was Moxon who cut the symbols used in John Wilkins' E»say towarda a 
Real Character, printed for the Royal Society (of which Moxon was a fellow) 
in 1668. He also produced the small pica Irish type used in Daniels* Irish New 
Testament in 1 681 , both type and printing being paid for by Robert Boyle — 
until 1800, the only Irish font in England. 

' Savile (1549-1623), Provost of Eton and one of the most learned English- 
men of his time, was for years interested in producing an edition of St. 
Chrysostom, for which he endeavoured to secure a font of the Frencli 
" Royal Greek " types. Falling in this, he purchased abroad a special Greek 
font for the work, the preparation of which cost him the enormous sum (for 
those days) of J68000. The edition, in eight volumes, was finished in 1613. 
Savile was a friend of Sir Thomas Bodley, and founded at Oxford the chairs 
of Geometry and Astronomy, which are still known by his name. An inter^ . 
esting account of his Greek type is given in Robert Proctor's paper, 77ie 
French Royal Greek TyfieB, and the Eton Chrysostom (Transactions of the 
Bibliographical Society, Vol. VII). This "Silver Letter" was subsequently 
bequeathed by Savile to the University of Oxford, then loaned to the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, and has since been lost. 

'Reed, facii^ p. 140. 


lection of Gothic, Runic, Icelandic, and Saxon characters 
was given also by a German, Francis Junius the younger, 
librarian to the Earl of Arundel.^ Rowe Mores says : "About 
the time of Mr. Junius's gift to the Univ. the excellent Bp. 
Fell, most strenuous in the cause of learning, had regulated 
and advanced the learned press in the manner which had 
been intended by archb. Laud, and which would by him 
have been eflFected had not the iniquity of those anarchical 
and villainous times prevented. He gave to the Univ. a 
noble collection of letter, consisting (besides the common 
founts Rom. and Ital.) of Hebr. Samaritan, Syriac, Arabic 
(Persic, Turkish and Malayan bought of Dr. Hyde), Ar- 
menian, G>ptic, u£thiopic, Greek, Runic, Saxon, English, 
and Sclavonian : Music, Astronomical and Mathematical 
signs and marks, flowers, &c. together with the punches 
and matrices from which they were cast, and all other uten- 
sils and apparatus necessary for a printing-house belong- 
ing to the University.''* Fell employed Marshall, afterwards 
Dean of Gloucester, to buy some of these types in Holland, 
and Marshall's negotiations for their purchase (between 
1670 and 1672) were chiefly with Abraham van Dyck, son 
of Christoffel, the celebrated type-cutter, and Dirk Vos- 
kens. A phrase in one of Marshall's letters is prophetic. **I 
se," he writes, "in this Printing-designe, we English must 
learn to use o*" own hands at last to cut Letters as well as 

* For the Fdl types, see the rare Sfiecimen of the Several Sorts of Letter ghten 
to the UnrversUy by Dr, John Fell, later LordBiaho/i of Oxford, Tb which is 
added the Letter Given by Mr, F, Junius, Oxford, Printed at the TJieatre, 
A.D. 1693. Other editions followed in 1695, 1706, 1768, 1787, 1794, etc. 
Some of these specimens are reproduced in Hart's ^otea on a Century of 
Tyfiografihy at the University Press, Oxford, 1693-1794. Oxford, 1900. 

' A like benefaction for the University Press, Cambridge, had been attempted 
in 1626 by Archbishop Ussher, who tried to get matrices of Syriac, Arabic, 
Ethiopic, and Samaritan letters from Leyden, but was forestalled in this by the 
Elzevirs. Before the advent of Caslon, most of the material of the press was 
carefiiUy chosen from Dutch foundries. See S. C. Roberts' excellent History of 
the Cambridge University Press, 152 It 192 I.Cambridge, 1921. 

Double Pica Roman. 



PAter nofter qui es in coelis, fan- 
(Sbificetur nomen tuum. Veniat 
regnum tuum : fiat voluntas tua^ficut 
in coelo, ita etiam in terra. Panem no- 
ftrum quotidianum da nobis hodie. 
Et remitte nobis debita noftra, ficut 
& remittimus debitoribus nofiris. Et 
ne nos inducas in tentationem^ led 
libera nos a b illo malo. Amen. 

Double "Pica Italich 


^T^Ater nofter qui es in coelis y fanBifh 
•^ cetur nomen tuum, Vemat regnum 
tuum : fiat ^voluntas tua^ ficut in coehy ita 
etiam in terra Panem noftrum quotidia-- 
num da nobis hodie. Et remitte nohis de- 
bita noftra, ficut & remittimus debit or i^ 
iusncftris, Et ne nos inducas in tentatio- 
nem/fed libera nos abiUomalo, Anen, 

259. Roman and Italic given by Dr. Fell to the University Press^ Oxford 

EngUih Englilh. 

vy eD vt im i9«me. zxro Bfnanom come. c% 
lofU \» Hone in eavti^, S10 tt i0 in ^eatien* eite 
WH t^d oat ouv oailf bveao. lano fbvaite 111$ 
001; trefpaOi^^, 90 loe fovgioe ti^em tl^at tvefpaC^ 
Winft ttjs* and leao u^ not into temptation} 
^ift Oeliber 110 from etil* Amea 

New Englilh Englilh. 

OWit ifat^er, ioM act in ^eatiett $ l^lotoeb ibe 
% J^ame. IQip itittSbom tome. s:$i» tM %t 

mt H<dl2» bteaH* jSbdi Ut^z 110 ow tceQ^lfttf, &c. 

Pica Englilh. 

OVc if atliev> ioliicli att in lieaDen j t^iAotoen be t|ip i^ame. 
Ciip bingoom come. W^ tnitt be Done in eartl)> 0« it is 
tn lieatien. dDibe vAtyawg out milp breao. 0nD forsibe 110 
one trefpafll0* 0f toe forgfbe t^iem t^c treftiab againS u0. 
$bib leao US not into temptation ; 15ut belibev uf from ebil : 
if oc tliine \» V^ l&inisiiom* ano tjie |iolDec> ano tbe glor?, ifor 
ebec ano ebec« - Amea. 

Long Primer Englilh. 

OVe fatDtCi toWcb att to Deabcn; Dalfanoeo be tb^ i)ame. Cbe 
hjnsoont cpmc. Cbr MU be bone to cac^ 98 it i0 to beaten. 
<BilH u0 ^is bap nw ballr bteab. 9nb fMoibc us otic ttc^aOir^ as 
toe foigibc t^cm tbat tteftiaCs againS 00. 3lnb leab us not toto terns 
station I Sut bettbet 118 from ebti. ^ot tbtoc is tbc lUt^booi} tbe potDrt^ 
<ntb tbe tftttgi fm ebet anb ever. Anaen. 

260. Black-letter given by Dr. Fell to the University Press^ Oxford 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 97 

print w*** them. For y* Founders here being reasonably fur- 
nished w^ Matrices from Franckfort, y* old van Dijke, 8cc. 
have no regard to cutting & justifying, unles perhaps to 
supply a Defect, or two. So that some famous Cutters, they 
say, are gone, to other Countries for want of imployment 
And now not one here to be found." ^ Dr. Fell also imported 
a Dutch letter-cutter, Peter Walpergen, to direct the Oxford 
foundry. Walpergen was succeeded by his son, and the son 
in turn by Sylvester Andrews. Dr. Fell also had a hand in 
the establishment of the Wolvercote paper-mill, now the 
property of the Oxford University Press. The matrices of 
the Fell types were the basis of the Oxford Foundry, es- 
tablished in 1667, and at the present day in efFecdve opera- 

The University Press was transferred to the Sheldonian 
Theatre in 1669 (built by Archbishop Sheldon, it is said 
at Feirs suggesdon), and during the life of Fell, its con- 
stant and efficient friend, it produced some notable books. 
Its charter was granted in 1682 ; a little later it obtained a 
privilege for printing Bibles. In 1688, it was removed from 
the Theatre — the Learned Press to one locality, the Bible 
Press to another. The receipts from the copyright of Claren- 
don's Rebellion chiefly provided the money for the erection in 
1713 of the Clarendon Building, designed for the press by 
Vanbrugh. In 1830, it was removed to its present building, 
where the Bible Press and Learned Press are united.* 

* Marshall's letters are reprinted in Hart's Aor« on a Century of lyfiog- 
rafiy at the University Preat, Oxford, pp. 161-172. 

' For a brief account of the Press with lists of its most important books, see 
the admirable brochure. The Oxford University Press, A Brief jfccount by 
Falconer Madan. Oxford, 1908. See, also, the same author's Chart of Ox- 
fwd Printing, 1904. For an elaborate account of the Fell types, with fac- 
similes, etc., consult Horace Hart's JVoTm on a Century of Tyftografihy, 
already alluded to. ITie latter book is printed from the Fell types, as is also 
Some Account of the Oxford University Press, 1468-1921. Oxford, 1922. 


The restrictions which the Government placed on print- 
ing have hitherto been alluded to. The separation of print- 
ing from letter-founding was a gradual process, but in the 
reign of Charles I — in 1^37 — the Star Chamber decree 
shows that the establishment of type-founding as a distinct 
business was accomplished. The object of this decree was 
to restrict the number of persons engaged in letter-found- 
ing ; and four authorized founders were appointed, namely, 
Grismand, Wright, NichoUs, and Fifield, who probably had 
been making types for some time previous. It was the son 
of Nicholls who produced the first known "specimen ** of 
English type. 

These men have generally been known as the Polyglot 
Founders, because they were later associated in the produc- 
tion of that famous work, Walton's Polyglot Bible — the 
fourth Polyglot produced. The first was the Complutensian 
Polyglot of Cardinal Ximenez, printed at Alcal& in 1517; 
followed by the Plantin Polyglot of 1572, published at Ant- 
werp, and the Paris Polyglot of 1 645, edited by Le Jay. Each 
succeeding work surpassed its predecessor in the number 
of languages employed, the London Polyglot containing 
all that were in the Paris Polyglot and adding Persian and 
Ethiopic;' though as a piece of printing it is inferior in 
beauty to the earlier Polyglots. It was issued between 1654 
and 1657 in six folio volumes by the distinguished printer- 
publisher Thomas Roycroft, who also brought out CastelFs 
learned Heptaglot Lexicon^ which supplemented it Some 
roman and italic types employed in the Bible were (as I 
have said) the types that Day cut for Archbishop Parker. 
The characters for the nine languages used were all of 
English make, and some of these became models for later 
Oriental fonts in the eighteenth century. Roycroft (remem- 

* See Reed, pp. 169, 170, for comparison of the four Polyg;lot Bibles. 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 99 

bered for his fine editions of the classics printed for Ogilby) 
was, on the accession of Charles II, made King's Printer of 
Oriental languages, and Walton received a mitre ! 

The three best London foundries — none too good, be it 
said — of the second half of the seventeenth century were 
that of Joseph Moxon (author of Mechanick Exercises); 
that of his successors, Robert and Silvester Andrews, which 
was very well furnished in roman, italic, and learned fonts, 
as well as Anglo-Saxon and Irish characters ; and that of 
James and Thomas Grover, who possessed types which 
came from Day, Wynkyn de Worde, and others, and a re- 
markable Greek uncial font later owned by the James foun- 
dry. But the types of most seventeenth century flnglish books 
were probably Dutch. For this there were several reasons. 
One was the success of the Elzevirs, then the prominent 
publishers and printers of Europe, whose types were Dutch. 
Then there was the influence of fashion, for "the caprices of 
the court have always been to some extent responsible for 
the evolution of taste **; and court taste was to some degree 
Dutch. Moreover, with the Revolution, English restrictions 
on the importation of types were removed, and the use of 
Dutch fonts came about pardy because, on account of pre- 
vious hampering governmental regulations, there were not 
enough trained letter-cutters left inflngland to produce good 
types. That was the most potent reason of all for the general 
English use of the Dutch letter. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the great 
James foundry,^ which contained material produced by De 
Worde, Day, the London Polyglot founders, Moxon, and 
many more, was procuring its types from Holland, and an 

'It was Thomas James who cruelly thwarted William Ged, inventor of 
stereotjrping. In a house which was part of the priory of St. Bartholomew 
the Great, Smithfidd (at one time occupied by James) , Benjamin Franklin 
was employed by Samuel Palmer. 


account of Thomas James's negotiations there in 1 7 10, when 
he went to obtain material for his foundry, is given in a series 
of unconsciously humorous letters in Rowe Mores' Disser- 
tation} His purchases from Dutch letter-founders were from 
Athias, Voskens, Cupi, and Rolu. Reed calls attention to 
** the intimate relations which existed at that period between 
English printers and Dutch founders." He adds, "There 
was probably more Dutch type in England between 1700 
and 1720 than there was English. The Dutch artists ap- 
peared for the time to have the secret of the true shape of 
the Roman letter; their punches were more carefully fin- 
ished, their matrices better justified, and their types of better 
metal, and better dressed, than any of which our country 
could boast"* 

The rise of William Caslon, the greatest of Elnglish 
letter-founders, stopped the importation of Dutch types; 
and so changed the history of English type-cutting, that 
after his appearance the types used in England were most 
of them cut by Caslon himself, or else fonts modelled on the 
style which he made popular. An examination of types 
displayed in the specimen in Watson's History of tlie Art 
of Printings issued in Edinburgh in 1713, shows what the 
Dutch types were {fig. 261); and Caslon's various speci- 
mens will show the English style. These, with Baskerville's 
specimens, are the chief sources for the study of eighteenth 
century English type-forms. 

' Rowe Mores' Duaertation, pp. 51-57. 
'Reed, p. 114. 

Great-Primmer, RomM, 

'X'H E Flatterer will quit thee in thy 
-■- Adveifity : But the Fool will ne- 
ver forfake thee. If thou hide thy 
Treafure upon the Earth, how canft 
thou expe6l to find it in Heaven? Canft 
thou hope to be a Sharer, where thou 
haft repofed no Stock ? Give not thy 
Tongue too great a Liberty, left it take 
thee Prifoner. Wouldft thou traffick 
with the beft- Advantage, and crown 
thy Virtues with the beft Return ? 

Grbat-Primmer, Italiek, xxxv 

TJOW cam^fi thou hy thy Honour ? By 
-* ^ Money. Hovu cam^fi thou by thy 
Money ^ By Extortion. Compare thy 
Temy-lVortb 'with the Trice ; and tell me 
truly, hoa> truly Honourable thou art ? It 
is an ill Turcbafe, that^s encumbred with 
a Curfe : And that Honour isoiU be ruinotu^ 
that is built on Ruins. 7)etain not the Wages 
from the poor Man that bath eartCd it, left 
GOT) imtb'boldtby Wages from thee. — - 
Tboujbalt not proffer for ins Sake, The poor 

261. Dutch Types used in England: Watson Specimen 

Edinburgh, 1713 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 101 



CASLON'S work marks a turning-point in English 
type-founding, so I. shall outline briefly what he stood 
for in the history of English types. 

William Caslon was born in 1692 at Cradley, Worces- 
tershire, near Halesowen in Shropshire, and in the parish 
register of Halesowen his baptism is entered as "child of 
George Casselon by Mary his wife," Tradition has it that 
the surname was originally Caslona, after an Andalusian 
town, whence in 1688 William Caslon's father came to 
England. Caslon as a lad was apprenticed to an engraver of 
ornamental gun-locks and barrels in London. In 1716, he 
set up a shop of his own there, where he did silver-chasing 
and also cut tools for bookbinders. John Watts (a partner 
of the second Tonson) was accustomed to employ him to 
cut lettering for bindings — and sometimes punches for 
type. About 1720, William Bowyer the elder ^ is said to have 
taken Caslon to the James workshop, to initiate him into 
letter-founding; and Bowyer, his son-in-law Bettenham, 
and Watts eventually advanced money to enable Caslon to 

'William Bowyer the elder (1663-1737) was printer for Thomas Hollis, 
benefactor of Harvard Collie. His son, William Bowyer, "the learned 
printer," received from the Pre^dent, Edward Holyoke, and the Fellows, in 
December, 1767, a vote of thanks for several valuable books sent them, and 
" particularly his late curious edition of the Greek Testament with learned 
Notes. ' • To one of the books which Bowyer presented ( The Letters of Eras- 
mus) he prefixed a Latin inscription, as he did in the Greek Testament just 
alluded to. For President Holyoke says in his letter : " We are greatly obliged 
to you for the favourable sentiments you have been pleased so elegantly to ex- 
press of our Seminary, in the blank leaf of the New Testament ; and we hope 
it will prove a powerful stimulus to our youth, more and more to deserve so 
good a character. This Society is as yet but in its in&nt-state ; but we trust, 
that, by the generosity of the benefiactors whom the Divine Providence is rais- 
ing up to us, and by the smiles of Heaven upon our endeavours to form the 
youth here to knowledge and virtue, it will every day more effectually answer 
the important ends of its foundation." 


set up a foundry of his own. The only good foundries then 
were those of the Oxford Press, of Grover, and of James. In 
the same year the Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge engaged Caslon to cut a font of Arabic of English 
size, for a Psalter and New Testament for Oriental use — 
ultimately printed respectively in 1725 and 1727. This he 
did, and the story runs that he cut the letters of his own 
name in pica roman, and printed it at the bottom of a proof 
of his Arabic. This roman letter was so much admired, 
that Caslon was persuaded to cut a font of pica roman and 
italic; and in 1722, with Bowyer's encouragement, he cut 
the English fonts of roman, italic, and Hebrew used in 
Bowyer's folio 1726 edition of Selden's works. These and 
some Coptic types for Wilkins' edition of the Pentateuch, 
published in 1731, were, like the Hebrew, cut under Bow- 
yer's direction. Caslon's beautiful pica "black "was cutabout 

1733. Several other of his "exotic" types appeared before 

1734. In accomplishing all this, Caslon had been from the 
first effectively backed; and he ended with a complete 
foundry, which by his own labour and some discriminating 
later purchases b^ame the best in England. His types were 
bought by printers abroad. He arrived, says Mores,^ "to that 

* £dward Rowe Mores, in the latter part of his life (in 1772) , purchased all 
the older portions of the enormous collection of types, punches, and matrices 
of the James foundry — an accumulation which dated from the sixteenth cen- 
tury. From his examination of its material he prepared an essay intended to 
preserve the memory of this foundry, the most ancient in the kingdom, and 
as an introduction to a specimen-sheet which was to show what his collection 
possessed. The specimen was not published until after his death. The essay 
finally appeared four years later to accompany the catalogue of the auction 
sale of the collection. The title-page reads: ji Dissertation u/ton English 
7]/flogra/ihical Founders and Founderies, By Edward Rowe Mores^ A,M, 
ilf A.S,S., MDCCLxxvui. This title and the final notes were added by John 
Nichols, the printer, who bought the whole edition (only eighty copies) at the 
sale of Mores' books, in 1778. The Dissertation cx)n tains an immense amount 
of curious information about early types and type-founders in England. 











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ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 103 

perfection so that we may, without fear of contradiction, 
make the assertion that a fairer specimen cannot be found 
in Europe; that is, Not in the World." When Caslon's first 
specimen appeared, his reputation was made. His subse- 
quent history is largely the record of the different fonts which 
he cut 

Though Caslon began his foundry about 1720, it was 
not until 1734 that he issued this specimen-sheet, which 
exhibited the results of fourteen years of labour {Jig. 262). 
It shows various fonts of type, all cut by Caslon except the 
Canon roman, which came from Andrews (a "descend- 
ant'' of the Moxon foundry) ; the English Syriac, cast from 
matrices used for the Paris Polyglot Bible of Le Jay, and 
a pica Samaritan cut by Dummers, a Dutchman. A reprint 
of this specimen, with a change of imprint, appeared in an 
edition of Chambers' Cyclopsedia in 1738, and a note accom- 
panying it says : " The above were all cast in the foundery of 
Mr. W. Caslon, a person who, though not bred to the art of 
letter-founding, has, by dint of genius, arrived at an excel- 
lency in it unknown hitherto in England, and which even 
surpasses anything of the kind done in Holland or else- 
where." Caslon was joined in his business by his son, Wil- 
liam II, in 1742, and they constantly enlarged their stock 
of types, both roman and "learned." It was apropos of this 
expansion that a rather starding phrase occurs in Ames' 
account of their foundry. "The art," he says, "seems to be 
carried to its greatest perfection by Mr. William Caslon, and 
his son, who, besides the type of all manner of living lan- 
guages now by him, has offered to perform the same for the 
dead, that can be recovered, to the satisfaction of any gentle- 
man desirous of the same." 

Fournier, writing (not too accurately) in 1766, says : 
"England has few foundries, but they are well equipped 


with all kinds of types. The principal ones are those of 
Thomas Cottrell at Oxford, James Watson at Edinburgh, 
William Caslon & Son at London, and John Baskerville at 
Birmingham. The last two deserve special attention. The 
types in Caslon's foundry have been cut for the most part 
by his son with much cleverness and neatness. The speci- 
mens which were published of them in 1749 contain many 
different kinds of types." ^ 

A contemporary print of Caslon's foundry shows four cast- 
ers at work, a rubber (Joseph Jackson), a dresser (Thomas 
Cottrell), and some boys breaking off the type-metal jets. 
Jackson and Cottrell subsequendy became eminent type- 
founders themselves. Caslon seems to have been a "tender 
master,'' and he was a kindly, cultivated man. In his Chis- 
well Street house he had a concert room, and within it an 
organ ; and there he entertained his friends at monthly con- 
certs of chamber music. I have seen the attractive old rooms 
where these musical parties were held, in the building in 
Chiswell Street — since pulled down, to be replaced by a 
more convenient structure. 

William Caslon the elder (who was thrice married) died 
in London in 1 766, at the age of seventy-four. The stock of 
his foundry about the time of his death may be seen from 
his Specimen of 1763. This was the first specimen-&x>A- 
issued in Elngland,* and from it some pages are reproduced 

' Manuel Tyfiografihiqtie^ Vol. II, p. xxxviii. 

' Also see Luckombe's History of Printings in which a reprint of that 
part of Caslon's Specimen of 1763 which contains the types, is shown. The 
flowers are not the same. In Caslon's specimens, variants of the same size 
of type are given, called ** No. 1 " and ** No. 2 " — the former a little larger 
&ce than the latter, though cast on the same body — as in Luckombe's re- 
print. In the Caslon Specimen of 1796, three faces of the same size of type are 
shown. Thus the name Caslon, says Mr. De Vinne, " as applied to a distinct 
face of type, is consequently not exacdy descriptive ; it may be somewhat mis- 

Two Lines Great Primer. 

Ououfque tandem 
abutere Catilina, p 
^oujque tandem a- 
butere^ Catilina ^pa- 

Two Lines Engliih. 

Quoufque tandem abu- 
tere, Catilina, patientia 
noftra? quamdiu nos e- 
i^oujque tandem abutere 
Catilina^ patientia nojir a? 

Two Lines Pica. 

Quoufque tandem abutere, 
Catilina, patientia noftra ? qu 
^oufque tandem abutere^ Ca* 
tilinuy patientia nqftral quant" 

263. Roman and Italic: JVtUiam Caslon £5? Son's Specimen 

London^ 1763 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 105 

{Jigs. 263 and 264). His son, William Caslon II ( 1 720- 1 778), 
succeeded him at his death, and maintained the place the 
house had won for itself. On the death of William Cas- 
lon II, the property was divided between his widow — Eliza- 
beth (Carditch) Caslon — and his two sons, William Cas- 
lon and Henry Caslon I. William Caslon III (1754-1833),^ 
who had a son William (1781-1869), disposed of his in- 
terest in 1792 to his mother, and to Elizabeth (Rowe) Cas- 
lon, the widow of his brother Henry. The latter lady, whose 
partner was Nathaniel Catherwood, had a son, Henry Cas- 
lon (1786-1850). He, in partnership with John James 
Catherwood, with Martin Livermore, and alone, continued 
the house, which finally descended to the last of the family, 
Henry William Caslon (1814-1874). On his death, the 
business was taken over, under the style of H. W. Caslon & 
Co., by his manager, T. W. Smith, whose sons ultimately 
assumed the name of Caslon, and the foundry remains in 
their hands to-day.* The developments of the Caslons' out- 
put during their long and honourable history are described 
on later pages. 

Why are William Caslon's types so excellent and so 
famous ? To explain this and make it really clear, is diffi- 
cult While he modelled his letters on Dutch types, they 
were much better ; for he introduced into his fonts a quality 
of interest, a variety of design, and a delicacy of modelling, 
which few Dutch types possessed. Dutch fonts were mo- 
notonous, but Caslon's fonts were not so. His letters when 

* This WiUiam Caslon III, though selling his interest in the family business, 
bought Joseph Jackson's foundry (in operation from 1763 to 1792), which 
he managed under his own name until 1803 — the succeeding styles of the 
house being Caslon & Son and William Caslon (1807-19). 

* The account of the foundry which has been issued by the present owners 
under the title of 7\vo Centuries of Tyfiefounding should be consulted. It is 
very fully illustrated by portraits, reproductions of types, ornaments, etc. 


analyzed, especially in the smaller sizes, are not perfect in- 
dividually; but in mass their effect is agreeable. That is, I 
think, their secret — a perfection of the whole, derived from 
harmonious but not necessarily perfect individual letter- 
forms. To say precisely how Caslon arrived at his effects 
is not simple ; but he did so because he was an artist He 
knew how to make types, if ever a man did, that were (to 
quote once more Bernard's phrase) "friendly to the eye," 
or "comfortable" — to use Dibdin's happy term. Further- 
more, his types are thoroughly English. There are other 
letters more elegant ; for the Caslon characters do not com- 
pare in that respect with the letters of Garamond or Grand- 
jean. But in their defects and qualities they are the result 
of a taste typically Anglo-Saxon, and represent to us the 
flowering of a sturdy English tradition in typography. Lack- 
ing a "national" form of letter, we in America (who are 
mainly governed by English printing traditions) have noth- 
ing better. Caslon types are, too, so beautiful in mass, and 
above all so legible and "common-sense," that they can 
never be disregarded, and I doubt if they will ever be dis- 

Caslon's ornaments or flowers deserve in their way as 
much praise as his types. "To a designer's eyes they have," 
says Mr. W. A. Dwiggins, "taken as individual patterns, an 
inevitable quality, a finality of right construction that baf- 
fles any attempt to change or improve. . . . Elxcellent as 
single spots, the Caslon flowers multiply their beauties when 
composed in bands or borders as ornamentation for letter- 
press. They then become a true flowering of the letter forms 
— as though particular groups of words had been told off 
for special ornamental duty and had blossomed at com- 
mand into intricate, but always typographical patterns. 

Two Lines Great Primer Black. 

reip enatteti, CJat 

Double Pica Black. 

9Lvib be it fitrtjier limbj? ma^ 
ttt^, Cliat t|ie ifSl^$m, M^U 
Itffo, oj otfter m^ iBfKcer^, 

Great Primer Black. 

Ztib U it fattl^tx \^tt^ enacten, 

t|)er |)edd iracers of e))etp Xotmt 
anD place eo^ipo^ate^ anD Cil^ toft^ 

Englilh Black. 

Znn <ie it faxtbn ttx^t enafteu* Cbat tbe ^a< 
l?oi0, OBaiUfQef, oiotteci)eali£DfiBtcet0ofet)et? 
Coton anU place co^poiate, ano CiQ? toitliin 
tlii0 laeaUn, teing 3Iufiice ot 3lufiice0 of ]Peace, 
Qitil iiatte m (iune autfHiiits tp Dettue of ma 
aat, toittin tlie Itmitsi ano vmn&» of tliett 3[u« 

EnglUh Black. No 2. 

9nti be it UxtUtv ^rceli? rna(teti« Cgat t|e 
a9a?O20, Xailifijf » ot ot^rc ^eaD fDmata of 
man? Colon anti place coapoaatr, atiti Citp 
ioit^in t^itf IRralm, being 3lu(Hce o{ 3[u(Hcej( 
of ]^ce« ftall ^aoe t^e fame auttio^ttp, b? 
urttur of t^iii 9<t, toit^in t^e limit}} and pu' 


264. Black-letter: William Caslon &? .Sbn's Specimen 

London, 1763 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 107 

This faculty possessed by the Caslon ornaments of keeping 
an unmistakable type quality through all their graceful 
evolutions sets them apart from the innumerable offerings 
of the type founders' craft as a unique group. . . . From the 
point of view of the pressman, as practical v^^orking types 
for impressing ink into paper, they may be claimed to be 
better, so far as English and American designs are con- 
cerned, than any type-flowers made since their period. The 
proportion of printing surface to open paper ... is excel- 
lentiy adapted for the purposes of clean, sharp impression. 
Certain ones have elements t^oken by tint-lines into a clear- 
printing gray, and it will be observed that this tint is not the 
gray of copper-plate, but has the weight and solidity of a 
printing surface backed by metal '^ {Jigs. 265 and 266). 


BASKER VILLE is the other great name in eighteenth 
century English type-founding. Here we have a very 
different influence emanating from a very different kind of 
man. His types were not so good as Caslon's, though to an 
untrained eye their fonts seem much alike ; but the slight 
touch of over-delicacy which the Baskerville letter pos- 
sessed was finally to develop a rival which would drive 
Caslon's type, for a time, from the field. Baskerville's char- 
acters had this advantage — that they were in line with the 
tendency toward lighter type-forms which was coming over 
European printing ; and although his fonts never had much 
vogue in England, they did have an enormous influence 
on the later development of English type-forms, and on the 
type-forms of Europe. 

John Baskerville was born in 1706. He was first a writ- 



ing-master at Birmingham, and then turned to the trade of 
japanning — of trays, snuff-boxes, etc. — in which he made 
a good deal of money. In 1750, he began to interest himself 
in typography. "M. Baskerville," says Fournier, "a private 
individual of means, has established at Birmingham, the 
town where he lives — renowned for its metal manufactures 
— a paper-mill, printing-office, and type-foundry. He has 
. spared neither pains nor expense to bring these to the high- 
est perfection. His types are cut with much spirit, his italic 
being the best in any foundry in England, though the ro- 
man characters are a litde too broad. He has already pub- 
lished some editions printed from these new types, which, 
for brilliancy, are real masterpieces. Some are upon hot- 
pressed paper, and although they are a little fatiguing to the 
eye, one cannot deny that they are the most beautiful things 
to be seen in this sort of work.'' ^ What Caslon did for types, 
Baskerville, aided by the novel form of his letters, his black 
ink, and hot-pressed rag paper, did for eighteenth century 
presswork. His way of printing was so closely connected 
with the effects of his fonts that they cannot be considered 
apart from it 

In printing a book, Baskerville had ready a succession 
of hot copper plates, and between such plates each wet 
sheet was inserted as it left the press — something no eigh- 
teenth century printer had up to that time attempted. The 
high finish of these hot-pressed sheets — the "gloss" of his 
paper — compared with that on modern papers, does not 
seem to us very noticeable. His contemporaries, however, 
thought otherwise, and the Abbe de Fontenai, in a notice 
of Baskerville, describes it as "so glossy and of such a per- 
fect polish that one would suppose the paper made of silk 
rather than of linen." It is easier to understand his surprise 

* Manuel lyfiografihi^ue. Vol. II, p. xxxix. 


Doable Pica Flowers. 

T tSR Sas% aSihiSSh ^Sshias% ggro qSq tfx£n> 

A ^^^^^w ^^SXf ^^^^^W ^^^^^w ^3B|^y ^^^^Rr i^^^Rr ^S^^^F ^^2Er 






Great Primer Flowers. 


265. Ornaments: IVilliam Cashn is? San^a Specimen 

London, 1763 






Englifh Flowers. 

Pica Flowers. 

7 ^»mm^i^0mmi^m^m^^m^mm 


266. Omamentt: William Caslon &f -Sb/i's Specimen 

London, 1763 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 109 

at Baskerville's restraint in the use of decoration, for at that 
date most books did not depend for their effect on typog- 
raphy, but chiefly on engravings, or else woodcut ornaments 
or typographic flowers. This absence of plates in Basker- 
ville's books struck men of that day very forcibly. "Con- 
tent with the simplicity of typographic art," says De Fon- 
tenai, "the English printer has had no need to borrow aid 
from engraving ; nor do we find in the editions that he has 
so far published — which are admirable- — plates, vignettes, 
tail-pieces, ornamental letters, or, in short, any of those ac- 
cessories which serve as passports, so to speak, for a worth- 
less lot of French verse which, without this useful precau- 
tion, would meet its just desert — oblivion*"* 

Baskerville spent seven or eight years in experimenting 
with designs for type before a page of a book was printed, 
and he made not merely his own types (cut for him by a 
certain John Handy), but also his ink, and if he did not 
make his own paper, he superintended its manufacture. His 


first book, the Latin Virgil, which came out in 1757, estab- 
lished his reputation. And in 1758, Baskerville followed up 
this success with a Milton in two volumes royal octavo — a 
somewhat indifferent performance — which is chiefly inter- 
esting for the preface {Jig. 267) that he wrote for it 

"Amongst the several mechanic Arts that have engaged 
my attention," he says, " there is no one which I have 
pursued with so much steadiness and pleasure, as that of 
Letter-Founding. Having been an early admirer of the 
beauty of Letters, I became insensibly desirous of contrib- 
uting to the perfection of them. I formed to my self Ideas 
of greater accuracy than had yet appeared, and have en- 
deavoured to produce a Sett of Types according to what I 
conceived to be their true proportion. 

^De Fontenai's Dictionnaire dcs Artistea^ Paris, 1776, Vol. I, p. 156. 


" Mr. Caslon is an Artist, to whom the Republic of Learn- 
ing has great obligations; his ingenuity has left a fairer 
copy for my emulation, than any other master. In his great 
variety of Characters I intend not to follow him ; the Ro- 
man and Italic are all I have hitherto attempted ; if in these 
he has left room for improvement, it is probably more owing 
to that variety which divided his attention, than to any 
other cause. I honor his merit, and only wish to derive some 
small share of Reputation, from an Art which proves ac- 
cidentally to have been the object of our mutual pursuit 

"After having spent many years, and not a little of my 
fortune in my endeavours to advance this art ; I must own 
it gives me great Satisfaction, to find that my Eklition of 
Virgil has been so favourably received. The improvement 
in the Manufacture of the Paper, the Colour, and Firmness 
of the Ink were not overlooked ; nor did the accuracy of 
the workmanship in general, pass unregarded. If the judi- 
cious found some imperfections in the first attempt, I hope 
the present work will shew that a proper use has been made 
of their Criticisms : I am conscious of this at least, that I 
received them as I ever shall, with that degree of deference 
which every private man owes to the Opinion of the public. 

"It is not my desire to print many books; but such only, 
as are books of Consequence, of intrinsic merit, or estab- 
lished Reputation, and which the public may be pleased 
to see in an elegant dress, and to purchase at such a price, 
as will repay the extraordinary care and expence that must 
necessarily be bestowed upon them. Hence I was desirous 
of making an experiment upon some one of our best Eng- 
lish Authors, among those Milton appeared the most eli- 

Besides the fine and famous series of classical and Eng- 
lish authors that Baskerville continued to print on his own 


AMONGST the feveral mechanic Arts 
that have engaged my attention, there is 
no one which I have puriued with fo much 
fteadinefs and pleafure, as that of Letter-Found- 
ing. Having, been an early admirer of the beauty 
of Letters, I became infenfibly defirous of con- 
tributing to the perfedion of them. I formed 
to my felf Ideas of greater accuracy than had 
yet appeared, and have endeavoured to pro- 
duce a Sett of Types according to what I con- 
ceived to be their true proportion. 

Mr. Caflon is an Artift, to whom the Repub- 
lic of Learning has great obligations; his inge- 
nuity has left a fairer copy for my emulation, 
than any other mafter. In his great variety of 
Characters I intend not to follow him; the Ro- 
man and Italic are all I have hitherto attempt- 
ed; if in thefe he has left room for improve- 
ment, it is probably more owing to that variety 
which divided his. attention, than to any other 
caufe. I honor his merit, and only wifli to 
derive fome fmall fliare of Reputation, from 
an Art which proves accidentally to have been 
the obje6l of our mutual purfuit. 

After having fpent many years, and not a 

A 3 little 

267. Page of BasiennUe*s Preface to Milton^ Birmingham ^ 1758 

ENGUSH TYPES: 1500-1800 HI 

account, he had other irons in the fire. He cut Greek t)rpes 
— and very bad they were — for Oxford. He was appointed 
printer to the University of Cambridge, and produced edi- 
tions of the Bible and Prayer Book — some of them most 
imposing — though his types did not seem "solid'' enough 
for this kind of work. I have chosen one or two typical 
volumes for description of his types and type-setting. The 
first one is the Virgil, which (in Macaulay's phrase) "went 
forth to astonish all the librarians of Europe.'' 

This book was issued in square quarto. The title-page 
is set in lines of widely spaced capitals — a very charac- 
teristic feature of Baskerville's work. His rather condensed 
italic capitals are employed for two lines only ^fig* 268). 
These italic capitals are used for running-titles, and else- 
where — the F, K, J, N, Q, Y, Z being peculiarly "Bas- 
kerville" in design. The book is set in great primer type, 
leaded. The folios and numbers to lines of the text employ 
a very calligraphic and rather disagreeable form of arable 
figure. The book is printed on hot-pressed smooth paper, 
in my copy partly wove and pardy laid. Very easy to read, 
the volume nevertheless does not seem to me a particularly 
agreeable or beautiful book, partly on account of its type, 
but chiefly because the type-page is too large for its paper, 
and the headings and running-titles, in restless italic capi- 
tals, become too much of a feature {Jig. 269). The volume 
sold at a guinea, and among the subscribers was Benjamin 
Franklin, who took six copies. Perhaps among them was the 
copy given by him to the Library of Harvard College, of 
which he wrote (in April, 1758) that "It is thought to be 
the most curiously printed of any book hitherto done in the 
world." However that may be, it is a very typical example 
of Baskerville's merits and defects. 

In The Works of the Late Right Honorable Joseph Addi- 


sotij Esq., in four quarto volumes, printed by Baskerville 
for J. and R. Tonson in 1761, we have a different kind of 
performance. The third volume I have chosen to discuss be- 
cause it is devoted to The Spectator, a book so often reprinted 
that its editions form a sort of conspectus of English typog- 
raphy for a hundred and fifty years. To my mind, Bas- 
kerville's treatment of The Spectator was most unsuccess- 
ful. Running head-lines are set in italic capitals, much 
spaced, so that **The" which precedes the word "Specta- 
tor" has to be huddled to one side in upper and lower- 
case italic. The number of the issue and its date are set 
between two lines of very light type-ornament, which is 
trivial and teasing. The text of the work is set in English 
roman of a monotonous roundness ; for the height of the 
body of the letter calls for more leading and longer ascend- 
ers and descenders. On pages 432 and 433, observe the 
masses of italic — gray in colour, feeble and wiry in line, 
and annoyingly condensed in shape. The occasional lines 
of Greek are crabbed and disagreeable — to other Greek 
fonts what the italic is to "suaver" italics. The volumes may 
be vastly superior in brilliancy and clearness of effect to 
other books of the time, but for the text a Caslon, or even 
"Fell" letter, w^ould have been better if the same attention 
had been given to presswork. 

A much finer book — a really very fine book — is the Latin 
Juvenal and Persius, printed the same year (l76l)in quarto. 
This is very simply arranged. The argument to each Satire 
is set in a large size of Baskerville's italic, and the text in 
roman is more leaded than in the Virgil and accordingly 
much improved. Running-tides are set in spaced italic capi- 
tals. The imposition is elegant, the margins ample, the type 
clear. And some of Baskerville's editions of the classics in 
1 6mo are charming litde books. 





E r 

AE N E I S. 



M D G C L V 1 1. 

268. Title-page of Baskerville's Firgil {reduced) 

85 ME. Hac te nos fragili donabimus ante cicuta. 
Haec nos, Formofum Coiydon ardebat Alexin : 
Hsec eadem docuit, Cujiun pecus? an Meliboei? 

MO, At tu fume pedum, quod, me quum faepe rogaret, 
Non tulit Antigenes, (et erat turn dignus amari) 

90 Formofum paribus nodis atque sere, Menalca. 

E C L G A S E X T A. 

S I L E N U S. 

PR IMA Syracofio dignata eft ludere verfu, 
Noftra nee erubuit filvas habitare Thalia. 
Quum canerem reges et praeUa, Cynthius aurem 
Vellit, et admonuit: paftorem, Tityre, pingues 

269. Baakemille's Type used in Virgil, Birmingham, 1757 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 113 

Baskerville's specimen-sheet of about 1762/ entitled A 
Specimen by John Baskerville of Mrmingham^ Letter-Founder 
and Printer^ shows eight varieties of roman — from double 
pica to brevier — and six sizes of italic. On this specimen 
the roman types appear better than in the Addison. But as 
Latin is employed for the paragraph which displays them, 
this may be due to the many m's, n's, and u's which 
Latin affords. The italic is better, though it is a very thin, 
starved sort of character. The italic capital K's, and capi- 
tal Q's and Z's, both in roman and italic, are interesting 
{Jig. 270). As our illustration of the broadside specimen is 
reduced, the reader is referred to the reproduction of Bas- 
kerville^s double pica roman and italic (a portion of another 
broadside specimen issued about the same time), which 
gives a somewhat more accurate idea of his type-design 

{fig> 271). 

Baskerville no doubt was eccentric, vain, and unattrac- 
tive as a man; but publishers and printers were jealous of 
him as a printer. They abused his type, they poked fun at 
his smooth paper, and in spite of his artisdc success, finan- 
cially he found it by no means easy sailing. Franklin, who 
loved a practical joke, in a letter written to Baskerville in 
1760, tells him that hearing a friend say that Baskerville's 
types would be "the means of blinding all the Readers in 
the Nation owing to the thin and narrow strokes of the let- 
ters," he produced a specimen of Caslon's types with Cas- 
lon's name torn from it, saying it was Baskerville's, and ask- 
ing for specific criticism. He was at once favoured with a 
long discourse on faults so plainly apparent in the type that 

* This sheet is a rare one. My copy formerly belonged to A. A. Renouard, the 
French publisher and bibliophile. There is also an example in the Birming. 
ham Free Libraries. Baskerville issued specimens in 1757, c. 1762 (2, one of 
which is bordered), and in 1775 (2). 


before the critic had finished, he complained that his eyes 
were even then suffering from "Baskerville'* pains !^ 

But Baskerville was tenacious, and persisted in printing 
and publishing, though his books did not pay. Several times 
during his latter years he tried to sell his types, — to the 
Imprimerie Royale (through Franklin in 1767), to the Aca- 
demic des Sciences at Paris, to the 0>urt of Russia, to 
Denmark, to the English Government, — without success ; 
indeed, it is doubtful if he wished to succeed. For a time 
he placed his establishment in the hands of his foreman, 
Robert Martin, but later resumed its charge, and condnued 
to print and to publish until his death in 1775. After Bas- 
kerville's decease, his types were hawked about ; some of 
them were sold in ELngland, and the remainder bought by 
Beaumarchais for his great edition of Voltaire. The chief 
part of his equipment, therefore, went to France. In the up- 
heaval consequent to the Revolution the history of his types 
becomes obscure. An ad vertisementof their sale in Paris, cer- 
tainly after 1789, is reproduced from the only copy known 
{Jig. 272). Later, Baskerville^s fonts were used to print 
the Gazette Nationale, ou Le Moniteur Universely the official 
journal of the French Republic during "the terrible years.'' 
Whittingham, early in the nineteenth century, used some 
of them,' it is said. And of late some are reported to have 
turned up in French printing-houses.' Thus Baskerville's 
matrices and types, which should have been preserved to 
English typography, through indifference were lost to it 

* Franklin's amusing letter, which has been so often quoted, may be found in 
Straus and Dent's John Batkerville, Cambridge, 190r, p. 19. 

' In 1827, Pickering advertised 77^ Treatyse of Fywhynge vnfth an jingle 
(attributed to Dame Juliana Bemers) as printed with the types of John Bas- 

' See notice of Baskerville type in Marius Audin's Le Uvre, aa Technique^ 
son Architecture^ Lyon, 1921, pp. 42 et aeg. 






111 fi£ 





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Double Pica Roman. 

TANDEMaliquando, Quiri- 
tes! L.Catilinam furentem 
audacia, fcelus anhelantem, pe- 


Great Primer Roman. 

TANDEM aliquando, Quirites! L. 
Catilinam furentem audacia, fcelus 
anhelantem, peftem patriae nefarie moli- 
entem, vobis atque huic urbi ferrum flam- 


Double Pica Italic. 

r AND EM aliquando, Quirites! L. 
Catilinamfurentem audacia, fcelus 
anhelantem, pejiem patria nefarie moli- 


Great Primer Italic. 

rAXDEM aliquando, Quirites! L. Ca- 
tilinam furentem audacia, fcelus anhe- 
lantem, peJlem patna nefarie molientem, vobis 
atque huic urbi ferrum fiammamque minitan- 


271' Tt/pes from BaskervUle^s bordered Broadside Specimen 

Birmingham^ c. 1762 



DES caract£:res 

D E 


PORTE SAINT-ANTOINE, entre k rue Amelot 
et le Boulevard, N° i , vis-k-vis les mines de k Baftille. 


■1* ■uar 7 ~ 

rnm^mttttr"^'^ I n.. » i i i . • 

JLe Depdt de la Fonderie de BASKERViLiE^qax pr^ntc aux Imprimcurs une 
nouvelle en ce genre, contient Ics Caract^res ci-apr^ dcnommes: 


Triple Canon. 
Double Canon. 
Gros Canon. 
Petit Canon. 

S A V 1 R, 

Gros Parangon. 
Gros Ronialn. 
Cicero gros oeil. 
Cicero petit ceil. 

Petit Romain gros oeil. 
Petit Romain petit ociL 
Petit Texte. 


Ces Caractcres, fondus sur la mcme hauteur, nc laissent rien a desirer pour la perfection 
de lexecution , et Ton n a de ineme rien cpargne pour la bonte de la matiere, objet dans 
lequel les Connaisseurs trouveront un avantage qui ne leur echappera pas. 

Ce Depot ofFre aux Citoyens" Imprimcurs et Amateurs en typographic, la Bicilite dc 
sc pourvoir sur Ic champ de tout ce dont ib pcuvent avoir bcsoin, tant en Pontes qucn 
Assortimens de toute espccc. 

Le Directeur du Depot pent livrer sur le champ de quoi monter une Imprimerie 
de 3o Presses, en Pontes les plus amples, fussent-elles chacune de 85 a 3o feuilles, depuis 
le Gros Romain jusqu a la Mignone inclusivement 

Cette AHiche, exccutce avcc les Caractaes de Baskerville, indique aux uns et aux 
autres ce qu ils peuvent se procurer pour tons les ouvrages de ce genre. 

Les Amateurs peuvent se procurer dc ces Caractcres assortis en aussi petite quantity quails le 
voudront. ainsi que tous les Assortimens, Omemens, et en general lous Ustcnsiles dlmpnmerie. 

On disuibuera un Essai d'Epreuves desdils Cancldres, avcc Icurs prix, en auendant le SficameH on Uere itfrciats 
de tout ce que contient la Fonderie dcBASKERViLLE, A la conFcction duqucl on travaiUe. 

S'adresser au Citoyen COLAS, Diponlaife tUidits CaracUrts, au Dr/wt ci-desins ; ou it sa demeure, 
rue Saint ' Anloine ^ pres la Place de la Lxberli ^ Porte cochcre N* i6i. 

iHptiac fu bt WMM . c( «tiM I Impiaaic >i«4ii uio^t.* C O L A Si 

272. Advertisement of Sale of Baskeroill^s Types^ Parts^afier 1789 {reduced) 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 115 

The only ornaments Baskerville possessed were, appar- 
endy, fourteen forms of "flowers," which, rather thin in de- 
sign, accorded very well with his types {Jigs. 273 anrf274). 
But he seldom used them, and his best books have no oma- 
ments at all. 

As we look at Baskerville's specimen-sheets, the fonts ap- 
pear very perfect, and yet somehow they have none of the 
homely charm of Caslon's letter. It is true that the types try 
the eye. Baskerville's contemporaries, who also thought so, 
attributed this to his glossy paper and dense black ink. 
Was this the real fault? The difficulty was, I fancy, that in 
his type-designs the hand of the writing-master betrayed 
itself, in making them too even, too perfect, too " genteel,'' 
and so they charmed too apparently and artfully — with 
a kind of finical, sterile refinement The excellent Johann 
Gotdieb Immanuel Breitkopf remarked that these types 
resembled copper-plate engraving; and the Leipsic gende- 
mari was pardy right 

Nor was Baskerville's type-setting as original as is nowa- 
days supposed. Tonson had printed tide-pages without ru- 
brication or surrounding rules many years before, and he 
and William Bowy er,^ too, had used spaced roman and italic 
capitals in what we consider Baskerville's peculiar manner. 
Hanmer's edition of Shakespeare, which antedated Basker- 
ville's first book, shows a method of employing "flowers" to 
which Baskerville was singularly addicted ; and he was no 
doubt gfreatly influenced by the Foulis editions in the open- 
ness of his title-pages. 

The more we think of Baskerville, the more he appears to 
be an eclectic, whose types were the result of fashions in 
calligraphy and whose presswork was an attempt to emu- 
late on paper the finish of japanning. He put his books to- 

* As in Bowyer's edition of Pope's fVorks, printed for Lintot in 1717. 
















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ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 117 

Baine, he attempted an improved system of type-casting. 
This coming to nothing, they set up on a small scale a type- 
foundry at St Andrews in 1742. Baine later left Wilson to 
go into business for himself; and Wilson (who had mean- 
while removed his foundry to Camlachie) fell in with the 
famous brothers Foulis — Robert and Andrew — printers 
to the University of Glasgow. For them he cut some cele- 
brated Greek types which they used in their Homer. The 
foundry was removed to Glasgow, and Wilson accepting a 
post as professor of astronomy in the University, its man- 
agement fell to his sons. Their earliest specimen was dated 
1772. A specimen in broadside form came out in 1783 and 
illustrated an article on printing in Chambers' Cychpsedia. 
It shows a selection only of Wilson's types, but exhibits 
fonts of roman and italic from six-line pica to pearl, and five 
sizes of black-letter. Of Greek types there are five sizes (the 
double pica being that of the Homer), and there are six sizes 
of Hebrew. All these fonts (with the exception of the two 
larger "blacks") have been made more regular and me- 
chanical than Caslon's types, and, especially in mass, lack 
their colour {Jig. 275). If we compare Wilson's specimen 
of 1783 with Caslon's specimen of 1763, it is surprising 
to see how "rude" the Caslon letters appear. On the other 
hand, Wilson's types are not Baskerville's characters, for 
these were shorter and broader, and the italic much more 
like pen-work. Wilson's fonts clearly show the Baskerville 
influence, and yet somehow quite miss Baskerville's bril- 
liancy. The monotonous grayness of the letter in pages, not 
disagreeably noticeable in large types, becomes marked as 
sizes decrease. It is particularly apparent in the fonts below 
pica, in the Specimen of Printing Types issued by Wilson 
at Glasgow in 1786 — which shows Wilson's merits and 
defects better than the broadside just mentioned. 



^ .- V . ' f -^ Wilson's types, as I have said, were almost entirely used 

by the brothers Foulis. Their smMev /brmats were cheaper, 
more popular, and better known than their folios, and in 
them they popularized invertebrate sorts of fonts which 
were lifeless and dull in effect ; and the reputation which 
they had made through the types of the folios cloaked the 
sins of the 12mos! Printers who did not use these types 
printed books that had the same faults — volumes like Dr. 
Charles Burney's History of Music, in four quarto volumes 
(London, 1776-79), or the first edition of White's Natural 
History ofSelbome, printed by Bensley in 1789 in quarto; 
and other similarly "drab** performances. For some reason 
or other such books were often printed on a bluish-white 
paper, in an ink brown, rather than black. I fear we must 
count Foulis and Wilson as poor influences on contempo- 
rary English printing. 

The owners of the Fry type-foundry at Bristol were in- 
telligent, painstaking men, and its output stood very high 
in its day. Joseph Fry and William Pine, a Bristol printer, 
started the establishment in 1764, under the style of Fry & 
Pine. Fry — a typographic Vicar of Bray — was much in- 
fluenced by other people's work ; and at first, under the direc- 
tion of Isaac Moore, a t)rpe-founder who was made part- 
ner, this foundry produced letters modelled on Baskerville's. 
The very rare specimen-sheet of Isaac Moore & Co., Bris- 
tol, shows their output in 1766 {Jig. 276). But there was a 
prejudice against Baskerville's types, and, Moore having 
retired about 1 776, the firm — J. Fry & Co. — pu t aside their 
imitations of Baskerville and spent some years in imitating 
Caslon. They were able but bare-faced copyists, and openly 
announced in the advertisement to their specimen of 1785 
that they had cut types "which will mix with and be totally 
unknown from the most approved Founts made by the late 

Two Lines Great Primer. 

Quoufque tand- 
em abutere, Cati- 

lina, patientia no- 


^luoufque tandem a- 
butere, Catilinay pa- 
tientia nojlra ? quam- 

Two Lines English. 

Quoufque tandem a- 
butere, Catilina, pati- 
entia noftra? quam- 



i^oiifque tandem abutere^ 
Catilina^ patientia noftra ? 

275. Portion of Wilson^ s Broadside Specimen^ Glasgow^ 1783 














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ill; Hi 

nil I till? 
loos I 

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5" Si SJ 

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S-a: is";-: 

g Q I' 





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= 6 3='3lg'=^, 

s 3 5 *i -^ 

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P8 = p si- 
's S E I a (L ■ 
■5 = 52" i 

E2o.S,< S 

1 1 I s S £ 2 


a; OS 

s ^ 

o ^ 


ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 119 

ingenious artist, William Caslon" — which vexed the Cas- 
lons exceedingly. How much it vexed them may be seen in 
the Address to the Public prefixed to the Caslon specimen 
of 1785: 

"The acknowledged Elxcellence of this Foundry," says 
the Address, "with its rapid Success, as well as its unexam- 
pled Productions, having gained universal Encomiums, on 
its ingenious Improver and Perfecter, (whose uncommon 
Genius transferred the Letter-Foundry Business from Hol- 
land to England, which, for above Sixty Years, has received, 
for its Beauty and Symmetry, the unbounded Praises of the 
Literati, and the liberal Encouragement of all the Master- 
printers and Booksellers, not only of this Country, but of all 
Europe and America,) has excited the Jealousy of the En- 
vious, and the Desires of the Enterprising, to become Par- 
takers of the Reward due to the Descendants of the Im- 
prover of this most useful and important Art. They endea- 
vour by every Method to withdraw, from this Foundry, that 
which they silently acknowledge is its indisputable Right : 
Which is conspicuous by their very Address to the Public, 
wherein they promise (in Order to induce Attention and En- 
couragement) that they will use their utmost Endeavours 
to iMrTATE the Productions of this Foundry : Which Asser- 
tion, on Inspection, will be found to be impracticable, as the 
Imperfections cannot correspond in Size. The Proprietor of 
this Foundry, ever desirous of retaining the decisive Su- 
periority in his Favour, and full of the sincerest Gratitude 
for the distinguished Honour, by every Work of Reputa- 
tion being printed from the elegant Types of the Chiswell- 
street Manufactory, hopes, by every Improvement, to retain 
and merit a Continuance of their established Approbation, 
which, in all Quarters of the Globe, has given it so acknow- 
ledged an Ascendency over that of his Opponents." 


A Specimen of Printing Types^ by Edmund Fry and Co., 
Letter-Founders to the Prince of Wales^ appeared in 1787, 
and was reprinted in Stower's abridged edition of Smith's 
Printer's Grammar^ which was issued in that year. This 
shows the Frys' imitations of Caslon's types, and Stower's 
note introductory to the specimen says : "The plan on which 
they first sat out, was an improvement of the Types of the 
late Mr. Baskerville of Birmingham, eminent for his in- 
genuity in this line, as also for his curious Printing, many 
proofs of which are extant, and much admired: But the 
shape of Mr. Caslon's Type has since been copied by them 
with such accuracy as not to be distinguished from those 
of that celebrated Founder." (!) Some of the Frys' type cer- 
tainly closely resembled Caslon's; but, in the main, their 
types were more open and finished than even Wilson's — or 
at least became so. As might be expected from so "learned" 
a foundry — for the proprietors were learned — they had a 
large selection of Hebrew types and some interesting forms 
of Persian, Arabic, £thiopic,etc, the result of judicious pur- 
chases at the sale of the James foundry in 1782 — in which 
year Edmund and Henry Fry were admitted to the busi- 
ness. The ** flowers" in this book are of a rather lighter char- 
acter than those in Caslon's specimens — lightened to har- 
monize with the type. 

In 1787, Joseph Fry retired. He left the business in the 
hands of his sons. Edmund Fry, a scholarly man, was the 
author of Pantographia^ a book on which he spent some six- 
teen years of research. It shows more than two hundred al- 
phabets — thirty-nine of Greek alone. In 1794, Dr. Fry took 
IsaacSteele into partnership. Their specimen of 1795^ shows 
that, in view of the prevailing fashions, types of the Bas- 

* A Sjfiecimen of Printing ly/tes by Fry and Steele, Letter Founders to the 
Prince of Wales, Tyfie Street, London, Printed by T, Rickaby, 1795. 

Two Lines English. 

Quoufque tandem abu- 
tere Catilina, patientia 
noftra? quamdiu nos e- 


Qiumfqite tandem abutere, 

patientia no/lra? 
quamdiu nos etiam furor 


Two Lines Pica. 

Quoufque tandem abutere, 
Catilina, patientia noftra ? 
quamdiu nos etiam furor 


Quoufque tandem abutere^ Ca- 
tilina^ patieritia nojlra ? quam 
diu nos etiam furor ijle turn e 


^77. Roman and Italic: Fry and Steele* s Specimen^ London^ 1795 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 121 

kerville style were again resuscitated {Jigs. 277 and 278). 
A comparison between the broadside specimen of 1785, the 
specimen-book of 1787, and that of 1795, shows these puz- 
zling see-saws of taste, with the last of which, undoubtedly, 
Didot and Bodoni abroad, and Bulmer and Martin at home, 
had something to do. Fry's Type Street Letter Foundry, as 
it was called, was ultimately acquired by the proprietors of 
the Fann Street Foundry, represented in our own day by 
Stephenson, Blake & G>mpany. 

Finally, the Caslons themselves became involved in the 
new movement, and in a specimen published in 1798^ many 
of their types and ornaments are distincdy of the school 
of Wilson and Fry {figs. 279 and 280). Thus the taste for 
lighter book-prindng was carrying all before it by 1800. 

Joseph Jackson (1733-1792), who has been mentioned 
as apprentice to the first Caslon, and who was, later, a rival 
of William Caslon II, is chiefly remembered for his clever 
cutting of "peculiar" fonts — such as the "Domesday" char- 
acter, and his Greek types copying the letter of the Alexan- 
drian Codex. This last character, reproducing an earlier, 
like font, was magnificendy employed by John Nichols in 
his great folio edition of Woide's Novum Testamentum Grse- 
n/;72, based on the Codex Alexandrinus^ printed in 1786 at the 
expense of the Trustees of the British Museum. Jackson's 
roman letter, which more concerns us, was of a style that 
also took a middle course between the old-fashioned Caslon 
and the more modern Baskerville letter — somewhat like the 
earlier Wilson fonts. Macklin's Bible, printed by Bensley 
in seven ponderous folio volumes, is the best example of 
a book printed from these new double English roman types. 
When the Bible was printed as far as Numbers^ Jackson 

* ji ^ecimen of Printing Tyfi€9 by IVm, Caslon ^ Letter-Foundrrio the King. 
London : Printed by C. WhiUingham^ 1798. 


died, and his foundry was bought by William Caslon III, 
with whom Bensley refused to have dealings. So Vincent 
Figgins I cut a similar font in which the Bible was com- 
pleted. He was disappointed in succeeding to Jackson's 
foundry by Caslon's purchase of it, and he set up a foun- 
dry of his own, which for the period was one of the best 
Figgins' Bible type was used for Bensley's fine edition of 
Thomson's SeasonSj of 1797 — a fact recorded on the title- 
page thereto. He was also responsible for some other fonts, 
which had a good deal of popularity, and may be described 
as a sort of modified old style, although not the ^^modified 
old style" now in use. His first specimen-book — issued in 
1792 — was printed for him by Bensley. Figgins' Greek 
types cut for the University Press, Oxford, a Persian type 
for Ouseley the Orientalist, an English Telegu font for the 
East India Company, and various fonts of Domesday char- 
acters attest his talents and reputation. Vincent Figgins I 
died in 1844. 

A founder eminent in the late eighteenth century was 
Thomas Cottrell, another of Caslon's old apprentices, whose 
foundry attained unfortunate prominence in the hands of 
Robert Thorne, who bought it in 1794; but whose "bbld- 
faced" changes (in more senses than one) in its product 
were reserved for the early years of the nineteenth century. 

To understand the causes of the revival of Elnglish print- 
ing which marked the last years of the century, we must 
remember that by 1775 Baskerville was dead; that An- 
drew Foulis died in the same year, and Robert in 1776. 
There seems to have been a temporary lull in English fine 
printing and the kind of type-founding that contributed to 
it The wood-eng^ving of Thomas Bewick, produced about 
1780, called, nevertheless, for more brilliant and delicate 




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278. Ornaments: Fry and Steele's Specimen, London, 1795 

Great Primer Roman, No. 2. 

Quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, pa- 
tientia nostra ? quamdiu nos etiam fiiror 
iste tuus eludet ? quem ad finem sese ef- 
frenata jactabit audacia ? nihilne te noc- 
turnum praesidium palatii, nihil urbis 
vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil consen- 
sus bonorum omnium, nihil hie muni- 
tissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil ho- 
rum ora vultusque moverunt ? patere 
tua consilia non sentis ? constrictam jam 
omnium horum conscientia teneri con- 
jurationem tuam non vides? quid prox- 
ima, quid superiore, nocte egeris, ubi 



Great Primer Italic, No. 2. 

Quousque tandem abutere^ Catilinay Jta- 
tientia nostra f quamdiu nos etiam furor 
iste tuus eludet f quem ad finem sese efi- 
frenata jactabit audacia f nihilne te noc- 
turnum presidium fialatiiy nihil urbis vi- 
gili^ey nihil timor Jiofiuliy nihil consensus 
bonorum omnium^ nihil hie munitissimus 
habendi senatus locuSy nihil horum ora 
vultusque moverunt f Jiatere tua consilia 



279. Transitional Types: Caslon Specimen^ London^ 1798 

Great Primer Flowers. 


8'^^*'^^ •^l*«y* •^^''^ 'y^^^ '^»n:«^ •^?*<'^* 

10 ^^j|&^^j?M««^^IMI«'^j^MI* 



t2 ®®®®®® 

15 ^ 


17 ^NhNNNh^****** 

English Flowers. 





280. Ornaments: Caslon Specimen, London, 1798 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 123 

letter-press than either Caslon's or Wilson's types could 
supply. If Baskerville's fonts had been available, no doubt 
they would have served ; but some were scattered among 
Ejiglish printers and the greater part were in France. So 
the next experiments in typography were made by a little 
coterie composed of the Boydells, the Nicols, the Bewicks 
(Thomas and John), and Bulmer. While the Foulis and 
Wilson influence had helped a taste for lighter effects in 
type, this new group sought brilliant effects for their print- 
ing. It was natural, therefore, to turn to a type-cutter who 
worked in the ** tradition" of Baskerville. 

Such a one was William Martin, who learned his trade, 
apparently, at Baskerville's foundry. He was brother to Rob- 
ert Martin, who was for a long time in Baskerville's employ. 
About 1786, he came to London as punch-cutter to George 
Nicol (bookseller to George III), the originator of the plan 
for the "Boydell Shakspeare. " He was employed by Nicol 
"to cut sets of types after approved models in imitation of 
the sharp and fine letter used by the French and Italian 
printers" — by whom Didot and Bodoni were, I suppose, 
meant. Now this is just what Martin did — more Anglice. 
And when the Shakspeare Press was set up with Bulmer 
in command, Martin was master of a sort of "private foun- 
dry" in connection therewith. His types were used in the 
"Boydell Shakspeare," the first part of which appeared in 
1791, in the Milton of 1794-97, and in Poems by Goldsmith 
and Pamell of 1795. These books will be discussed later. 
Mardn's types, both roman and italic, were cut to imitate 
Baskerville's, but with certain fortunate individualities. A 
more "modern" quality had crept into these fonts, but they 
were very splendid of their kind. 

It has been the fashion to disparage the types of this 
post-Baskerville movement ; but when an authority says 


that "the revival or re-invention of wood engraving by Be- 
wick about 1780 had no good effect on printing, the new 
illustrations being too delicate to print well with type,^ is 
this entirely fair? It is not true of books like the Goldsmith 
and Pamell, illustrated by the Bewicks and printed from 
Martin's types. These new illustrations did print well with 
type, though with type some persons dislike.. Whether or 
not we wholly approve of such types or books, the press- 
work is often splendid, the types are fine of their kindj the 
books reflect the taste of their day, and the performance as 
a whole " hangs together.'' 

William Martin cut some Greek and Oriental fonts, but 
he will be best remembered by his wonderful roman and 
italic — fonts skilfully employed by McCreery in his poem 
The Press (1803) — and the splendid form of modem face 
letter used by Bulmer in Dibdin's bibliog^phical works. 
Martin died in the summer of 1815. 1 am glad to place this 
sprig of rosemary to the memory of a master of his art, 
whose work closes a chapter in English letter-founding.^ 

ENGLISH books between 1500 and 1800 are impor- 
tant to us as the sources from which most of our pres- 
ent-day styles in printing are derived. The sixteenth century 
is an archaic period typographically in England, and its 

* Martin never issued, I think, a specimen of his foundry, but a selection of 
his types, as employed by John McCreery of Liverp>ool, is shown — to no 
very great advantag;e — in jt Sfiecimen of Imftroved TkffieB ofG.F. Har- 
ris, Printer, aucccMor to Mr. John McCreery, Houghton Street, Uverfiooi 
(1807) . This was the only provincial pinnting-house owning any of Martin's 
fonts. They were cast for its collection by arrangement with Bulmer and 
Nicol. The "Shakspeare" types are said to be numbered 16, 17, 18, 19, 
20, 21, 22, 23, 26, and 27. Martin's foundry, for a short period after his 
death, was continued by Bulmer. A portion of its material appears to have 
been sold to the Caslons in 1817. 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 125 

interest is mainly historical. While in the seventeenth cen- 
tury English books are less archaic, its traditions have but 
little effect on our printing to-day. But eighteenth century 
work, especially after the advent of Caslon, has a close con- 
nection with nineteenth and twentieth century printing; and 
the influence of its somewhat dubious taste is shown, in 
recent years, in American books and especially in ephem- 
eral typography. The books used to illustrate the preces- 
sion of English type-forms during these three centuries are 
chosen from the rank and file of volumes of their respective 
periods — although among them there are some remarkable 
specimens of book-making. 


William Horman's Bulgaria — a book of common Eng- 
lish phrases with their Latin equivalents — was printed by 
Pynson at London in 1519. The border on its title-page is 
an adaptation of a familiar Italian design. The title within 
it is set wholly in roman type. The prefatory matter em- 
ploys the same roman fonts, and the body of the book is 
set in two sizes of roman. Divisions of subject begin with 
woodcut initials, or spaces for painted initials. The book is 
an early example of a volume printed throughout in roman 
fonts; and in appearance is rather more like G)ntinental 
work than current English printing (Jig. 255). 

A second sixteenth century book is Gower's Conjessio 
Amantis^ printed by Berthelet in 1532. The text is set 
chiefly in two sizes of black-letter midway between batarde 
and lettre deforme^ but the preface employs a purely Eng- 
lish /^^fr? de forme. Latin quotations are set in roman — 
a beautiful font — and running- titles in roman capitals. 
This mixture of roman and black-letter types is a sign of 
decadence, and prefigured a period when the rdle of the 


two types would be reversed, and black-letter would be 
used only for "displayed" lines and such-like. Berthelet was 
a Frenchman, and this book has a certain workmanlike 
quality, and indeed elegance, which is somewhat French, 
and its title-page is ornamented after a design by Tory. 
The Gower, and books by Sir Thomas Elyot, are consid- 
ered among Berthelet's best productions {Jig. 281). 

The year 1532 is also the date of the first collected edi- 
tion of Chaucer's fForksy printed by Thomas Godfrey of 
London. The text is composed in a French leftre batarde^ 
but an English lettre de forme is used as an ornamental 
letter, for display on the very handsome bordered title-page, 
and elsewhere. The Preface is also set in it — and a line of 
roman letter is used at least once {Jig. 282). Ten years later 
(1542), a second edition appeared, printed by Pynson, also 
set in black-letter, but entirely of the English variety — a 
rather solid lettre de forme — a consistentiy Gothic book and 
purely English in type-forms and in taste. The poems in 
both these editions are set in double column {Jig. 283). 

The Cosmographicall Gtasse^ by William Cunningham, 
a Norwich physician, was printed by John Day in 1559, 
and has been called "a real landmark in English book-pro- 
duction. In addition to its fine types, this book is noted for its 
woodcut diagrams and pictorial capitals, ornamental titie- 
page, large map of Norwich and ... a strong and vigorous 
portrait of the author." * As a piece of printing, nothing bet- 
ter had hitherto appeared in England. It shows the influ- 
ence of foreign typography {Jig. 284). Day's device, which 
appears at the end of the volume, should be noticed. 

In 1570, John Day printed in folio the Elements of Ge- 

^ The copy in the British Museum has been skilfiiUy reproduced in fiu^imile 
by the Oxford University Press (1905). 

' Pollard's Fine Books, p. 260. 


IS S c £ i 


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war »(l 










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f I 


wall I 





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s. ;- 

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C9s «." frS = «• a = 2 
' S.* o<!!'2.§ o g-S g-S 


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theCofinographicaU Glaffeiinliihkh is plainly expreffedthe 

6TJtrT<«iNiaiair,<,mntt,Ptr,dUUt,t>id aim4tn.Alfi,fim- 
irywati ftr ti'txtllt/iiidyiig «m tftit MeriJuar lint: 

prtt^i^Ua^ng u tht wu^g ^a 

"ieVS THE 

dde,fi much this 
't frequented my 
7re hujilietraue'- 
fg.ForJome time 
Morpheus Jheifed me the Sonne Jin the tropic^ ofCa- 
pricome/arre in the South^among the cloudyefl^ies, as ^2',fe £^ 
peredin th'SquinoSiaUpointes^as it is the tenth daye ofh b^h£^iA 
March ^nd the. i^.ofSepteh.mUing me mthgreat at ". 
liges to note thatparaUete circle. Shortly after thejone 
appearedin the tropic^ o/Cancerjinvhiche place he is j„f^T^i^ 
we. u.daye of!une,cau^ng in our re^on the logeH day "f^"^- 
intheyere.^y^imediatly the time ^emedasifupere mid' 
iiight,(^ Charles fVayne;»ith Bootes, O* diuers other 
SierreSftumedahut the Tole.'But as he voldhaue cO' 
riedme about the beams ^to hauejhewidme theS\(prth 
F.iij. Cra»ne 

284. Page of Cunningham^ » Co$mographicaU Glaaae 
Day, London, 1559 (reduced) 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 127 

ometrieqfthe Most Auncient Philosopher Euclide ofMegarOy 
composed in roman and italic fonts. The title is set in small 
panels within a woodcut border, and is followed by the 
translator's address, set in Day's imposing italic. Then 
comes a mathematical ^^Praeface," set in two sizes of a 
fairly handsome and evenly cut roman type of early design, 
and the folding- table or "ground-plat" accompanying it 
may be studied as a specimen of the various fonts in Day's 
office. In the body of the book the "propositions" are ar- 
ranged in a large italic letter, and "demonstrations" in a 
smaller size of it. Both are good, free, lively, old style italic 
fonts. The old style roman letter used with them is like 
that of the Preface. Diagrams are placed within the area 
of the text pages, but arranged without much sense of style. 
Beginning with the seventh Book, the type employed is re- 
duced in size, and from this point the work is less interest- 
ing. Though some of Day's types are exceedingly fine, and 
the general eifect of the volume is imposing, the presswork 
is wretchedly uneven, the paper too thin, and when closely 
examined it is not a really successful piece of work. It lacks 
the taste and lucidity shown in French books of like nature. 
Another book of Day's, showing his use of black-letter, 
is the 1571 edition of Roger Ascham's Scholemaster. Here 
the title-page is set chiefly in italic type, the Dedicatory 
Epistle in italic, and the Preface in roman — both rather 
roughly executed fonts and by no means well printed. 
Though the text of the book is black-letter, all tabulated 
matter is set in italic, Elnglish poetry in roman, Latin verse 
in italic, roman is used fcH* proper names, and here and 
there a very good Greek font is introduced {Jig. 285). In 
short, black-letter is being invaded on every hand. The book 
shows care in execution, and is attractive in spite of its 
hodge-podge of types. 


Thomas Walsingham's Histona Breois (covering reigns 
from Edward I to Henry V) was printed at London by 
Henry Bynneman The woodcut border on the carefully 
arranged tide-page is extraordinarily well engraved and 
beautifully printed. The text is set throughout in roman and 
italic type. The Preface, which begins with a very elegant 
woodcut initial, is composed in Day's noble italic letter. 
The Chronicle is printed in a small but excellent roman 
character, very even in cut, and reminiscent of early G>nti- 
nental fonts. ELach ^Veign" begins with a large initial, cut 
on wood, and lines at the ends of sections are tapered, or 
arranged in an ornamental fashion recalling Italian print- 
ing — indeed, the composition is more like Continental than 
current English work. It is far ahead of most fjiglish books 
of its time in simplicity of arrangement and excellence of 
workmanship. Bynneman printed the Historia at Arch- 
bishop Parker's expense in 1574, and it was bound up and 
published with Walsingham's Ypodigma Neustrix and the 
Mlfredi Regis lies Gestse, both printed by Day in the same 

North's translation of Plutarch's Lives, printed by Vau- 
troUier in 1579, enjoys the reputation of being one of the 
finest books issued in EUizabeth's reign, and for that reason 
I advise its examination by the student, though it is by no 
means a beautiful book, judged by present standards. 

Our last sixteenth century example is Adam Islip's folio 
Chaucer, printed at London in 1598. Its prefatory matter 
is set in roman and italic, with some black-letter inter- 
mingled — and in the large sizes the first two types are re- 
spectable fonts. The text, however, is set in black-letter in 
double column — roman and italic being employed only for 
lines to be displayed. In other words, the printer had come 
to use roman and italic types just as we should now use 

Ji^ThefccondBoofee. ji 

rain MoitfiiaUame in 
r,trS,na ra»>;pirlit> 
ittranOatiiiE, ttmtoa 
V. Prfffriam. 
i. Sjmnjmtim. 
i-, Cemrmiim. 
S. Diuerfam. 
. f. Phrtps. 

SCtoifa6«(ti»o;»tliiiniWm:««oiiatl!fiiifo6iiii. . 
onw bnte of TuUie.mttitHlirtbotenfiyiauj ttofai '^"'"* 
eatteStunniiis^>^iDK«u,<<>Si;»i!«», o;t|nt meltent 
epiaieconteinintalmoStlietiiljatellrttboke ^S^fr,, 
ritllclpireiniiaMtilMbettcVailhr, tohafnt WSJrtiw pi„„ 
ler to a iiiogniieiit,la mtting tut (crfntl; oner olH i l)n> 
r;operliioigcf : CiH CommHarin are ta ba reat bitbaU /./ cu 
mriidX^lDbcrin trpecbui tofttont al crce^ii n be maw, 
tuberbcrrcitODtflie, bfeme, tbcDnqiona |i2q);ietictf 
tbeJlatin tons, eaenOibcii It Uias,utbe0re(iaiu belli 
''wi, tbat i«, at § Wsbtll (itctafall perfMnef , o;roiiu &t 
ratUiit»efT,Uuiui,fn(|ia»b*b«6lonBtftainiphiiiell. '^ <■'"•■••■ 

SCtereboAei,) tiioiiU tme bfm rcan noUi, asoo Dcale 
but onel; conltnie aijaliv, ano parfe > Isbere st rnrpnt, i> 
tttrrire, In martin; oiligentle, anb bjiting o;berlc out 
itrcainD o: tbirb oa; , to ttmrt out,riime Ctpiltle«/e^in'- 
mmjomenofflbtetommon place out of bis l^jationff, o; 
fomeotber part ofTuUie, be tour oifcretion, lubiA tour 
H.i;. tcboUr 

285. Page of AschaitCa Scholemaster, ahtiwinff Roman, Italic 
and Blaci-letteri Day, London, 1571 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 129 

black-letter — as an "occasional" type for display or orna- 
ment The unity of effect seen in the editions of Chaucer 
of 1532 and 1542 has disappeared; and black-letter type 
(which survived for poetry and romances into the next cen- 
tury, for Bibles and prayer books until the end of the seven- 
teenth century,^ and which was still used for legal books 
in the eighteenth century) is giving way to roman letter^. 
This edition is interesting only for that reason. 

The end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the sev- 
enteenth century was signalized by the appearance of 
Shakespeare's Plays, both separately in quarto, and collec- 
tively in folio. The first quarto was Venus and Adonis^ 
printed in 1593. The first folio appeared in 1623. The 
quartos, now the most valuable, but then sold for about six- 
pence, were printed from rough roman types, with rather 
heavy title-pages, in which capitals and lower-case letters 
were used for titles quite indiscriminately. The folios were 
printed in double column, with the text in roman and the 
names of the characters in italic ; and although the prefa- 
tory matter was set in handsome type, the body of the work 
had from a printer's standpoint no particular typographi- 
cal interest The quartos had no more beauty than one 
would expect in a cheap edition of a popular play. They 
are mentioned here solely because of their place in litera- 

* The first Prayer Book of Edward VI, printed by Whitchurch, appeared in 
1549; and the .fiooA: of Common Praier, musically "noted" by Merbecke, 
was printed by Grafton, in 1550. These were black-letter books. Prayer 
books and liturgies were printed in black-letter until the beg;inning of the 
eighteenth century. The first English Bible (printed abroad, probably at 
Zurich), in 1535, was executed in black-letter. Cranmer's English Bible of 
1539 (Whitchurch) was a black-letter book. The first edition of the King 
James "Authorized Version" of 1611 was set in English black-^letter, with 
contents of chapters set in roman. Bibles and prayer books are so much in a 
dass by themsdves, that I have not usually employed them as examples of 


ture ; and they have a literature of their own. The first edi- 
tion of Shakespeare in which much typographical excel- 
lence was attempted, was printed at the University Press, 
Oxford, in the eighteenth century.^ 


Seventeenth century English books, save legal works, some 
Bibles and prayer books, and survivals of "vernacular" 
black-letter in romances and poetry, were almost entirely 
printed from roman and italic fonts ; yet they have an ar- 
chaic appearance, due in part to crude types, but even more 
to antique spelling. Title-pages were sometimes decorated 
with engravings on metal, sometimes with impressions from 
wood-blocks, and more often merely surrounded with double 
rules or panels of type ornament 

Our first seventeenth century example is Philemon Hol- 
land's translation of Pliny's Natural History, printed in two 
folio volumes, by Adam Islip, in 1601. It is set throughout 
in roman and italic types of even (and early) cut The first 
two or three lines of its tide-page are, I think, printed from 
wood-blocks. The subject of each chapter is displayed in 
handsome italic, and the chapter itself usually begins with 
a three-line initial, except when a chapter contains but two 
lines ! Head-lines to pages are set in large old style lower- 
case roman letters; proems — or Arguments — in italic; 
marginal notes in tiny roman and italic types. Woodcut 

^ An interesting comparison may be made between the Shakespeare Folios of 
1623 and 1632 (issued in facsimile by Methuen 8c Co., London, in 1910 and 
1909) , Hanmer's edition published in 1 744, Bulmer's quarto edition of 1 79 1 , 
the Vale Press Shakespeare of 1900, the Doves Press Hamlet of 1909, and 
the Stratfbrd-Town edition of 1904, printed by Mr. A. H. BuUen at the 
Shakespeare Head Press — the latter the first complete edition printed in the 
poet's native place. For the orthography of Shakespeare, especially in relation 
to printing, see Shake^fieare^a England^ Vol. II, Chapter xxx, Shakespeare's 
English, by Henry Bradley (Section Orthography), pp. 546 et9cq. 

X34- ^^^ thirteenth boof^ of 


This faid^the people with a ioyfull (houte 
Applaud his f peeches and his words approue^ 
And calni'd their gricfc in hope the boafter ftoutc 
Would kill the Prince,^ who late had flaine his loue. 
O promife vaine ! it otherwife fell out : 
Men purpofe^but high Gods diipofe aboue^ 

For vndemeath his (\vord this boafter dide^ 
Whom thus he icorn'd and threatened in Us pride« 

The thirteenth'Boo^ of Godfrey 


Tiie argument. 

l^xxiQKiofetsto garde the forrcH add 
The mekedJ^it€sy»hofe onglyjhdpes^ay 
K^ylndfuttopght the men,whoJe Uhour would 
Totheirdarkejhadesletm beiuinsgoldenrays 
Thither goes izncxcd hardiefatthfidl^hou/d, 

Hisjlrength ond courage : heat the ChriBmfotfre 
jinnoies;^homtorefrefh Gods fends ajhowre. 


BVt fcant diflblued into a(hes cold 
Tne fmoking towre fell on the fcorched grafle^ 
When new deuife found out th'enchanter old. 
By which the townebefiegfd^fecured was^ 
Of timber fit his foes depriue he wold : 
Such terrour bred that late confumcd mafle. 

So that the ftrength of Sions walles to (hake^ 
They (hotild no turrets^ammes^or engins make. 

286. Type and Ornaments in Tass6*s Godfrey of Bulloigne 

Hatfield^ London^ 1600 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 131 

head-bands and lines of type "flowers" are employed for 
ornament It is a handsome book of its time, though pon- 
derous; and readable to-day — if to-day one wants to read 
Pliny — or folios! 

For a contemporaneous book of poetry (1600), look at 
Fairfax's translation of Tasso's Godfrey of Bulloigne or the 
Recaverie of Jerusalem^ printed in folio by Arnold Hatfield 
for J. Jaggard and M. Lownes. A simple and well-managed 
title-page in a generous panel of type-ornament opens the 
book. Some good italic is employed in the preliminary Ad- 
dress. The poem itself is set in an agreeable old style roman 
font, very even in design, with Arguments in a lively italic. 
Elach Book begins with a head-band of type-ornament It is 
a very readable edition, and good to look at for its clarity 
of efiect and its more modem air {Jig> 286). 

Recreations with the Muses^ by William Alexander, Earl 
of Stirling, brought out at London in 1637 by Thomas 
Harper, a printer of reputation, is a small folio composed 
chiefly in a rough roman character. The head-lines are set 
in a coarse italic, between light rules, which also carry the 
folio. A handsome border to the tide-page, some ungainly 
initials, and head-bands usually made up of "flowers" are 
its principal decoration. The type is rough, the presswork 
is rough, the paper harsh, and the whole book gives the 
effect of belonging to an ancient period. But no black-letter 
is used in it 

The first edition of Thomas Fuller's Holy and Profane 
Statej in folio, was very well printed at Cambridge by R(^er 
Daniel in 1642. An engraved title is fdlowed by a title-page, 
set in type, very well composed, surrounded by a border of 
"flowers" within rules. An Address to the Reader follows in 
a large roman type of considerable distinction and delicacy 
of cut The Index to Chapters employs a brilliant italic — 


very creditable for an fjiglish book of the time. The arabic 
figures used are remarkably good in desig^. The book 
proper begins with a woodcut head-piece, with the tide be- 
neath it in a thin lower-case letter of rather French appear- 
ance. The body of the work is arranged in a handsome 
roman letter, with sentences which begin each new para- 
graph like a text, in italic. Each page is surrounded by rules, 
the side-notes being in marginal panels. The type and press- 
work are vasdy clearer than in most English books then 

Walton's great London Polyglot in six folio volumes, pub- 
lished between 1653 and 1657, does not come within the 
scope of our discussion. It is not the most beautiful of the 
Polyglots nor a normal example of book-making, for its 
remarkable feature is its employment of "learned" types; 
though some of Day's fonts are utilized for the prefatory 
matter in the copies with the "Royal" dedication. Yet it is 
none the less to be examined as the greatest typographical 
achievement of the century, printed from types entirely cut 
by English hands. Its printer was Thomas Roycroft, whose 
fine editions of the classics, — Virgil, Homer, j£sop, etc., — 
translated by John Ogilby, may be consulted for examples 
of his work. He was appointed Printer in Oriental Lan- 
guages by Charles II. Roycroft died in 1677, and is buried 
at St Bartholomew's the Great, Smithfield. The name of 
this great scholar-printer has in our day become familiar 
in connection with a commercial venture of dubious typo- 
graphical value. 

A famous seventeenth century volume — Izaak Walton's 
Lives — was printed by Newcomb in 1670. In this, head- 
lines are set in a lettre deforme^ the text in a rough old 
style roman type — perhaps Dutch. Where correspondence 
is introduced, it is printed in italic. Each Life has its own 


The Life. 

GS| Ecrge Hirtertvr^ horn theThhd 
' day of jSfril^ in the Year ot our 
m^ Redemption 1595. The place of 
I his Birtn was near to the Town 
of Montgomery yZnd in that Cdfile 
that did then bear the name of that Town amd 
County) that Ca/Hevrss then a place of ftate 
and ftrengthy and had been fucceflively happy 
in the Family of the Herberts, who had long 
pofTeft it ! and, with ity a plentiful Eftate, and 
hearts as liberal to their poor Neighbours^ A 
Family, that hath been bleft with men of re- 
markable wifdom , and with a willingnefs to 
ferve their Countrey, and indeed, to do good to 
all Mankind i for which, they were eminent : 
But alas ! this Family did in tne late Rebellion 
fuffer extremely in their Eftates $ and the Heirs 
of that Cafile^ faw it laid level with that earth 
that was too good to bury thofe Wretches that 
were the caufe of it. 

The Father of .our GeotgOy was RichdrdHer^ 
bert the Son of Edward Herbert Knight , the 
Son of Richard Herbert Knight, the Son of the 
hmoiaSii Richard Herbert oi Colebrook in the 


287. Pag-e of Walton* s Lives: Newcomby Londortj 1670 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 133 

title-page, in which the use of very large spaced capitals 
for unimportant words is a characteristic touch. In spite of 
its antiquated appearance, it is a readable volume with a 
certain agreeable flavour {Jig. 287). 

Other seventeenth century books of interest are Chis- 
well's 1686 edition of Sir Thomas Browne's Works and the 
folio edition of Shelton's translation of Don QuixatCy printed 
in 1675. 

Tonson's folio edition of Dry den's translation of the works 
of Virgil was printed in 1697, and we may close the cen- 
tury with this noble book. The title-page in red and black 
is set chiefly in enormous capital letters, used without much 
sense of value — "Works," for instance, being much larger 
than "Virgil." This tide-page is surrounded with double 
rules, and the field of this page is again set ofi* into com- 
partments by single rules — a favourite arrangement in the 
seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. An odd feature 
is a list of subscribers to the iUustrations — engravings on 
copper described on the title-page as "Sculptures," which 
cost the donor five guineas each. The actual book begins 
with the Eclogues. The poetry is set in roman type heavily 
leaded, and names of speakers in spaced italic capitals. 
Arguments are set in the inevitable italic, with proper names 
in roman. The harrow measure of the type-pages and the 
enormous margins give an air of great luxury. We begin 
to see a modem book here. 


The folio edition of Clarendon's History of the Rebellion^ 
printed in 1702-4, at the Theatre,^ Oxford, in three volumes, 
is one of the fine eighteenth century books from the Oxford 
Press. The prefaces to each volume employ a large "Fell" 

^ The Shddonian Theatre, in which the Oxford Press was then housed. 


italic, very splendid in e£fect; the History itself being com- 
posed in a large roman letter solidly set, perhaps of Dutch 
cut, or one of the Fell types. Each division of the History has 
a displayed half-tide ; and every new Book is ornamented 
with an engraved head-piece and initial, and ends with a 
tail-piece — imposing pieces of decoration. Though the 
presswork is uneven, the edidon is both sumptuous and 
simple — a combination difficult to effect 

"I know it will be said, what has a woman to do with learn- 
ing,^ wrote Elizabeth Elstob, mistress of eight languages, 
in the preface to her translation of An English-Saxon Hom- 
ily on the Birth-day of Saint Gregory. This particular lady 
had a good deal to do with it, and she is interesting typo- 
graphically because her book, printed by the elder William 
Bowyer in 1709, employed some Anglo-Saxon types — in 
their day remarkable. The Homily is a good example of a 
well-made edition, issued by a careful publisher for a dis- 
tinguished company of subscribers. A crowded and rather 
seventeenth century tide-page is followed by an Address to 
the Queen composed in a large old style roman letter. The 
principle in this and other dedications, typographicaUy, 
was that the larger the type, the greater the patron ; and the 
smaller the name of the writer, the more grovelling was his 
abasement The Homily — the two initial letters to which 
show Saint Gregory and the learned Elizabeth — is set in 
double column, the original text on the left hand in Saxon 
types, and on the right hand the English translation in 
roman types. Notes run the full measure of the page, set in 
small roman letter with proper names in italic; for in almost 
all books of this period, proper names were picked out in 
italic if the text was roman, in roman if the text was italic. 
A Latin version, an appendix, notes, etc., close a good-look- 
ing volume. Its feature — from a printer's standpoint — 

12 An Hom 

jepeaxobe:- Dpe^ojiiur 
J)a beheolb J>aepa cnapena 
pliCe -] beppan op hpil; 
cepe^eo&e hi gebpohre 
pa?pon. J)arae&ehim man 
'f hi op Gngla lan{>e pae- 
pon 1 ^ J)apa J>eo&e men- 
nipc fpa plirij paepe:- 
Gpt )>a Dpcjopiur be- 
ppan hpae^cp J)2Bi- lanbep 
pole Epipren pa?pe j>e ha- 
'Sene ^ him man psebe ^ 
hi hea'Scne pa?pon. Dpe- 
jopiup J>a op mepeap- 
5pe heopcan lan^rume 
piccetunge ceah ^ cpac^ 
•fa la pa. "f ppa pae- 
5pep hipep men ^ py n&on 
J>am ppeapran 6eoplc 
un&ep ^eob&e > 6pc 
)>a Dpe^opiup beppan 
hu ]>aepe J>eo&e nama 
pape J>e hi opcumon, 
him psep jeanbpypb 
l>a?c hi Kngle ^enemn- 
Ce pepon :• Da cpse^ 
he pihclice hi pyn&on 

Heads of Hair. And Gre^ 
gory, when he few the 
Beauty of the Young Men, 
enquired from what Gaun- 
try they were brought, and 
the Men faid from England-^ 
and that all the Men in 
that Nation were as beau- 
tiful. Then Gregory asked 
them whether the Men of 
that Land were Chriftians, 
or Heathens ^ and the Men 
feid unto him they were 
Heathens. Gregory then 
fetching a long Sigh from 
the very bottom of his 
Heart , faid , Alas ! alas ! 
that Men of fb fair a Com- 
plexion fhould be fiibjed to 
the Prince of Darknefs. Af- 
ter that Gregory enquired 
how they call'd the Nation 
from whence they came. 
To which he was anfwer'd, 
that they were called jingle 
[that is, Enghfif] Then 
faid he, rightly they arc 

' CQcU a toat is in common ufe co rhis day in (he North, to 
cxprefs their Grief, or Surprize, 

^ Speapran People. Word for word tbt Black, Devil \ the 
^axM Phrafe for the Prince of Darknefs. 

288. Pag-e of Homily: Boxvyer^ London^ 1709 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 135 

is that the columns of Saxon and roman vary in width, 
so that each version ends a page approximately at the same 
word {Jig. 288). This required, for every page, exact cal- 
culatioi^ in order to know what measure for each version 
would accomplish it It is done so well, that it often appears 
not to have been done at all ! ^ 

One of the fine folios of the early eighteenth century, pub- 
lished at London by Jacob Tonson in 1712, is a Latin edi- 
tion of the works of Caesar -^C Julii CaBsaris qusB extant — 
annotated by Samuel Clarke. The tide-page with its spaced 
capitals, especially the lines of spaced italic capitals,' and 
the absence of rubrication and surrounding rules, somewhat 
prefigures Baskerville^s title-pages. After the preliminary 
matter, the Commentaries begin, set in fine great primer old 
style types very generously leaded, notes being set mostly 
in small italic in the ample margins {Jig. 289). It is illus- 
trated with full-page copper-plates, and the magnificent 
head-pieces, tail-pieces, and initial letters are also engraved. 
Among other luxuriously printed editions with the Ton- 
son imprint were Ovid's Metamorphoses^ 1717, the splendid 
Prior's Poems in folio of 1 7 1 8, Addison's Works^ 1 72 1, a fine 
quarto Don Quiocoie in Spanish, 1738, and a folio Pope. 

Full-bodied editions such as the Theological fForks ojthe 
Rev. Mr. Charles Leslie^ published by subscription in two 

' A few years after this book was printed, its Anglo-Saxon types were de- 
stroyed by fire. New Anglo-Saxon fonts, much more picturesque tlian those 
of the Homily f were cuf for Miss Elstob's Anglo-Saxon Grammar ^ which 
appeared in 1715. These were subsequently given by Bowyer the younger 
to the University Press, Oxford, where they still are. The 1743 edition of 
Junius' 8 Etymologicum jinglicanum^ printed at the Theatre, Oxford — a fine 
edition — may be looked at for its use of the Junius Anglo-Saxon and other 
northern types. 

' The theory in using these spaced capitals was that capitals spaced dignified 
the important word of a title, and that such a word should fill the measure 
of the page. Hence the printer spaced such lines until the letters appeared 
(as De Vinne says) "dislocated by explosion." 


volumes folio, by William Bowyer the elder in 1721, show 
a more modern point of view in book-making — old-fash- 
ioned, but not archaic. It is printed from old style types, 
no doubt Dutch, and the displayed half-tides and headings 
are interesting pieces of eighteenth century composition. Its 
head and tail-pieces are splendid examples of printer's orna- 
ments of that epoch; and the head-bands of type "flowers** 
are handsome and cleverly managed. Leslie was a non- 
juror, and for some years Anglican chaplain to the Pre- 
tender at Rome, and his works were naturally printed by 
Bowyer, who was a non-juror himself. Pope's translation 
of Homer's //rW (London, 1715), printed by Bowyer — for 
Lintot — in three imposing folio volumes, is a good exam- 
ple of another luxurious contemporary edition. The Works 
of Alexander Pope^ also printed by Bowyer (London, 1717), 
is another instructive piece of type-setting. It is composed 
throughout in old style roman and italic, of a Dutch cut Its 
enormously spaced half-tides, the running-tides in spaced 
italic capitals, and its open composition are all characteris- 
tic of early eighteenth century work. 

But Bowyer's greatest achievement was the three volume 
folio edition of Selden's Opera^ collected by Dr. David Wil- 
kins, which was begun in 1722 and brought out in 1726. 
This was undertaken for a number of London publishers 
and issued by subscription. Bowyer printed the first vol- 
ume in two parts, the succeeding volumes (each in two 
parts also) being printed by S. Palmer and T. Wood. Wil- 
liam Caslon's English types were first used for the body of 
this book. To the student who has been looking at earlier 
English books printed with Dutch fonts, the pages of the 
Selden are a relief to the eye — they are so easy to read, so 
clear and beautiful. In Volume I the dedication displays a 
large size of roman type ; the Address to the Reader is com- 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 137 

posed in flowing italic; the Life of Selden in great primer 
roman. The various "works," save for their prefaces, are 
arranged in double column, each column having a folio of 
its own. Here Caslon's Elnglish roman is used, and he also 
cut the Hebrew types for this edition. Arabic, Greek, and 
black-letter also occur in the text {Jig. 290). Here and there 
rubrication is skilfully introduced, and there is much clever 
type-setting throughout the entire work. The third volume 
contains Selden's English tracts, and here it is interesting 
to compare the type set in English with its appearance 
in the Latin volumes. Numerous half-titles, etc., make the 
whole work a wonderful "style-book" for displayed mat- 
ter set in old style types — though I do not think that the 
larger types are Caslon's. Finally, some of the beautiful tail- 
pieces used in the Leslie are introduced, with others still 
more elaborate. It is a stupendous piece of work, and shows 
Bowyer's sure taste in planning the style of the volumes, 
and in utilizing Caslon's skill for their type. Bowyer's better- 
known son, William, "the learned printer'' (whose mother 
was the daughter of a printer employed on Walton's Poly- 
glot Bible), assisted him in correcting and arranging the 
work. The second and third volumes were probably placed 
with Palmer and Wood so that all the volumes might ap- 
pear in 1726. 

In discussing eighteenth century Elnglish types, it must 
be borne in mind that law-books were still usually set in the 
traditional English black-letter — a survival of thekttrede 
forme of the Norman law-book. Tides, prefaces, running- 
titles, and marginal notes in such works were, however, 
commonly set in roman. 

In 1733-37, a book appeared in London which, though 
not printed from type, had some influence on typography 
— namely, John Pine's memorable Latin edition of Horace. 


Pine, who was an eng^ver, could not satisfy himself with 
current letter-press printing. So the text was first set up in 
type and an impression transferred to copper and then en- 
graved, space being left for the decorations. Thus the whole 
book — a very exquisite performance — was printed from 
copper plates. The brilliancy of this engraved roman text 
struck a new note, and thus Pine's Horace may have had 
a good deal to do with the taste for more ^^ finished^ types 
which waxed as the century waned. In that connection it 
is mentioned here {Jig. 29 1). 

Some volumes of poems brought out by eminent pub- 
lishers, and in their day considered handsome books, are 
good examples of later work. For instance, Poems on Several 
Occasions^ by Mrs. Mary Barber — who, it is pleasant to 
know, "was one of the most extraordinary Women that 
either this Age, or perhaps any other, ever produced,'' and 
who succumbed to her reputation by dying at the ag^ of 
twenty-seven ! This luxuriously got up quarto has an in- 
troduction by Dean Swift, — who, it is said, lost Queen 
Anne's favour through the peremptory tone of a letter de- 
manding her patronage for the book, — and was subscribed 
for by no less than thirty-three dukes and duchesses, and 
a multitude of less tided persons. The poems are set in an 
ample old style roman font, widely leaded, and the proper 
names, or most important words, are usually displayed in 
capitals and small capitals, instead of iuUic — though impor- 
tant words in Utles to the poems, which are set in large 
Dutch italic, are "picked out" in roman. The book, over- 
loaded with rather ill-printed head and tail-pieces, is an 
ambitious performance and a characteristic eighteenth cen- 
tury "Table-book." It was printed for the London pub- 
lisher, Rivington, in 1734. 

John Armstrong's The Art of Preserving Health, printed 

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** y r Sw ^ w J? J* .S ^ e 

Cahminvm Liber T. 


Ad Iccivm. 

C CI, beatis nunc Arabum invides 
Gazis ; et acrem nilitiam paras 
NcHi ante devi^ Sabaeae 
Refill ; horribiliqueMedo 
Nedis catenas, quae tibi vitgimun, 5 

Sponfo necato, barbata leiviet ? 
Puer quisexsnlacqnUis 

Ad cyathum flaluetur vn&is, 
Dodiis fajrittas tendere Sericas 
ArcupatenK): quisneget arduis 10 

Fmnos rdabi pofle rivos 

Mbntibus. et Tiberim revertii 
Cum )u coemtos undique nobiles 
Libroi Panaeti, Socraticam et domum 

Mutare Itnicis Ibens. ig 

PoHidtus mdiora, tendis? 

291. Engraved Text of Fine' t Horace, London, 1735-37 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 139 

for A. Millar in 1744, was a book meant to be smart and 
luxurious. In spite of a very eighteenth century title-page, 
with capitals so spaced as to make one feel cross-eyed, 
its ornamentation is restricted almost entirely to a few tail- 
pieces. The volume shows a certain progression, too, be- 
cause proper names are set in the same letter as the text. 
The large type used (Caslon, apparently) is much leaded, 
and the margins are generous. The general effect, though 
still very old-fashioned, is handsome — a sort of Baskerville 
book set in Caslon, with "current'' presswork. The orna- 
ments used make me think it was printed by Bowyer. 
Franklin reprinted this volume in Philadelphia in the year 
of its publication. 

Sir Thomas Hanmer's edition of Shakespeare was the 
first in which much pains were taken to make a handsome 
piece of printing. Hanmer, Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons, a friend of Bishop Berkeley, and a man of consid- 
erable literary achievement, brought out the Works in a six 
volume edition in 1744, though his name did not appear 
in it It was printed "at the Theatre at Oxford," and was 
"adorned with sculptures designed and executed by the 
best hands." This first edition was bought up on publica- 
tion, and the price of copies greatiy advanced. It produced, 
therefore, an effect in its day. Italic and roman "Fell" types 
are used for the two prefaces, but that used for the plays 
is a lighter old style font, composed in a somewhat modem 
manner {Jig. 292 ). What strikes us about the edition now 
is a certain similarity in composition to some of Basker- 
ville's work; though it was printed thirteen years before 
Baskerville's first book (the Virgil) was published. This is 
to be seen in the arrangement of the title-page, half-tities, 
etc., with their spaced capitals, the manner of using orna- 
mental bands of "flowers," etc. {fig^ 293). 


In 1753, a famous illustrated book appeared — Designs by 
Mr. R. Bentley for Six Poems by Mr. T. Gray^ printed for 
R. Dodsley, London. It was superintended with great care, 
and Bentley's charming decorations are much discussed in 
Horace Walpole's letters. To pad out the book, the text is 
printed only on one side of a leaf: a trick considered mod- 
em, but really old. The typography is commonplace — a 
large Caslon character, much leaded, and not well printed. 
A book was still appraised, as it had been a hundred years 
earlier, by the number of its copper-plate illustrations. 

Walpole's press at Strawberry Hill employed old style 
types for its work — probably Caslon's — and among its 
rather indifferent printing, the Strawberry Hill Lucan is 
worthy of moderate praise. 

Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language is 
mostly remembered nowadays, by the general reader, as 
the book Becky Sharp flung back at Miss Jemima Pinker- 
ton -r- not, fortunately, in its original two volume folio form 
— or because of Johnson's famous letter to Lord Chester- 
field. It was printed by WiDiam Strahan in 1755, in a mo- 
notonous old style type, in size rather small for the folio 
double-column pages. The tide-page, in its leaded lines of 
small spaced capitals, shows a modem tendency toward 
light effects. In the preface, blank lines bet\i'een paragraphs 
also exhibit a new detail of composition, much in favour as 
the century went on. In the Dictionary proper, words are 
set in capitals, and derivations from these words in capitals 
and small capitals — e.g.^ DIVULGEl, Divulcer. These 
pages of mild colour and easy air seem old-fashioned to us 
now, but not antique. 

I have already said that editions of the same book printed 
at different dates, but in the same country, are a lesson in 
the history of national printing-styles ; while books like the 





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293. Bastard Title-page of Hanmer^s Shakespeare {reduced) 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 141 

Latin classics, common to all countries, show how different 
nationalities treated the same problem. The same class of 
book can also be compared in this way: books on astron- 
omy, geometry, botany, architecture — and dictionaries. For 
instance, the earliest English vocabularies or dictionaries 
were printed in black-letter, both word and definition. Many 
seventeenth, and even some eighteenth century English dic- 
tionaries printed the words defined in black-letter, with defi- 
nitions in italic. In Florio's Nexv World of Words ol 1611, 
italic was used for the definitions, but the words were set 
in roman. In the mid-eighteenth century, as in Johnson's 
Dictionary^ words were set in capitals or in capitals and 
small capitals, with definitions in roman lower-case. Later 
on, the words defined were almost always set in capitals, 
and this is continued, in such dictionaries as Webster's 
or Worcester's, to our own day. In the Century Dictionary^ 
and in that wonderful piece of work, the New English 
Dictionary^ printed at the University Press, Oxford, a bold- 
face upper and lower-case roman letter has been employed 
to pick out the "word" from the text This is, in a way, a 
return to the black-letter of the earliest period. Diction- 
aries being popular books, and for that reason employing 
types familiar and easy for the eye to seize quickly, thus 
show, if examined chronologically, (l) what types were the 
most familiar at a particular epoch, and (2) the date when 
they became obsolete. 

I have -not mentioned Baskerville's work here, because 
the types he designed fall into a class by themselves, and 
because two or three of his editions have been already 
described. But the Baskerville manner was in full swing 
at the time that Caslon's old style types had their vogue. 
"Fashionable" English printing had become very open and 
light in effect by the last of the century — partiy, I dare say. 


through Baskerville's influence. Sir Joshua Reynolds' Dis- 
course at the Opening of the Royal Academy in January, 
1769, though printed from old style type, by its arrange- 
ment has an effect entirely different from the printing of 
fifty years earlier. A collection of these addresses delivered by 
Reynolds between 1769 and 1783, some of them the work 
of Cadell, printer to the Academy, is (like similar Spanish 
occasional addresses that have been mentioned) illuminat- 
ing because they were printed for a distinguished body of 
men, and represent the best taste of the day {Jig. 294). The 
excessively spaced letters of the tide-page, the large folios 
in spaced brackets, the open leading, the blank spaces be- 
tween paragpraphs, and the wide margins, show a style of 
work which — handsome in quartos like these — became 
very thin and faded in smaller books which copied them. 

Then again, a new influence in typography was that of 
the Foulis brothers (of whom I have spoken), printers to the 
University of Glasgow since 1743, who were employing 
Wilson's lighter transitional types, and producing books 
which showed a new feeling in English printing. Their 
smaller yonTjflfe, in which the classics were issued, are more 
characteristic of their work, or the faults of their work, than 
the folios. 

A "Foulis edition" of the best sort is Andrew Foulis's 
Poetical Works of Alexander Pope (1785), in three folio vol- 
umes. The eflfect of the pages of the poems is very noble 
and most readable, owing to the large size of fine type in 
which the text is set The smaller types used for the con- 
tents, advertisements, quoted poetry, etc., become, as they 
descend in size, gray and monotonous, without the colour of 
Caslon's or the clearness of Baskerville's small types. But 
the effect, as a whole, is exceedingly disdnguished {Jig. 295). 
Among the most celebrated Foulis editions in hixge format 



\HE honor which the Arts 
acquire by being permitted 
to take pofleflion of this 
noble habitation, is one of the mofl conAderable of the 
many inllances we have received of his Majesty's 
protedion j and the flrongeft proof of his deiire to make 
the Academy refpedable. 

Nothing has been left undone that might contribute 

to excite our purfuit, or to reward our attainments. We 

B have 

294, Page of Sir Joshua Reynolds' Royal Acatkmy Discourse 
Cadell, London, 1781 {reduced) 






























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ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 143 

are a Callimachus of 1755, the Horace of 1756, the monu- 
mental Greek Iliad and Odyssey^ in four volumes, printed 
between 1756 and 1758, and a Paradise Lost issned, in 1770. 
For Gray's Poems (1768) in quarto, Wilson cut a special 
font of double pica roman. Of the Foulis classics in small 
format, the 16mo edition of Aeschylus (1746) or Aristoph- 
anes (1755) in Greek and Latin, and the Juvenal of 1750 
in 16mo, may be cited. The 12mo Latin Horace of 1760 
(a fourth edition) is better. It is a very well-bred litde book 
— but, like many other well-bred things, rather colourless. 
Types such as it is set in had to be cleverly handled to look 
well — and this is a good example of Foulis's clever han- 
dling. The Ijetters of Charlotte^ printed for Cadell in 1786 
i^fig. 296), or the 1 6mo edition of Thomson's Seasons^ printed 
by Strahan in 1788 for Rivington and others, was the sort 
of book Foulis made popular — pretty, but^faded.** Such 
feeble types led to the adoption of the heavy fonts of Thorne 
early in the next century. Something had to be done, and 
" fat blacks" were administered to fainting ladies like Char- 
lotte, as a sort of rough-and-ready first aid to the injured. 
The books illustrated by Bewick caused the introduction 
of more modelled and brilliant type-forms. Bewick's cuts 
from the first demanded such types. The demand was not 
met by those used in his Quadrupeds of 1790 or his British 
Birds of 1797. These books, printed at Newcastle, are set 
in a very poor form of letter — either Wilson's or an old 
style type much whitded down from its first estate. It was 
Bulmer who realized the kind of typography that Bewick's 
cuts called for; and when he produced his new types, it 
must have been a revelation to the public of that day; in 
fact, it was ! But before describing the Bewick books printed 
at the Shakspeare Press by Bulmer, there are two of its 
earlier books which must be mentioned. 


The "BoydeU Shakspeare,*' which the Shakspeare Press 
was established to print, is its most famous performance. 
Its Advertisement, written by Nicol, tells us that " while 
foreign nations were publishing splendid editions of their 
favourite authors, we in this country contented ourselves 
with such editions of ours as were merely useful." This 
work was meant to be a magnificent national edition, in 
which splendour of production was to go hand in hand with 
correctness of text." With regard to the Typographical part 
of the work,'' Nicol says, "the state of printing in England, 
when it was first undertaken [1786], was such that it was 
found necessary to establish a printing-house on purpose 
to print the work ; a foundry to cast the types ; and even a 
manufactory to make the ink.^ How much the art of print- 
ing has improved since that period the Public can best 
judge.'' This folio edition in nine volumes, with its accom- 
panying plates, was "printed by W. Bulmer and Company 
for John and Josiah Boydell, George and W. Nicol, from 
the types of W. Martin," and was finally published in 1802, 
though the first volume appeared in 1792' {Jig. 297). The 
folio edition of Milton's Poetical Works^ illustrated by West- 

^ The pure black ink was prepared from material supplied to Bulmer by 
BaskeniUe's old foreman, Robert Martin, and was probably made from a 
recipe similar to that employed by BaskerviUe. 

' Dibdin tells us how Nicol contrived ''to silence some connoisseurs of Print- 
ing, who, upon sedng the productions of the Shakspeare Press, were con- 
stantly saying * This is very well, but what is this to the Printing of Bodoni ? ' 
... A specimen sheet of a pretended edition of Cicero was set up with the 
Shakspeare types, of the size of Bodoni's publications. When this specimen 
was shewn to the same connoisseurs, they exclaimed, * To what d^ree of 
perfection does this man mean to carry the art of Printing ! Why this sur- 
passes all his former excellence ! ' And they were all ver)' anxious for Mr. N. 
to procure them copies of the work. To this Mr. N. replied, 'that Mr, Bo- 
doni had an agent in town ; and if they would turn to the bottom of the last 
page of the specimen they would find his address * — which they found as 
follows — * W. Bulmer and Co, Shaka/ieare Press* I** * 



O F 



W E R T E R. 

Grazia foia diju ne i/ag/ia, iftanti 
Che piu '/ de^o d* amort ai cor s*invecehi. 

VOL. I. 

t O U D M: 


296. Title-page of Letters of Charlotte^ London^ 1786 












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ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 145 

all, also printed by Bulmer for the Boydells in 1794-97, is 
another wonderful production — in simplicity of arrange- 
ment, in typography, and in presswork. For pure typogra- 
phy is almost wholly relied on for effect, in both these books, 
and the reliance is justified. Martin's roman types are very 
handsome, very clear — and very modern. His italic is a 
little too calligraphic ; the italic capitals in particular show 
Baskerville's influence and distract the eye. But the edi- 
tions evidently turned out what they were meant to be ; and 
only a printer knows all that this implies! No description, 
however, gives any idea of the change of taste in English 
prindng which these books exemplified. 

The magnificent letter-press of Chamberlaine's Imita- 
tions of Original Drawings by Hans Holbein^ being Portraits 
of Illustrious Persons in the Court of Henry VI 11^ printed 
by Bulmer in 1792, may be consulted by those tempted to 
belittle the work of this school. A more intimate and agree- 
able book is the charming edition of Poems by Goldsmith and 
Pamell^ printed by Bulmer in 1795. This was the first really 
finely printed book illustrated by the Bewicks. In the inter- 
esting Advertisement Bulmer says: "To raise the Art of 
Printing in this country from the neglected state in which it 
had long been suffered to continue, and to remove the oppro- 
brium which had but too justiy been attached to the late 
productions of the English press, much has been done 
within the last few years ; and the warm emulation which 
has discovered itself amongst the Printers of the present 
day, as well in the remote parts of the kingdom as in the 
metropolis, has been highly patronized by the public in gen- 
eral. The present volume, in addition to the Shakspeare, 
the Milton, and many other valuable works of elegance, 
which have already been given to the world, through the 
medium of the Shakspeare Press, are particularly meant to 


combine the various beauties of Printing, Type-founding, 
Engraving, and Paper-maiong ; as well with a view to ascer- 
tain the near approach to perfection which those arts have 
attained in this country, as to invite a fair competition with 
the best Typographical Productions of other nations. How 
far the different Artists, who have contributed their exer- 
tions to this g^eat object, have succeeded in the attempt, 
the Public will now be fully able to judge. Much pains have 
been bestowed on the present publication, to render it a 
complete Specimen of the Arts of Type and Block-print- 
ing. The whole of the Types, with which this work has 
been printed, are executed by Mr. William Mardn, in the 
house of my friend Mr. George Nicol, whose unceasing 
endeavours to improve the Art of Printing, and its relative 
branches, are too well known to require any thing to be said 
on the present occasion ; he has particularly patronized Mr. 
Martin, a very ingenious young Artist, who has resided with 
him seven years, and who is at this time forming a Foun- 
dry, by which he will shordy be enabled to offer to the world 
a Specimen of Types, that will in a very eminent degree 
unite utility, elegance, and beauty. The ornaments are all 
engraved on blocks of wood, by two of my earliest acquaint- 
ances, Messrs. Bewicks, of Newcasde upon Tjme and Lon- 
don,^ after designs made from the most interesting pas- 
sages of the Poems they embellish. They have been exe- 
cuted with great care, and I may venture to say, without 
being supposed to be influenced by ancient friendship, that 
they form the most extraordinary eflPort of the art of engrav- 
ing upon wood that ever was produced in any age, or any 
country. Indeed it seems almost impossible that such deli- 

^ Bulmer, a native of Newcastle, was from youth a friend of Thomas Bewick, 
to whom he is believed to have suggested lowering the sur&ce of his wood- 
blocks, to give a lighter impression for effects of distance. 

The whole of the Types, with which this 
work has been printed, are executed by Mr. 
WiUiam Martin, in the house of my friend 
Mr. George Nicol, whose unceasing endeavours 
to improve the Art of Printing, and its relative 

The Shakspeare Printing Office aives its 
origin to the publication of that great Xational 
Edition of the Works of Shakspeare, which you 
are now, so much to the honour of our country, 
happily conducting toward its completion; I 

298. IVtlRam Martin's Two-line Small Pica Roman and Italic 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1500-1800 147 

cate eflpects could be obtained from blocks of wood.* Of the 
Paper it is only necessary to say, that it comes from the 
manufactory of Mr. Whatman.'' 

Bulmer's edition of William Somervile's Chase (1796), 
a companion volume, "presented to the Patrons of Fine 
Printing'' (for a guinea), is another delightful book in much 
the same manner. Martin's types, used in both volumes, are 
charming transitional roman fonts, both delicate and spir- 
ited — and so thoroughly English that Bewick's engravings 
seem in complete harmony with them {Jigs. 298, 299, and 
300). A magnificent work that employs Martin's types is the 
two- volume History of the River Thames^ issued in folio by 
William Bulmer & Company for John and Josiah Boy dell 
in 1796. The title-page bears the words, "from the types 
of W. Martin." Its pages of large roman type, beautifully 
set, make it one of the finest books Bulmer ever printed. 

The printer Bensley also issued books somewhat in this 
style, which are examples of "the latest fashion" in print- 
ing. His edition of Thomson's Seasons^ with plates by Bar- 
tolozzi, issued in 1797, and some luxurious books published 
by Stockdale, are good specimens of his earlier work. His 
composition is less successful than Bulmer's, and his better 
work, which I shall mention later, appears to have been done 
after 1800. 

Whatever may be the opinion of the light, open types and 
widely spaced and leaded pages of volumes by the best 
printers in these last years of the eighteenth century, they 
seem to me to be very sincere and workmanlike solutions 
of problems which the printer worked out in the manner 
of that time. Such books were part of the life about them. 

' George III could not be convinced that they were so engraved, and insisted 
on seeing the wood-blocks before he would believe it. 


They accorded admirably with the cool, sedate interiors in 
which they were housed. It was printing faithful to the best 
standards of its day, and because of this I think it will 

' See list of nearly fifty books printed by Bulmer and some of those printed 
by Bensley before 1817 in Dibdin's BUUiografihical Decameron (1817), Vol. 
II, pp. 384 et aeg. Aids to the student will be found in the Catalogue of an 
Exhibition ofBooks^ Broadndea^ Proclamationa, Portraits, j^utogra/ihs, etc., 
Jliuatratixfe of the HUtory and Progreaa of Printing and BookaeUing in 
England, 1477-1800. Held at Statimera* Mali, June, \912, by the Interna-^ 
tional AaaociaHon of Jintiquarian Bookaellera. London, 1912 ; and also in the 
valuable Catalogue of the Caxton Celebration of 1877, though the latter is 
more general in scope. 

Sweet smiling village, loveliest of the lawn, 
Thy sports are fled, and all thy charms withdrawn ; 
Amidst thy bowers the tyrant's hand is seen, 
And desolation saddens all thy green : 
One only master grasps the whole domain. 
And half a tillage stints thy smiling plain. 

The subject proposed. Address to his Royal Highness the 
Prince. The origin of hunting. The rude and unpolished 
manner of the Jirst huntei^s. Beasts at Jirst hunted for 
food and sacriJiCe. The grant made by God to man of the 
beasts, ire. The regular manner oj hunting Jirst brought 
into this island by the Xormans. The best hounds and 

299. William MartirCs Great Primer Roman and Italic 

1 HE old and infirm have at least this privilege, that they can recall to 
their minds those scenes of joy in which they once delighted, and rumi- 
nate over their past pleasures, with a satisfaction almost equal to the first 
enjoyment; for those ideas, to which any agreeable sensation is annexed, 
are easily excited, as leaving behind them the most strong and permanent 
impressions. The amusements of our youth are the boast and comfort of 
our declining years. The ancients carried this notion even yet fiirther, 
and supposed their heroes, in the Elysian fields, were fond of the very same 

When the exertions of an Individual lo improve his profession are crowned 
with success^ it is certainly the highest graiificcUion his feelings can experience. The 
very distinguished approbation that attended the publication of the ornamented edition 
of Goldsmith's Traveller^ Deserted Village^ and PameWs Hermit^ which was 
last year offered to the Public as a Specimen of the improved State of Typography 
in this Country^ demands my warmest acknowledgments; and is no less satisfactory 
to the different Artists who contributed their efforts towards the completion of the 

300. William Martinis Pica Roman and Italic 




IN connection with English printing of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, something must be said about 
typography in the English Colonies of North America, 
and about one or two of the earliest specimens put forth by 
American type-founders and printers. 

The first press set up in the Colonies was established at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. Its activities extended from 
1638 to 1692. Its equipment consisted of a prindng-press 
and type, and with these three pressmen and a printer ar- 
rived in the summer of 1638. This proto-typographer of 
British North America was Stephen Daye, traditionally con- 
nected with the famous London printer, John Day. The 
foundation of this press was the work of Joseph Glover, 
Rector of Sutton in Surrey. Glover dying on the voyage out, 
his wife set up the press at Cambridge, in the latter months 
of 1638. It was always closely associated with Harvard Col- 
lege; and among its mostcelebrated books were Eliot's Indian 
Bible and the Bay Psalm Book} The ordinary type for its use 
was all procured abroad, probably from England and Hol- 
land. Its work came to an end in 1692, Samuel Green being 
its last manager. 

In the seventeenth century, typography in Europe was 
upon the wane, and for English printing the Stuart period, 
owing to restrictions on the press, was a miserable epoch. 
To make life beautiful was not the motive which led to the 
settlement of New England: and the promoters of the Cam- 
bridge Press merely desired that spiritual truth should be 

' For fiusimiles of its work and that of other Massachusetts printers, see 
littlefield's Early Masaac/maetta Ptew, 1638-1711. Boston, 1907. 2 vols. 


made more clear through its publications. The typography 
of its books was as unattractive and crabbed as the mat- 
ter which it (perhaps fittingly) enshrined. I mention this 
press, therefore, only because it has a certain historical im- 

Harvard College apparently owned no types after Green's 
death until about 1718, when Thomas HoUis made it a pres- 
ent of fonts of long primer Hebrew and Greek characters. 
The latter type lay idle until 1761, when it was employed 
for some Greek verse occurring in a congratulatory address 
to George III on his accession — Pietas et Gratulatio Collegii 
Cantabrigiensis apud Navanglos. This was its first, last, and 
only appearance ; for it was destroyed in a fire which con- 
sumed the first College Library in 1764.^ But the Hebrew 
types, being at the time in use in Boston, escaped; whether 
they still survive, I know not 

In the eighteenth century, typographical material in 
American printing-houses — at any rate before the Revolu- 
tion — was almost all fon^ign. Franklin records in -his Auto- 
biography that his brother James secured both his press 
and type from England, and there are repeated allusions to 
the necessity of procuring such materials abroad for vari- 
ous Colonial printing-offices. When manager of Keimer's 
press in Philadelphia, Franklin writes: "Our printing-house 
often wanted sorts, and there was no letter-founder in Amer- 
ica ; I had seen types cast at James's in London, but with- 
out much attention to the manner; however, I now con- 

* Thomas's HUtory of Printings Worcester, 1810, Vol. I, pp. 251 f/ teq. In 
the broadside ^ccoi^Ti/ of the Fire at Harvard College, dated January 25, 1794, 
among the losses chronicled, this paragraph occurs : *' A font of Greek types 
(which, as we had not yet a printing-office, was reposited in the library) 
presented by our great bene&ctor the late worthy Thomas Mollis, Esq; of 
London ; whose picture, as large as the life, and institutions for two Professor- 
ships and ten Scholarships perished in the flames." 


trived a mould, made use of the letters we had as punch- 
eons, struck the matrices in lead, and thus supply'd in a 
pretty tolerable way all deficiencies." The earliest types in 
such offices as that of Bradford, the first New York printer, 
were probably Dutch and English; later types were Eng- 
lish, and chiefly those of Caslon — although after 1775 
(roughly speaking), type was made in North America. Prim- 
ers and books, newspapers and broadsides, were mostly 
printed in Caslon old style types in the mid-eighteenth cen- 
tury and up to the Revolution. Indeed, the Declaration of 
Independence itself was printed in the Caslon letter. It was 
the face commonly in use until about 1800. 

How well Colonial printers used it was another matter. 
For Franklin, writing from Passy (where he had set up a 
private press) in October, 1779, to his niece, Mrs. Partridge, 
says: "I thank you for the Boston Newspapers, tho' I see 
nothing so clearly in them as that your printers do indeed 
want new Letters. They perfectly blind me in endeavouring 
to read them. If you should ever have any Secrets that you 
want to be well kept, get them printed in those Papers." 
Franklin admired and recommended Caslon's types, and his 
own office was equipped with them. The style of compo- 
sition of most Colonial work was like a provincial copy of 
London printing — and was, as a rule, a good many years 
behind current London fashions. 

The first regular American type-foundry was that of 
Christopher Sauer or Sower II (son of a German printer of 
the same name), which was started at Germantown, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1772. Its appliances were imported from Ger- 
many, with moulds for three sizes of German type and some 
English script. Some of its type was cut and cast by Sauer's 
assistant, Justus Fox, who bought the foundry in 1784. The 
next foundry was that of Jacob Bey, assistant to Sauer and 


Fox, also at Germantown. He cut and cast roman as well 
as German tjrpes. Another foundry was that of John Baine 
& Grandson in Co., of Philadelphia, which was probably 
established about 1788. The elder Baine (who had been 
in partnership with Alexander Wilson of Glasgow) must 
have come to Philadelphia, whither his grandson had pre- 
ceded him, between 1787 and 1790, the year of his death. 
On the title-page of A Specimen of Printing Types^ By 
John Baine £sP Grandson in Co.y Letter-founders^ Edinburgh 
(1787), now in the library of the American Antiquarian 
Society, Worcester, Isaiah Thomas wrote, "This Foundry 
was brought to America, by the grandson, about 1771, and 
established at Philadelphia. John Baine came over not long 
after his grandson." But there is a discrepancy between this 
statement and the generally accepted facts. The specimen 
contains some Caslon fonts of early form, a few heavy-faced 
types, and a number of late eighteenth century types. The 
repertoire of ornaments and their ingenious and tasteful 
combinations are worth looking at 

In 1791, Adam Mappa, a Dutchman, brought a type- 
foundry to New York from Holland, chiefly to make Dutch 
and German types. "His foundry was very extensive," says 
a contemporary, "and his specimens extravagandy showy." 
Benjamin Franklin Bache, grandson of Franklin, possessed 
a small outfit for type-founding, purchased by Franklin 
when in France, but it was little employed. "Dr. Franklin," 
says William McCulloch in his Additions to Thomas's His- 
tory of Printing in America^ "was desirous of establishing 
his grandson at that business; and with that view Bache 
wrought some time in the foundry of P. S. Fournier,* of 

* Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, Vol. 31, Pt. 1 (1921). 

* Probably Simon Pierre Fournier, aon of P. S. (Pierre Simon) Fournier le 
jeune. The latter died in 1768, and Bache was bom in 1769. 


Paris, in order to acquire some insight preparatory to his 
commencing in America. Franklin purchased a foundry 
from this Fournier, which he brought to America, at his 
(Bache^s) arrival ; and Bache began type casting in Frank- 
lin Court in Market Street but soon relinquished that busi- 
ness for printing. I have seen, in Binny and Ronaldson's 
possession, an history of type founding (in French) of which 
this Fournier is the author/ Ronaldson, who was some 
years since in France in pursuit of antimony, tells me he 
was in this foundry, now in the possession of Foumier's 
grandson,' and that there is a bust or head of Franklin ^ in 
that laboratory, at which the men looked and pointed with 
the liveliest enthusiasm, exclaiming : ^Pexcellent Franklin."' 
The four-page specimen-sheet issued by Bache* is chiefly 
madeup of Caslon characters, although thefew types marked 
by an asterisk were cast in Philadelphia from French ma- 
trices. Interesting historically, this sheet contributes nothing 
to our knowledge of American type-forms — all the mate- 
rial being foreign. Though undated, it probably was not 
printed before 1790. 

Many of these small equipments finally fell into the hands 
of two Scotchmen, Archibald Binny and James Ronaldson, 
whose Philadelphia foundry was begun in 1796. In 1797, 
they offered for sale the first dollar-marks ever made in type. 
These men, in 1806, purchased the appliances for type- 
founding brought over by Franklin. 

The first specimen-book of an American Type Foundry 
is said to be that of Binny & Ronaldson, which belongs to 

* Evidently the Manuel lyfiografihique of hb father, Fournier It jeune, 

' M. Beaulieu-Fournier (?) . 

' Possibly the likeness of Franklin alluded to in note on p. 257, Vol. I. 

^A ^ecimen of Printing Tytie9 belonging to Benjamin Franklin Bache' a 
Printing Office, Philadelfihia, 


the nineteenth century — A Specimen of Metal Ornaments 
cast at the Letter Foundery of Binny feP Roncddson. Phila- 
delphia. Printed by Fry and Kammerer^ 1809. It was not 
a printer's specimen of types, but a founder's specimen of 
ornaments. About one hundred ornamental cuts are shown. 
In appearance the designs seem largely inspired from 
French sources. A few of them are like those shown in 
Pierres' collection of 1785. The general type of decoration in 
others is similar to cuts in the Gillfi specimen of 1808. A 
feature of the book is its versions of the arms of the United 
States. Ill-executed mechanically for the most part, from a 
decorative point of view the collection is respectable and 
has considerable style. The prices of these cuts run from 
twenty-five cents to five dollars, and, for the larger cuts in 
particular, seem high for what was supplied. 

In 1812, a Specimen of Printing Types from the Foundery 
of Binny £sP Bonaldson^ Philadelphia, appeared, also printed 
by Fry and Kammerer. It begins with an address "To the 
Printers of the United States." The proprietors speak of 
having, through patronage of printers, been able "to extend 
and improve their establishment on the grand scale, of 
which this specimen exhibits a proof." From our point of 
view, there seems to have been litde grand about the 
foundry except its pretensions. 

The great primer roman was used for the text of the 
imposing quarto edition of Joel Barlow's Columbiad, printed 
at Philadelphia in 1807 {fg. 30l), and very finely printed, 
too, by Fry and Kammerer, whose imprint appears on the 
specimen we are considering. Notes to The Columbiad are 
set in the small pica No. 1. This volume is an early instance 
of an American edition de luxe, and reflects the style of Bul- 
mer's London editions. The engravings, after paintings by 
Smirke,were procured through the interest of Robert Fulton. 































• 9W 
























«5 •: 



















M4 .^ 



a> i^ 








• fa 


*^ • OS 

O 2 CO 

» OQ A 



^ S 







Of the larger sizes of type shown in this specimen, the 
French Canon roman and its italic is a really handsome 
letter. The rest of the larger sizes are of the heavy face 
then fashionable. The transitional forms of smaller roman 
and italic shown are delightful. I do not know whether these 
were cut in America or cast from imported matrices, but 
a passage in the preface to James Ronaldson's specimen of 
1816 makes me believe that they were cut by Archibald 
Binny. They retain — especially in the italic of certain sizes 
— a late eighteenth century touch, reminiscent of the work 
of Martin. The pica was supplied by Binny & Ronaldson 
for the text of Isaiah Thomas's History of Printing in Amer^ 
icoy issued in 1810. Six sizes of black-letter with a disagree- 
able German twist to it — notice the Ts {Jig. 302); four 
German text types — the double pica being reminiscent of 
very early German fonts ; three sizes of Hebrew, and four 
of rather crabbed Greek, complete the book — except for 
three or four pages of ornaments. The "New Flowers "which 
open the collection are attractive designs in white on black. 
The American arms (No. l), the urn (No. 4), the e^gle(No. 5), 
etc., are quite delightful, and really charming when com- 
bined, as in the sixth of these borders. The skulls and cross- 
bones below are less inviting, and the designation "new 
flowers" perhaps indicates the immortelle/ {fig. 303). The 
other ornaments are mostly variants of ancient patterns, and 
are in some cases excellent 

Binny & Ronaldson were succeeded by James Ronald- 
son, who brought out a specimen in 1816 which, as it is 
beautifully printed, shows the transitional types mentioned 
above to much better advantage than Binny & Ronaldson's 
specimen of 1812. The selection offered of both types and 
ornaments is considerably increased and bettered. The in- 
teresting Preface alludes to the 1812 specimen as repre- 


senting the labour of twenty-five years, and adds that the 
adoption of ranging figures and the round s are among the 
improvements which have been made simultaneously with 
European foundries. Apologpies are offered for the fat-faced 
types put forth "to imitate the Europeans," contrary to the 
founders' judgment, and proved by experience to be suited 
only for " works of fancy." An enlarged edition of this speci- 
men appeared in 1822. James Ronaldson was succeeded by 
Richard Ronaldson, who apparently issued no specimen. 
In 1833, the owners of the foundry were Lawrence John- 
son and George F. Smith. Later, on Smith's redrement, 
Johnson took as partners Thomas MacKellar and John F. 
and Richard Smith. Upon Johnson's death in 1850, his 
three partners added Peter C. Jordan to their company and 
became the firm of MacKellar, Smiths and Jordan, remem- 
bered by older printers. This house was absorbed in 1892 
by the American Type Founders Company. 

The material that a well-known eighteenth century printer 
possessed is shown in the specimen of Isaiah Thomas 
(1749-1831) of Worcester, Massachusetts. Franklin called 
Thomas the "American Baskerville," but his printing 
was not remarkable except in view of the period in which 
he worked, and the difficulties which lack of good^ paper, 
good ink, and good workmen placed in his way. Thomas's 
chief work was his folio Bible, published in 1791 — the 
first folio Bible printed in America — for which Franklin, 
to whom Thomas presented a copy, expressed great admi- 
ration. Dr. Charles L. Nichols, the biographer and bibli- 
ographer of Thomas, considers Sewall's Carmina Sacra 
(1789) the best printed of his books, though Thomas pre- 
ferred Charlotte Smith's Elegiac Sonnets (1795), a volume 
printed on the first wove paper made in this country, by 


%n\i fie it jTurtlJet 
getEfij EnactEli, € 
tgat tge 31at[0r|, 


mull U ft futtftet Iieteftp m? 
atteb, (Cljat tjie ^nSaporj*, 
^atWffji, 0t otiier fteati <©f:: 


%m ht it futtfter fieceftp enacts 

tff^, or otfier Jeati <©fficer^ of 
elietp (CoUin anti iilace cotiio^ 

302. Black-letter: Binny £sP Ronaldson\s Specimen 

Philadelphia^ 1812 


r-^. M. ^. .M'c r^^ci: .;:j£- ^5ni-. fj '^ 

^y^-^<' v>.(^.,r ;,:xi;?; L^'-vii^T' :t\i^' ••v\r^-- .r(.i%VN-.f';2^-'^ c.^y 

v» i; 7 >■* -.1 7 a- 


t* •^•- '»-t*>*v»r <'»*tv^ ''•*♦«>» .''»»■»,-»: ^-*w^ *> 

■6 iiTEaimmffmiflAimiimmmi witmwiw^^ 

303. Ornaments: Binny fcf Ronaldaon^s Specimen 

Philadelphia^ 1812 


Thomas himself. Thomas also printed music — the fVorces- 
ter Collection of Sacred Harmony being his work. He was the 
author of that standard book, The History of Printing in 
America, published in 1810 ; and the founder of the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society of Worcester, of which he was the 
first president 

The tide-page of Thomas's specimen shows his esteem 
for William Caslon {Jig* 304). He had a complete series 
of the Caslon fonts, with some large letters cut on wood. 
In a manuscript note in a copy of his specimen belong- 
ing to the American Antiquarian Society, Thomas says : 
"£2000 sterling and upward^ were added to this Speci- 
men, in types from Fry's, Caslon's and Wilson's Foundries, 
between 1785 and 1784 [«>]. A great addition, and a 
great Variety of Types were added to the following after 
1 785. When complete the Printing materials were estimated 
at Nine Thousand Dollars." His specimen shows a good 
assortment of mathematical, algebraical, and astronomical 
characters, a font of Greek, with some very good two-line 
Greek letters, and a small font of neat Hebrew. There are 
a number of type ornaments or "flowers," some of which 
are very pretty. Of them Thomas says : "These ornamental 
types may be varied in a thousand difierent forms, but they 
are here inserted in the simple manner in which they are 
cast"; though the compositor has tried his hand at new 
arrangements without great success. Set in a commonplace 
script is this concludingadvertisement: "I. Thomas, Printer, 
Worcester, Mafsachusetts, has with the greatest care and at- 
tention furnished himself with the best Printing Materials 
that could be made in Europe, and has purchafed these ar- 
ticles to a very large amount — He has every thing requi- 
site for neat, elegant, or ornamental Printing, be the work 
small or large, and will be happy to execute every com- 


mand in the way of his Profefsion, on the most reasonable 
Terms, and with DiJpatchT The book is rare, but a copy 
which Thomas gave to Harvard College may be seen in the 
library of the University. 






Bdng as large and compkti an ASSORT- 
MENT as is to be met with in any one 
Printing-^Office in America. 

Chiefly MANUFACTUKED by that grat Arttft, 





PRINTED 9XlV0RCBSTERt massachvsbtts, 





304. Titk'page: Isaiah Thomases Specimen^ Worcester^ 1785 



THE pseudo-classical types which were in full pos- 
session of the European field in the first years of 
the nineteenth century, and which we best recog- 
nize by the term ^^Didot," had their origin (l) in some special 
tendencies or influences in typography, and (2) in political 
and artistic movements,^ which must be described at some 
length if we are to understand the typographical revolution 
which they brought about 

In typography, the first and earliest influence was the 
form of serif introduced into the French ronuun du rot by 
Grandjean in the reign of Louis XIV. This thin, straight 
serif, dazzling to the eye, rendered the romain du rot letter- 
form quite unlike anything that preceded it Cxrandjean's 
serif was discarded by Luce in the types cut by him in 
the time of Louis XV ; but it was revived in types cut after 
Luce's period, notably by the Didots. 

The second influence was the fashion for more modelled 
types, with light strokes in greater contrast to heavy strokes, 
introduced in England by Baskerville. This style, although 
it never took root deeply in England, was greatly admired 
on the G)ntinent, especially in France and Italy. For, as 
Baskerville said when he offered his fonts to the Academic 
des Sciences, " I have never sold my Types, nor do I intend 
to sell any to London printers, as my Labours have always 
been treated with more Honour abroad than in my native 
Country." To France Baskerville's types ultimately went, 
and his influence on both Bodoni and Didot is undeniable. 

' For a full discussion of the latter, see Louis Hautecoeur's Rome et la RenaiS' 
%ance de rAniiquiU d la Jin du XFIJJe SiMe, Parb, 1912. 


A third influence was the condensation of type-forms — 
as exhibited by Luce in his coractere poetique^ and by other 
founders in the fonts called serre or approchk — by which 
letters appeared taller and narrower. 

And finally, all these tendencies were accentuated by the 
taste throughout Europe for a lighter and more delicate 
style of typography; sometimes arrived at by actually cut- 
ting a lighter letter, sometimes by greater leading of the 

Chief among the artistic and political movements which 
aflfected type-forms was the revival of appreciation of the 
antique, which by 1800 dominated every phase of art This 
revival was the result of something over a hundred years of 
unconscious preparation. Long before the discovery of Her- 
culaneum and Pompeii, excavations had been made in the 
neighbourhood of Rome, and the ^^ grand tour" had made 
Roman antiquities familiar to travellers. Although the first 
discoveries at Pompeii were made as early as 1713, it was 
not until 1745 that Herculaneum was uncovered, and not 
until 1764 that the greater part of Pompeiian antiquities 
were found.^ Even before the latter date public interest was 
considerably aroused, and these discoveries were discussed 
in learned publications — Cochin, who visited Italy with Ma- 
rigny and Soufliot, writing on Herculaneum in 1751, and 
Carlos III in 1757 promoting Baiardi's Antichita di Erco^ 
lano. The vogue of antique art was heightened by Panini's 
paintings, Piranesi's engravings, and the sketches of Hu- 
bert Robert ; encouraged by the French Academy at Rome 
and the new Academies in Naples, London, Madrid, Parma, 

^ The decoration which marked the reign of Louis XVI, known as style Louis 
Seize outside France, was, owing; to the classic motifs that inspired it^ called 
in France d la grecque — the decorative work discovered at Herculaneum 
and Pompeii bdng often more Greek than Roman in quality. 


and elsewhere; and further stimulated by the sale of Sir 
William Hamilton's Etruscan vases to the British Museum, 
the installation of Roman collections of sculpture, etc., and 
thejourneyingsof the erudite to Naples, Paestum, and Sicily . 
The popularization of all these wonders by publications 
illustrating and describing them — by Caylus, St. Non, Vis- 
conti, Winckelmann, Mengs, and others — led people to 
consider Rome, in the language of the day, "the unique 
Emporium of the Beautiful and the Temple of Taste." 

In architecture, painting, and sculpture men soon formu- 
lated what was supposed to be the underlying theory of an- 
tique art Artists searched Plutarch for subjects ; sculptors 
chose living models on account of their likeness to antique 
statues ; and the Beau Ideal was to be attained by study- 
ing antiquity rather than life. In painting, these ideas were 
exemplified by such pictures as Le Serment des Horaces of 
David, by Flaxman's illustrations for the Iliad, and by An- 
gelica Kauffmann's pictures of antiquity a la mode. In sculp- 
ture, Canova held first place in this revival, and made his 
reputation by work which, because it was thought the last 
word in classicism then, makes us smile now. 

And in the minor arts all the forms of antique ornament 
were pressed into the service of decoration. In furniture, 
marble or mahogany was encumbered or enriched by clas- 
sical ornaments in metal. In porcelain, Etruscan motifs were 
used at Sevres; Wedgwood named his potteries Etruria, and 
for him Flaxman made classical designs. Ruins became ink- 
stands, tripods turned into flower stands, porticoes formed 
clocks, and sphinxes, andirons. Pliny's Doves in mosaic be- 
came table-tops, paper-weights, or brooches, buttons were 
a Pantiquej and even fabrics were printed from Huet's de- 
signs of Roman ruins. 

By the year 1790, Greek and Roman antique art had com- 


pletely captured public taste — social and political events and 
ways of thinking in France being particularly favourable 
to such a development ; though French students and artists 
resident in Rome became so unpopular because of their 
revolutionary opinions and license of expression that they 
were driven out^ But by 1796, the Pontifical States were 
invaded by France, and the rage for antiquity showed it- 
self in French demands. Paris must be a new Rome; and 


so it was needful to make Paris what Rome had been — the 
artistic centre of Europe. To eflFect this vxnthily we must, 
said the French, possess Roman monuments ; and they pro- 
ceeded to possess them. The Laocoon, the Dying Gladiator, 
the Faun of Praxiteles, all set out for Paris, accompanied by 
Raphael's Transfiguration, Domenichino's St Jerome, and 
a mixed company of goddesses, saints, nymphs, martyrs, 
and emperors. There was even a plan to carry off Trajan's 
Column, which proved, on investigation, so much too heavy 
that a lighter obelisk was sent instead. The greatest works 
of Italian art arrived in Paris by 1801, where they were 
received with public rejoicing. For by that time, politics, 
literature, art, all recalled the antique world. Government 
was confided to senators, tribunes, and consuls — and, more 
Romano^ a victorious general was made Emperor. 

To us nowadays the antique seems something very hack- 
neyed, but it was to the men of those days brilliantly and 
thrillingly new — a resurrection from the dead; and, by an 
association of ideas, antique art — and even sterile and frigid 
imitations of it — symbolized that private virtue and public 
wisdom which was then hopefully supposed to have made 
its home on earth. The pseudo-classical tendency in paint- 

* To the Pontifical authorities the " last straw " was an unfortunate work of 
art (somehow made into candelabra) showing Jupiter striking Aristocracy 
with Thunderbolts and ApoUo trampling under foot Superstition. 


ing and sculpture made itself felt also in oratory and liter- 
ature. And thus it seemed necessary, in typography, to 
clothe new modes of expression in a new way, and new 
type-forms were demanded to do it^ It required only a "man 
of the hour" to accomplish this — in France Didot, in Italy 
Bodoni. Thus artistic movements, political reforms, and dy- 
nastic changes, together with certain tendencies in design, 
contributed to the popularization of a kind of type which, 
however far from classicism it seems to us now, represented 
to the bibliophile of that epoch a return to "antique virtue"! 


IN bringing about this change in typographic practice, 
Bodoni showed great originality in his new type-forms, 
and in this respect was the man most to be reckoned with. 
The scholarly prestige of the Didots (in the long run a far 
greater force) was influential in popularizing these new 
styles of type. 

Giambattista Bodoni, the son of a printer, was born at Sa- 
luzzo in Piedmont in 1 740. Leaving home as a lad, he made 
his way to Rome, where he served as apprentice in the press 
of the Propaganda Fide — la f dice scuolcu, as he called it — 

' As formal types called for a formal style of illustration, old decorators of the 
book had to change their manner. The beautiful Italian (1754) edition of 
Lucretius, — Delia JVatura della Co9i, — translated by Marchetti, edited by 
F. Gerbault, and dedicated to the Marquis de Vandi^res, brother to Madame 
de Pompadour, or Le Monnier's F^tea dee Bonnes-Gens de Canon j etc., pub- 
lished by Prault and others at Paris in 1778, with frontispiece by Moreau, 
are both printed in easy old style eighteenth century French types, with 
which the decorations admirably accord. On the other hand, the embellish- 
ments made for Didot' s folio Horace of 1799 by the architect Percier meet 
"Empire" requirements, and Moreau's illustrations to Legouv6's Z^ 3/^- 
rite des Femmes et autres PoSsies, brought out in Paris by A. A. Renouard 
in 1809, show a painful endeavour to do so. Both these books are printed in 
Didot's ''classical" fonts. 


for which he always retained his early affection. Its direc- 
tor, Ruggeri, a learned man, was kind to Bodoni, and en- 
couraged him in trying to improve himself — even at that 
early date we find Bodoni cutting types for the establish- 
ment. His stay there was not long. Ruggeri committed sui- 
cide, and Bodoni, unable to endure further employment at 
Rome, left the Press with the idea of seeking his fortune in 
England. On his way there, stopping at his parents' hopse 
at Saluzzo, he fell ill ; and before he had a chance to continue 
his journey he was asked, in behalf of Ferdinand, Duke of 
Parma, to take charge of the Stamperia Reale at Parma. 
This was in 1 768. Bodoni's work there was that of a private 
printer; he produced either such things as were needed at 
court, or interested the Duke ; or such work as he, on his 
own initiative, proposed. His first stock of types came from 
the Parisian foundry of Fournier, and he also cut type based 
on Fournier's models. What this stock of type was in 1771 
is shown in Bodoni's specimen of that year, and to this 
period belong his Essai de caracferes Busses (1782); a il/c/i- 
uale Tipogrqfico in quarto, a folio Manuale^ and a Greek 
^^imen-Seried^canaterigrecidiGiumlHaista [^c\Bodmi 
— all three produced in 1788. By this time Bodoni had 
designed a great number of types, which, beginning as old 
style, by degrees took on a more modern appearance. His 
press became one of the sights of Europe, and was visited 
by the dilettanti and cognoscenti on the "grand tour";^ his 

* Arthur Young, in his TVavels in Italy , writing from Parma, December 9, 
1789, says: " In the afternoon . . . to the celebrated r^a/i? ^oj^q^a ofSig- 
nore Bodoni, who shewed me many works of singular beauty. The types, 
I think, exceed tliose of Didot at Paris, who likewise often crowds the let- 
ters dose, as if to save paper. The Dafihne and Chlocy and the Amynta, are 
beautifully executed; I bought the latter, as a specimen of this celebrated 
press, which really does honour to Italy. Signore Bodoni had the title of the 
printer to the king of Spain, but never received any salary, or even gratifi- 
cation, as I learned in Parma from another quarter; where I was also in- 


editions were admired and collected by bibliophiles every- 
where. After 1790, his situation — vis-a-^vis the Duke of 
Parma — was improved. This came about through an offer 
which Bodoni received from De Azara, Spanish Minister 
to the Papal Court, who conceived the idea of starting a 
press there (to bring out editions of the classics), of which 
he invited Bodoni to take charge. This plan coming to the 
Duke's ears, he made a counter proposal, with the result 
that Bodoni remained at Parma with a larger press and a 
more independent position, which permitted him liberty to 
print for any one who wished to employ him. So, besides 
Italian, Greek, and Latin books, Bodoni enlarged his field 
by printing French, Russian, German, and Elnglish books 
— Walpole, Gray, and Thomson being among the Ejiglish 
authors for whom he produced editions. He was appointed 
printer to Carlos III of Spain; he received a pension from 
his son, Carlos IV; he corresponded with Franklin; he was 
complimented by the Pope; the city of Parma struck a 
medal in his honour; he obtained a medal for his work at 
Paris; he received a pension from the Viceroy of Italy; 
Napoleon gave him another and a larger one, and in short 
he was a great personage. He was one of those fortunate 
mortals who, appearing at just the right moment, knew 
exactiy what he wanted to do, attempted it, succeeded in 
it, was praised for it, and deserved (and highly enjoyed) the 
praise. What more could one ask? He departed this life 
at Parma in 1813, and even his funeral ceremonies appear 

formed, that the salary he has from the duke is only 150 zcchina. His merit 
is great and distinguished, and his exertions are uncommon. He has 30,000 
matrices of type. I was not a little pleased to find, that he has met with the 
best sort of patron, in Mr. Edwards, the bookseller, at London, who has made 
a contract with him for an impression of two hundred and fifty of four Greek 
poets, four Latin, and four Italian ones — Pindar, Sophocles, Homer, and 
Theocritus; Horace, Virgil, Lucretius, and Plautus; Dtote, Petrarcha, An- 
osto, and Tasso.'* 


to have been precisely what he would have wished them 
to be! 

As to Bodoni's specimen-books (apart from the charm- 
ing little specimen of 1771, Fregi e Majuscole^ described 
in a former chapter), the inscriptions in exodc types, — Is- 
crizioni Esotici a Camtteri novellamenti incisi ejusi, 1774, — 
printed to commemorate the baptism of the Prince of Parma, 
may be considered his first attempt to display his exotic 
characters. It is an interesting book — of 50 pages, quarto 
— and shows twenty of Bodoni's "learned'' fonts (Jig. 305), 
The magnificent Epithalamia in folio, printed in 1775 and 
later to be described, also falls into this class. Bodoni's Man- 
uale Tipogrqfico of 1788 I have never seen. It was appar- 
endy a quarto book of 360 pages, containing one hundred 
specimens of roman and fifty of cursive types, displayed 
in French and Italian on one side of the leaf. In it were 
also included twenty -eight sizes of Greek character, which 
were issued separately as well. This edition of the Manuale 
seems also to have been printed in octavo form on various 
special papers and on vellum. 

In the same year, 1788, Bodoni issued the finest and most 
imposing of his specimens — a folio collection of roman, 
italic, Russian, Greek, and Cancellereschi types. The book 
opens, unfortunately, with the last named, in fifteen sizes 
of a detestable form of script capital; but the twenty-eight 
alphabets of roman and twenty-seven of italic capitals which 
follow are perhaps the most magnificent of their kind ever 
displayed. The roman capital letters in larger sizes (from 
1 to 5) are specially fine — brilliant in cut and splendidly 
printed in ink of a wonderfully rich black. Then, too, un- 
like Bodoni's later books, the paper has a pleasant surface 
from which all the life has not been smoothed out Nine 
alphabets of Greek capital letters follow, both in upright 








€i> • ig^^G) • dixou • xaraff£rd(7/iaro5 
xai • Xofwrp^rjj^ • jSXi/i/xaro^ • duroO 

n£p^^oi}<j£y * dvTov 

6 • l%I;taro5 • aroXiiv * SoZrn 

xal • dvy)iksiav • xat/XJ|MaTO$ 

eyiSvoBv * dur^ 

coi • d(yri|9 • xal • ©< • roSoy 











305. Greek from Iscriziont Esottct: Bodoniy Parma y 1774 


and cursive forms^ — though how legitimate Greek ^^italfc 
capitals" are is a question. The sizes from I to 4, or 5, are 
superb, especially number 1, in both italic and roman. Next 
come Russian capital letters in twelve sizes of roman and 
italic, and here again the cutting is brilliant and the im- 
pression effective to the last degree. From that point on, the 
types are upper and lower-case, beginning with roman and 
italic papcdCy imperiaiej reale^ ducale^ in three weights of letter 
down to tresmegistCy below which roman and italic are shown 
in ten sizes of each ; followed by similar Russian fonts of 
great magnificence. Fonts of Greek follow in descending 
sizes, and a few specimens of roman and italic {fig. 306), 
which are much more old style than Bodoni's later equiva- 
lent fonts. 

The splendour of this book depends upon pure typog- 
raphy. There is not an ornament in it — not even the litde 
tablets by which Bodoni sometimes gave a dash of salt to 
his books, but with which less skilful printers have pep- 
pered their reproductions ! From a passing allusion in Bo- 
doni's preface to his Manualeoi 1818, it appears that only 
a few copies of this specimen were printed.* 

To this period also belongs Bodoni's "Letter" to the Mar- 
quis de Cubiferes^ in French and Italian, printed in 1785. 
Concerning it Franklin wrote the following letter to Bodoni, 
dated Philadelphia, October 14, 1787: 

"I have had the very great pleasure of receiving and 
perusing your excellent Essax des Charaderes [sic] de rim- 
primerie. It is one of the most beautiful that Art has hith- 
erto produc'd. I should be glad to see a specimen of your 

* An example is in the Boston Public Library. 

■ Lettre de J, B. Bodoni, Tyftografihe du Roi d^Eatiagne et Directeur de rim- 
firimerie de S. A, R. I* Infant Due de Barme, d Monsieur ie Marquis de 
Cutrihre; Parma, 1785. 


other Founts besides this Italic & Roman of the Letter 
to the Marq.* de Cubi&res ; and to be inform'd of the price 
of each kind. — I do not presume to criticise your Italic 
Capitals ; they are generally perfect : I would only beg leave 
to say, that to me the form of the T'in the word LETT RE 
of the Tide Page \^Jig> 307 a] seems preferable to that of 
the Tin the word Typographic m the next Page \Jig> 307 b], 
as the downward stroke of T^ P, i?, F^By Z), ZT, JT, JL, /, and 
some others, which in writing we begin at the top, natu- 
rally swells as the pen descends ; and it is only in the A and 
the M and N that those strokes are fine, because the pen 
begins them at the bottom.^ 

De Lama says that Bodoni was overcome with joy to 
have from the President of the United States of America 
this flattering letter, which he considered a title to glory 
and preserved with religious care. Bodoni and De Lama, 
although a little mixed about the office which Franklin 
held in America, were quite right in being pleased; and 
this compliment so flattered Ferdinand, Duke of Parma, 
that he had the letter translated into Spanish, and sent it 
to his uncle, Carlos III, at Madrid, to whom Bodoni was 
honorary printer by appointment^ 

In 1806, the Oratio Dominica in CLF Linguas Versa ct 
Exoticis Charactcribus Plerumquc Exprcssa is another mas- 

' Bodoni Was often called " the King of Typographers and the Typographer 
of Kings" — a phrase suggested by the epitaph on Plantin's tomb at Ant- 
werp. He was also styled "the BaskerviUe of Italy" — just as Didot was 
called " the Bodoni of France/' the Foulis brothers " the Elzevirs of Glas- 
gow," and Thomas "the BaskerviUe of America," This rather ridiculous 
habit of calling somebody the something of somewhere else has always at- 
tracted a certain class of mind in this country. A worthy gentleman who 
lived in Rhode Island in the eighteenth century and collected pictures was 
styled "the Lorenzo de' Medici of Newport," and a Boston schoolboy de- 
scribed Demosthenes as "the Edward Everett of Athens." It was reserved, 
however, for Mrs. Piozzi to call Switzerland "the Derbyshire of Europe.'* 















ti (rs _y 



c^ ^ ^ 






3)S J, S. S03)05YJ 

JUj^oaraf^Ke da SHoi ^*^^aane 

€L. jDirecteuf ^e l Omptimetie 

a (Pfionsieur fe oM^arquis 

307. (a) Title of Lettre d De Cubteres 

©// c/ans les feuilles du Gomite de 
(oorrespondance ^ a r article de la 
dypograpAie _, on a comble d'eloges 
quelgues faibles essais de mes ca- 
ractereSy vous savez que je les dots 
entierement a t empressement flat- 
teur^ avec lequel vous avez exige 

30r. (*) Text of Lettre A De Cubiires: Bodoni, Parma, 1785 


terly showing of what Bodoni could do in foreign and 
ancient alphabets — though a somewhat tiresomely perfect 

The second and final edition of Bodoni's Manuale Tipo- 
grafico — in two quarto volumes, with a Discorso by his 
widow and Prefazione by Bodoni {Jigs. 308 and 309) — ap- 
peared in 1818, five years after his death. It was completed 
under the care of his widow and Luigi Orsi, who was for 
twenty years foreman to Bodoni. Signora Bodoni, writing 
to M. Durand Pdlni of Metz, from Parma (November 14, 
1817), says : "The Manuale Tipogmfico in two volumes on 
papier^vilin — the only kind of paper used for it — is hot 
yet completed, but it will be, without fail, at the beginning 
of the coming year. I dare to believe that book-lovers will 
thank me for having published a volume which is so very 
important to Typogfraphy.The reception which it will have, 
will make up for the trouble it has cost me (although Bo- 
doni has left the blocks or models for it) and the consider- 
able expense which I shall have had to incur before it is 
finished. Also, in view of the fact that but 290 copies are 
struck oiF, I cannot dispose of them at less than 120 francs, 
without any reduction. M. Rosaspina has engraved au burin. 
the portrait after one which the celebrated Appiani . . . 
painted in oils, which is a striking likeness." ' 

The first volume contains, under the title of Serie di 
Caratteri Latinij Tondi e Corsivij a series of roman and italic 

* This polyglot Oratio Dominica was printed at the suggestion of Pius VII, 
who, in May, 1805, had passed through Parma on his way from the coro- 
nation of Napoleon. It was intended to outdo a like work published by the 
Imprimerie Imperiale at Paris. Bodoni's book was dedicated to Eugtee 
Beauhamais, Viceroy of Naples, to whom he personally presented a copy. 
In return for this work, Bocloni received a pension and an offer of the direc- 
tion of the Royal Printing House at Milan. 

' From an unpublished letter belonging to the author. 


types, which cover 144 pages. These run from parmigianina 
to papale. Sometimes there are as many as fourteen vari- 
eties of the same body in different designs and weights of 
line. It is almost impossible to conceive why it was neces- 
sary to have so many kinds which, even to a trained eye, 
appear much alike: though it is perhaps justifiable in the 
larger sizes — as in the three weights of ducale{Jig. 310) — 
where differences can be clearly detected. The number of 
sizes of type, so nicely graduated that one almost merges 
in another, is more explicable. This g^eat series enabled 
Bodoni to place on his pages, not approximately, but exactly^ 
the size of type he wished to employ {Jig. 311). 

Succeeding pages (145-169) show Serie di Camtteri Can- 
cellereschij etc., in smaller sizes ugly, gray forms of script. 
Here and there an interesting one appears — like number 
13, or the large sizes, 16 and 17. The English scripts are 
imitations of the '^fine Italian hand'' then fashionable in 
England, and have little to recommend them. Volume I 
closes with an enormous array of capital letters, both roman 
and italic, followed by a few pages of hideous script capi- 
tals unworthy of the collection. 

The second volume contains an assemblage of roman and 
"italic'' Greek capitals, covering sixty-two pages; and ex- 
otic types, beginning with Hebrew, run on to the ninety- 
seventh page. These are followed by German and Russian 
types, many of great splendour. The book closes with se- 
ries of borders, mathematical, astronomical, and other signs, 
musical notation, etc. Some few ornaments (Jregi) are at- 
tractive {Jig. 312), but most of them, while very perfect, are 
chilly, sterile, and uninteresting. The borders {contomt) con- 
fined in rules — a form of decoration which Bodoni affected 
for his broadsides — are, however, quite charming (Jig* 
313). The arable figures displayed are distinguished, and 

fonderia: il Marmale presente ne ren- 

dera esatto conto, qualora vogliasi 

confrontare colprimo. Converrammi 

piuttosto osservarCy che II sesio e il 

contomo sono i medesimi ch'egli vi- 

vente diede ad alcune pagine fatte 

imprimere per prova. In queste, a dif- 

ferenza del suo primo Manuale, ove 

ogni pagina conteneva la descrizio- 

ne di una qualche citta, comincian- 

do colnome di essa, voile replicato 

il principio della prima Catilinaria 

=^Quousque tandem abut^re ecc. 

per mettere sotto Vocchio de'com- 

mettend di caratteri il vantaggio 

che potrebbero ritrarre domandando 

308. Paffe of Signora BodonVs Discorso: Manuale Tipografico, Parma., 1818 

done puro di Dio e felicita di natu- 
re, benclie spesso provenga da lunga 
esercitazione e abitudine, che le piii 
difficili cose agevola a segno che in 
fine senza piii pur pensarvi riescono 
ottimamente fatte, Che pero la gra- 
zia dell a scrittura forse piu che in al- 
tro sta in certa disinvoltura di tratti 
franchi, risoluti, spediti,e nondime- 
no cosi nelle forme esatti, cosi degra- 
dati ne'pieni,c/ie non trova Vin^^idia 
ove gli emende. Ma forse piii sicuro 
e ristringerci a dire che han grazia 
le lettere, quando sembrano scritte 
non gia con isvogliatezza o con fret- 
ta , ma piuttosto , che con impegno 
e pena, con felicita ed amore. 

Tanto pill bello sara dunque un 
carattere, quanto avra piu regolari- 

309. Paffe of BodonPs Prefazione: Manuale Ttpografico^ Parma^ 1818 

Quousque tan- 
dem abutere,Ca- 

tilina, patientia 

Quousque tan- 
de abutere, Ca- 
tilina, patientia 

Quousque tan- 
dem abutere, 
Catilina, pari- 

310. Specimen of BodonPs Ducale in three weights 
Manuale Ttpografico^ Parma^ 1818 


• • 




311. Larges. ' d smallest Roman and Italic 
shown i f 1 ianuale Ttpograjics, Parma, 



.«^ FREGI ^c« 

9" MM: 


9a 3 




,.s '^f^" ^f#^ '^f^" 



.jfc, A. A A_ A A A A A, A 

•T^-n^'T^ -1^ -n^ -T^ -1^ 'np' ^1^ n^ 




^»» JflX^ Mi^ JdtSk. 

9*9 W ^^ 'ap 'Sill? ^Ii«f ^B? ^# W W ^Pf 

^R& j|u ^1^ Jn^ Jl^L ^P^L ^Kl mK^ ^m^L J/^l ^K^ mK^ jf^ ^f^L aI^& jSK^ JP^ ^MCl 

^M^ ^j^^ ^S^^ ^i^^ ^t^ tB^ ^^P ^^p ^I^^ ^^^ ^8^^ ^^p ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^K^ ^^^^ >B^ ^Hk^ 

980 ^^^tt-irv'^vv'^'^iri^itT'^^ir 


312. Ornaments: BodonVs Manuale Tipografico^ Parma^ 1818 



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313. Borders: BochnPs Manuaie Tipografico^ Parma^ 1818 


deserve mention. The music type is uninteresting, the plain- 
song notation in particular being too modern in effect The 
work is probably the most elaborate specimen that the world 
has ever seen — an imposing tour deforce — and the acme 
of Bodoni's late, chilly, dry manner. 

Bodoni's work may be divided into two periods : (l) when 
he employed old style or transitional types and used decora- 
tions somewhat profusely, and (2) when he depended on his | 
own type-designs and unadorned typography for his effects.; 
His early printing shows French influence very distinctly, 
and in the specimen of 1 771 — Fregi e Majuscole — the bor- > 
der of Bodoni's title-page is almost a copy of that of the 
second volume of Fournier's Manuel Typographique. But 
earlier than that, the French fashion of printing appears in 
such books as Le Feste d^ Apollo and the Pastorale of 1 769 — 
which commemorate gala performances in honour of the 
marriage of the Duke of Parma. Some other early books of 
the Stamperia Reale — such as Alberti's Saggio di Foesie 
Italiane (1773) or Trenta's tragedy VAugey issued about 
1774 — are so far from Bodoni's later style that it is at first 
sight difficult to believe that he printed them. Such a book 
as the Epithalamia Exoticis Linguis Reddita of 1775, issued 
in honour of the marriage of Marie Adelaide Clotilde, sister 
of Louis XVI, printed in Bodoni's "first manner'' from old 
style types, is a masterpiece ; really magnificent in its types, 
their arrangement, and the superb engraved decorations 
which, for once, enhance the effect of the page (Jigs. 314 
and 315). I think it one of his finest volumes. 

In 1 784, Bodoni printed another very charming book in 
this early manner — Prose e Fersi per onorare la Memoria 
di lAvia Doria Caraffa, a collection of poetry, prose, and 
inscriptions which is probably one of the most beautiful me- 
morial volumes ever produced. The fonts of delicate roman 


and italic type are distinctly old style. In 1785, Bodoni's edi- 
tion of Anacreon's OdeSy in quarto, was published — a most 
beautiful book (printed entirely in capital letters) in Greek 
and Latin. The volume In Funere Caroli III^ of 1789, and 
the Orazione Funebre of Botteri (for the same occasion) are 
also good specimens of his earlier taste. The Greek and Ital- 
ian Callimachus of 1792 retains a g^eat deal of his early 
style; and his Tavola di Cebete Tebano of 1793 is another 
delightful piece of printing — simple, and very character- 
istic. The Brief of Pius VI of 1792, of which there were 
but twelve copies printed in folio, may well have caused the 
Pope to exclaim that he must issue a second brief to praise 
the way in which Bodoni had printed the first one! Of 
all this work, a little 32mo Anacreon in Greek of 1791 is 
my favourite — one of his most exquisite bits of printing. 
Meanwhile, the increasing number of books prefiguring 
his later way of working — like the Horace and Imitation of 
1791 and 1793 — show that he was feeling his way into the 
refrigerated manner of his last days. But his first period — 
less known, and when known, less considered — is his best 
Of Bodoni's second manner — which, roughly speaking, 
may be called his nineteenth century style — there are in- 
numerable examples, and in all these later books the area 
of unprinted space on his pages is g^eat Bodoni lightened 
the solidity of close-set composition by exaggerating his 
ascenders and descenders, and also by ingeniously plac- 
ing small faces of type on large bodies, which efiectually 
prevented such fonts from being set solid. His quarto Taci- 
tus of 1804 is a fine book — transitional in style, perhaps. 
// Bardo della Selva Neva of 1 806 is a full-blown exam- 
ple of his favourite and typical way of working. The Oratio 
Dominica of the same year, Tasso's Gemsalemme Uberata 
of 1807, the Greek Iliad in three volumes folio of 1808, La 


















































































































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a S3 



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Rochefoucauld's Maocimes in French of 1 8 1 1, and the French 
Telimaqueoi 1812, which Bodoni thought perhaps his best 
work — all these are books showing originality of conception, 
even though the conception may not be of a very endearing 

One of the last and most typical of his editions is La 
Giuditta of 1813 — begun but not finished by Bodoni — a 
book absolutely without ornament, and very fine in its way. 
Some smaller volumes of poems in 16mo, delicately printed 
from delicate types, on paper which is much like vellum in 
quality, are delightful of their kind. Such are Parini's Odi 
of 1799; Fersi di Giordaniy in four volumes, of 1809 ; and 
Fersi del Conte Aurelio Bemieri^ 181 1, in four volumes. 

Finally, Bodoni's broadsides — inscripdons in capitals, 
framed in borders made up of ornaments — are among his 
most interesting performances. These are rare ; and while 
no reproduction gives much idea of them, I refer the reader 
to their facsimiles at the end of Bertieri's admirable book.^ 

Bodoni's larger volumes were certainly often magnificent 
They were planned on a g^eat scale. It has been very well 
said of him that those who came after might choose to do 
something else ; but that what he chose to do could never 
be done better. His first manner, in one way less character- 
istic of him, is, as I have said, much the more agreeable 
and sympathetic. He was then under the influenceof French 
styles, although perhaps he had given up employing French 
types ; but there was about the books of this period — as 
in those of his rival Didot — real charm. The distinction 
of old style type was retained, but it was slightiy refined. 

'For these and other interesting fecsimiles see Bertieri and Fum^alli's 
VArte di GiamdattUta Bodoni. Milan, 1913. The series of plates at the end 
show at a glance the difference between his early and late nianner of printing. 
A chronological table of Bodoni's editions forms Vol. II of De Lama's Fita 
di Bodoni. Parma, 1816. 


But while it was in his first period that he produced his 
most beautiful books, he himself did not think so. It may 
be said that this is self-evident, because he soon changed 
his style for one which he must have considered an im- 
provement But it was not Bodoni, but the spirit of the art 
round about him, that made his later types more and more 
rigid, their heavy lines thicker, and their light lines thin- 
ner and more wiry. Wonderfully perfect as these types 
were in detail, they contributed to a style of printing that 
made these later books as official as a coronation, and as 
cold as the neighbouring Alps ! His volumes were to other 
printing what Canova^s statuary was to earlier sculpture. 

Many of Bodoni's books lacked intimacy and charm, too, 
because of his conception of the function of his press. He 
cared nothing about printing as a means to popular instruc- 
tion. He did not despise the masses — he forgot all about 
them ! He was a court printer, existing by the patronage of 
the Lucky Few. His editions were intended to be livres 
d'^apparat} He not alone saw no harm in making them so, 
but the bigger and more pretentious they were, the better 
he liked them. In fact, he openly said so, and told Renouard, 
the French publisher, " Je ne veux que du magnifique, et je 
ne travaille pas pour le vulgaire des lecteurs.*^ I am afraid, 
too, that he always retained an eighteenth century Italian 
carelessness about detail, which often gave Italian archi- 
tecture and painting of that period such delightful brio. But 
"broad effiscts," when applied to scholarship and proofread- 
ing, lead to disaster. Thus the texts of Bodoni's classical 
editions have never been considered very correct, and his 
books, apart from their appearance, are not valuable to the 

* A collection of Bodoni's books in aU their different editions, on lai^ V^V^* 
*' special " paper, vellum, etc., is preserved in the Ducal Library at Parma, 
where the matrices of Bodoni's types are also exhibited. 


N'ayez de rattachement, et 
de 1 ' amour pour le monde , 
qu'a proportion du temps que 
vous y devez ^tre . Gelui qui 
voyage, ne doit point s' ar 

Non abhiate attaccOy ne amo- 
re pel mondo, se non che a pro^ 
porzione del tempo ^ che voi vi 
doi?ete dimorare . Quegli che ec . 


Iln'ya au monde que deux 
manieres de s' elever; ou par sa 
propre industrie , ou par 1' imbe- 
cilite des autres . On ne vole . ec 
Non ha V uomo che due mez- 
zi per aggrandire; o la propria 
industria, o V altrui imbecillita. 
Non si vola coUe stesse ali etc . 

316. Roman and Italic: Amorettt's Sag'gio d^Caratteri 

Parma, 1811 


scholar. Didot, who published much better editions, but did 
not print so well, justly enough said that Bodoni^s books 
would figure on the shelves of collectors, but not in the 
libraries of savants — adding, "Comme litterateur je con- 
damne ses 6ditions, comme typc^apheje les admire." There 
were other eminent critics who took the same tone. Appar- 
ently it was not only in the classics that he sinned; for Horace 
Walpole, writing in 1 790 to Mary Berry, who was then in 
Italy, says, "I am glad you did not get a Parmesan Otranto. 
A copy is come so full of faults that it is not fit to be sold 
here." But whatever Bodoni's faults were, he was perfecdy 
characteristic of his period, and expressed it in his work. 
Because he was so characteristic of his time is perhaps the 
chief reason that he is a great printer. 

Andrea Amoretti, a learned Italian priest, who, renoun- 
cing his calling, engraved some of Bodoni's types, and who 
printed some pretty books himself, issued a delightful littie 
specimen, Saggio d^ Caratteri e Fregi delta Fonderia dci 
Fratelli Amoretti Incisori e Fonditori in San Fancrazio presso 
Parma (181 1), and this book shows how the Italian output 
had been influenced by Bodoni and Didot^ (Jig. 316). The 
clear-cut ornaments, which are to earlier ornaments what 
the Amoretti types of 1 8 1 1 are to earlier types, are very per- 
fect, very brilliant, and extremely characteristic of the fash- 
ionable style in printing at that period (Jig. 3 1 7). Indeed, Bo- 
doni's work was much copied by such presses as that of the 
Vicenzi at Modena and in other parts of Italy. The luxurious 
books of the Tipografia della Societa Letteraria at Pisa (now 
almost forgotten), which employed Amoretti's fonts, were 
important and collected by amateurs of printing. The effect 

' The Amorettis also issued in 1830 another specimen — Miouo Saggio 
de' Caratteri e Fregi delta Fonderia dei FratelU Jlmoretti Incisori e Fonditori 
in Parma, It is infenor to the first one and shows some types in the English 
manner of Thome. 


of Amoretti's fonts is shown in the folio Poesie di Catullo^ in 
Italian and Latin, issued at Pisa in 1 8 1 5. This book recalls 
Bodoni's manner, but just misses its excellence; somehow 
the types seem commonplace, and their arrangement lacks 
Bodoni's clever touch. Amoretti's types are also used in 
Tasso's ./df/wmto, printed in Pisa in 1804 at the same press; 
but here the types are too much spaced and look weak, not 
only on that account, but because they are so. ^ 


SOME account of the manifold activities of the Didot 
family is given in a previous chapter, but we must now 
consider their important part in the development of nine- 
teenth century type-forms. Their eighteenth century influ- 
ence in the movement toward lighter types is shown by 
Frangois AmbroiseDidot's fonts cut by Waflard about 1775,* 
in that interesting book already spoken oi^EpUre sur les Pro- 
gr^s de Plmprimeriey written and put forth by Didot Pcdne 
in 1784, and in the delightful Essai de Fables JVouvelles^ 
in which the EpUre was reprinted in 1786. It is but fair 
to say that mid-eighteenth century French specimens were 
full of very light fonts, in what was then called the godt 
nouveauj and it was these that the Didots somewhat re- 
fined upon. On the other hand, some of the graceful and 
spirited but attenuated old style types used by the Didots 
about 1780 were very beautiful, and have not been suffi- 
ciently noticed — types just on the turn of the tide — fore- 
shadowing the coming change in style, but by no means 

' I have not been able to examine any volumes showing large sizes of the 
Waflard tjrpes, which were quickly superseded by Vibert's fonts, for which 
Pierre Didot was responsible. Alphabets of Waflard 's characters are shown 
in Thibaudeau's La Lettre d* Imfirimerie^ Vol. I, pis. 15 and 16. The date 
of their ap(>earance there given (1757) would appear to be open to question. 





• • 


• •opo«« 

• •! 















317. Ornaments: AmorettPs Sag-gio de^ Caratteri 

Parma^ 1811 


disfigured by it None of these characters (save possibly 
Waflard's) prepare us for the fonts cut by Firmin Didot 
about 1800 for the Racine and also used in the composition 
of the Constitution de la Bkpuhlique. 

The famous idition du Louvre of Racine (1801-5) was , 
printed by Pierre Didot in three folio volumes, and con- 
sidered his chef d^oeuvre. "The splendid execution of this 
book," says Bouchot, " was a true typographical revolution. 
Never in any country had scrupulous perfection of detail 
been joined to so masterly a knowledge of arrangement and 
form of characters. The great artists of the Da vidian school 
were anxious of the honour of seeing their drawings repro- 
duced as illustrations, and . . . designed the fifty-seven plates 
with which the edition was adorned." Two hundred and 
fifty copies were printed, one hundred of which had proofs 
' of the plates before letters. It was published by subscription 
at 1200 francs for the ordinary edition, and with proofs at 
1800 francs. 

The series of typical "Didot" characters used in it is dis- 
tinguished by the violent contrast of their thick and thin 
lines. The heavy strokes of the letters are very strong, the 
thin lines and the serifs are exaggerated and lightened to 
a mere hair-line. The italic is almost as if engraved. The 
effect as a whole is perfect, but dazzling; it sticks into, 
rather than strikes, the eye. All the agreeable, mellow feel- 
ing of the letter of Jenson and Garamond is gone. " Didot in- 
con testably realized," says Thibaudeau, "a pompous roman 
alphabet instinct with majestic grandeur, but of extreme 
dryness and absolutely glacial rigidity of line." He adds 
that a whole school of typography sprang up around this 
Didot "formula-type." There existed, however, a minority 
who did not accept Didot's fonts without criticism and 


We can understand the enthusiasm excited by such books 
as Didot's Horace and Racine only when we realize that 
the men chosen to illustrate them were part and parcel 
of the movement in Art that I have already oudined, and 
that printing was itself but a tiny current in the far-reach- 
ing sweep of this tide. Lifeless and pretentious as such work 
seems to us now, to the public of that day it appeared the 
quintessence of the antique spirit For it must be observed — 
and this observation has a moral for the printer — that what 
the contemporaries of Didot saw and admired in his print- 
ing is not what we see and admire now. Men of that day 
saw, or thought they saw, in Didot's great folios, antiquity; 
to us the only interesting thing about them is that they ex- 
hibit Didot's idea of it And since the Didot idea was not 
particularly interesting, or his manner charming, neither 
his types nor the books he printed with them much interest 
us. The only "period'' a printer can work in so as to give 
pleasure at subsequent periods appears to be his own. 

The development of this Didot letter is shown in the 
Specimen des Noiweaux Carac&res . . . de P. Didot Paitii of 
1819 {Jig. 318). Here we see a new style of French type in 
full swing. Pierre Didot says these fonts were engraved 
under his personal supervision by the type-cutter Vibert, 
whom he assisted (and probably inordinately tormented) for 
three hours a day for ten years to get things to his mind. 
FranQois Ambroise Didot, it should be remembered, had 
reformulated a system of type-measurement — one reason 
why his style of type became so popular with printers. His 
son applied this mathematical sense to type-design, with 
a resultant rigidity which is a mark of early nineteenth 
century "classic" French fonts. Almost every trace of pen- 
quality vanishes in these types. It is an alphabet "regular- 
ized" to a painful degree; though very perfect and very 

g ^ ^ I "5 .a -5 ;§ I s ■§ ^ J 

l« SO B ^ = i ;.1 ^l| s1 -sill 
■w I 2 s « ^ M i 5-a -f e- c s „-l 8 s I E ^ :S 

jl|l^tl^lM-s^ii|ii -s^^- 

il.HI'^-*,ll = 



brilliant There are marked and disagreeable peculiarities 
in some letters {Jig. 3 19), and its disabled g and wounded y 
warn us of the danger of too much fussing over details. 

Some very horrid characters engraved for the Imprim- 
erie in 18 1 8 by Jacquemin were a reflection of those heavier 
types introduced by Thorne in England ; for after the down- 
fall of Napoleon, English fashions were popular. They had 
a counterpart in those of Henri Didot's nephew, Marcel- 
lin Legrand, whose fonts of 1825 — a sort of mechanical 
version of Didot's 1819 fonts — were followed by the same 
engraver's unpleasandy condensed types of 1847. 

The eflect of types of the Didot school may be seen in books 
published in France by different members of the Didot 
family, by Renouard, and other progressive publishers, be- 
tween 1800 and 1850. The following volumes, selected at 
random, show a certain progression in style of type as the 
century advanced. 

In the Bucoliques of Virgil and the Idylles of Theocri- 
tus, translated and printed by Firmin Didot, his camc&res 
(Tecriture were first used in 1806. In 1811, Renouard pub- 
lished, in two volumes 12mo, an illustrated edition of the 
Fables of La Fontaine, which was an important book in its 
time and a characteristic piece of early nineteenth century 
typogfraphy. The fonts used in the 1817 edition of Molidre's 
works — in octavo, printed by Pierre Didot rdine — show 
further progression toward modern face types, as we now 
understand the term.Baour-Lormian's translation of Tasso's 
Jhtisalem Delivree, published by Delaunay and printed by 
Didot lejeune in 1819, though virile compared with later 
type effects, is a very frigid and tiresome performance. 

Poisies et Traductions en Vers de Firmin Didot Paris^ de 
la Typographie de PJuteur^ 1822, shows Didot's own views 


as to what a book should look like ; and Napoleon et ses 
Contemporainsy a series of engravings with text by A. P. de 
Chambure (1824), published by Bossange and printed by 
Lachevardiere^&, is a good example of fashionable typog- 
raphy of a little later time. Lettres de NapolSon a Josephine^ 
etc. (1796-1814), published and printed by Firmin Didot 
Frfires in 1833, in two volumes octavo, is also an example 
of what the Didot house at that period thought fit to present 
to the public. Curmer's famous edition of St Pierre's Paul 
et Virginie, in octavo, printed by £verat and published at 
Paris in 1838, was considered a delightful novelty in book- 
making. Besides many full-page wood-engravings by Tony 
Johannot, its text was smothered with innumerable wood- 
cuts, designed and executed by the best hands — French and 
English — in the "romantic" manner of the day. It inter- 
ests us for two reasons : first, as a painstaking and success- 
ful endeavour to make what was then considered (and, in a 
sense, still is) a remarkable edition ; second, because in it all 
unity of illustration with typography was thrown overboard. 
This style in the making of gift-books persisted in all coun- 
tries for many years. 

Finally, Horace's Opera^ printed by Firmin Didot in 1855 
from very tiny types, is worth examination. Ambroise Fir- 
min Didot's address Au Lecteur gives some typographical 
details about the edition. The smallest type in the book (cast 
by Laurent & De Bemy) is used in the notes to Didot's 
address — not so small, however, as Henri Didot's micro- 
scopic types used in 1827 in a minute edition of La Roche- 
foucauld's Maximes. 

Elxcept for the reconstitution of books of that period, 
types of the Didot school have little practical value to us 


Conjurant la melancolie, 
La defiance et ses ddtours, 
La froideur, el la jalousie, 
En ont confie Theureux cours 
A rHymen sensible, aux Amours, 
A la raison, k la folie: 
Heureux qui sail regler toujours 
Leur accord, leur douce harmonic! 

L^, des dieux respirant la vie, 
L'Hymen, par sa feconditd, 
L'Hymen, que mon coeur deifie, 
Entretient, augmente, et varie 
L amour, lespoir, et la gaiete; 
La douce paix, la liberte, 
Y president de compagnie, 
Versant, ofFrant de tout cote 
Et le nectar et Tambrosie. 

Comme, apr^s un beau jour d cte, 
La niiit, plus calme et non moins belle, 

319. Roman in P. Dtdofs SpMmen^ etc.^ Paris^ 1819 



OF early nineteenth century French specimens to becon- 
sidered, the first is that of J, G. Gill€ Ji/s, who in 1808 
issued a folio specimen entided Recueil des Divers Carac- 
ibres Vignettes et Omemens de la Fonderie et Imprimerie de 
J. G. Gille} The series of book-types shown are just on the 
verge of modem face. The riding-letters are of the extreme 
"Didot" form. The best fonts in this book are the beauti- 
ful series of caracthrs d^icriture in ronde^ batarde^ and coule^ 
which (especially in larger sizes) have much movement and 
style. These were used with great success for administra- 
tive and commercial printing. The vignettes or type-borders 
are distinctive, particularly those with black backgrounds, 
which are among the handsomest of their kind {Jig. 320). 
The collection of decorations cut on wood and reproduced 
in polytype is an important feature. All kinds of interesting 
ornaments are displayed. Many of them are in the pseudo- 
classic taste of the period, which was taken uncommonly 
seriously by Gill6. In a prospectus about his designs for print- 
ers, he alludes slightingly to the borders and tail-pieces in 
Louis XV style, holding Luce up to ridicule, who, he says, 
^did not consult the immortal and enchanting cartons of Ra- 
phael. . . . But in our day,*' he adds, " Percier, Fontaine, and 
other great architects have appeared. They have opened 
our eyes, and iron, marble, steel, wood, all should breathe 
the spirit of Raphael" — though I do not think Raphael 
would easily recognize his^spirit^inOill^s type ornaments ! 
An idea of the collection may be had from our reproduc- 

' This foundry existed in the eighteenth centur}% when it was presided over 
by a certain J. Gill^, who published an interesting octavo specimen in 1773, 
and another of 16mo form in 1778, entitled Caracthre9 de la Fonderie de 
J. GiiiSf Graveur etFondeur du Rot, etc. About 1790, his son acquired the 


tion of a broadside specimen of his types, probably issued 
also about 1808 {Jig* 321). In this, examples are shown of 
the roman and italic types and the caracteres (T Scriture just 
spoken of, and the sheet is surrounded with one of Gille's 
fine borders. 

A less important specimeh of about this period is the folio 
book of Vignettes et Fleurons engraved by Besnard and pub- 
lished by him in 1812, printed by Mame, and interesting for 
its pretty ornaments designed in light style. 

At the Exposition du Louvre of 1819, the Parisian type- 
founder Moley«/n^, who began life as a painter and designer, 
exhibited a series of fourteen great broadsides, surrounded 
with wide borders, which is one of the most magnificent 
type-specimens known. These sheets exhibit the result of 
twenty-seven years of personal labour — 206 varieties of 
roman, italic, civility, Greek, Hebrew, Rabbinical Hebrew, 
Arabic, Samaritan, Syriac, and also a fine series of roman 
titling-letters. In addition there are 468 borders (very varied 
in design and many of great beauty), rules, etc. The roman 
and italic are of the Didot style, and (except for the tiding- 
letters)are less mechanical than is usual in such fonts. They 
show this kind of type at its best, though owing much to 
the splendid presswork of Pierre Didot Patn^. We repro- 
duce the sixth plate of the series (Jig. 322). The Jury of the 
Exposition commended "this immense and magnificent col- 
lection as the work of an artist who greatiy merits notice, 
not merely for his admirable work, but for the labour, pains, 
and immense sacrifices he has made to arrive at so high a 
degree of perfection." As a conspectus of the best French 
type of its day. Mole's fourteen Tableaux are classic. 

French typographic ornament of this period, like type- 
form, was much influenced by England, and an English en- 
graver, Charles Thompson, — brother of the better known 

321. Bnatiside Sfimmen oft 

^flu, Paris, c. 1808 {reduced) 


John Thompson, — contributed to this. Settling in Paris in 
1816, his engraved decorations were very much the mode, 
and their multiplication by the process known as poly ty page 
put them at the disposal of the ordinary printer, Thomp- 
son published, in 1826, the first of a quarterly series of 
collections of his ornaments, entitled Recueil de Vignettes 
gravies sur bois et polyty pees par 77k)w/>^w2. This thin quarto, 
printed by J. Pinard, shows his work, with prices for the 
cuts affixed to each. They were not very charming produc- 
tions, for though well engraved, they were somewhat dry 
both in design and in line. But Thompson set a style which 
was much followed in France. 

Many of the cuts in the Gille^/y specimen of 1808 are 
repeated in Epreuves des Divers Carac&reSj Vignettes et Or- 
nemens de la Fonderie deJ. A. Pasteur^ Paris, 1823; a fuller 
and in some ways more interesting collection. Though Pas- 
teur appears to have succeeded to some of Gille's collection, 
probably the largest part went to Laurent, Balzac, and Bar- 
bier. After the failure and death of Gille Jils^ Laurent, a 
former employee, had charge of the sale of his material in 
1827. Later, he became a partner in the firm of Laurent & 
De Berny.^ 

The type-founder L. Leger issued a brilliant broadside 
which shows the persistence of those extreme "classic'' type- 
forms which the Didots made fashionable {Jig. 323). He 
brought out, some time between 1831 and 1844, a quarto 
volume of types and ornaments, endded Specimen des Di- 

* The De Bemy foundry had an interesting hbtory. With Laurent, and a 
printer named Barbier, the novelist Honor6 de Balzac formed an historic but 
disastrous association in 1827, in a scheme to erect a foundry, printing-office, 
and publishing-house all in one. In 1828, the firm broke up, leaving Laurent 
in possession of the foundry, who was joined by Alexandre de Bemy (placed 
there by his mother, whose sentimental relations with Balzac gready influ- 
enced the novelist's career) . This firm — Laurent & De Bemy — existed until 
1848, when the business was continued by De Bemy alone. 


vers Carac&res Vignettes et Fleuwns des Fonderie et Sth^a- 
typie de L. LegcTy Graveur, neveu et successur de P. F. Didoty 
which, according to its compiler, represented the results of 
twenty-five years' labour. The ornaments and borders are 
distincdy light in effect, black backgrounds having mosdy 
disappeared {Jig. 324). The types, less excellent than the 
ornaments, are still in the Didot style. 

An extremely characteristic showing of types in popular 
use in the first fifty years of the nineteenth century is made 
in the Specimen TypograpHque de P Imprimerie JRoyale. These 
two folio volumes (1, 1845; II, 1851), display a number of 
fonts modelled on the Didot plan, and also make a distin- 
guished showing of exotic fonts by Jacquemin. An index at 
the end of the first volume tells who cut the various types 
displayed — Firmin Didot, Marcellin Legrand, and Leger 
Didot figuring among their designers ; while among ancient 
fonts are those from Garamond, the Propaganda and Me- 
dici offices, and Savary de Breves. 

The Didot foundry remained in the possession of the 
family until sold by Ambroise Firmin Didot, when its types 
became part of the Fonderie Gen^rale of Paris. In this house 
were consolidated the establishments of Firmin Didot, Mole, 
Crosnier, and £verat. The 1839 specimen of the Fonderie 
Generale, issued by K Tarbe, who presided over it, shows 
text types in the "classic" Didot style, and many of the or- 
naments designed to accompany them — as well as vignettes 
in the "romantic manner" which are very characteristic of 
that time and very amusing in this. Another important spe- 
cimen of the Fonderie G6n6rale, then managed by Biesta, 
Laboulaye & Cie, issued in 1843, showed, in addition to the 
collections mentioned, those of Lion, Tarb6, and Laboulaye 
Fr&res. The preliminary Axns supplies references by which 
the types cut by different designers may be identified. The 

•r, I^rU. after 1806 fmfem/) 

■__- - '*' •* r 

r >► . >*,, 

'-***. ■* 

^T^ ' \y 

324. Borders: Ug'er's SpMmen des Divers Caract^res^ Paris 


book is important to any one desiring to reconstitute the 
typography of a somewhat hopeless period. It has also the 
doubtful honour of being one of the earliest specimen-books 
in which a series of condensed letters for titling was shown, 
though the Didots used them in their own printing much 
earlier. Types of the Didot variety, — "classic" types, as 
they were called, — though degraded by condensation from 
the best Didot form, remained in general favour until about 
1850' (/§-. 325). 

Only a few years after the revival of the original Cas- 
lon types in flngland, Alexandre de Berny brought out (in 
1852) a sort of French old style letter modelled on earlier 
fonts {Jig. 326), which, to quote an associate of De Berny's, 
"belonged to the Latin family of letters — letters charac- 
terized by the substitution of more robust — ^plus nourries^ — 
lines for the fine lines of the ^classic' types." Similar types 
were designed about the same time by the Lyons publisher 
Louis Perrin, who used them in De Boissieu's Inscriptions 
Antiques de Lyon. These types were made familiar to the 
readers of a generation ago in the publications of the Paris- 
ian house of Lemerre. "Hzevir" types were also issued by 
Beaudoire (Fonderie Generale) of Paris. All these offered 
agreeable relief from the monotony of fonts of the Didot 
school — though much resented by the adherents of "Di- 

Since that time, many different kinds of old style fonts 
have been brought out by French founders; such as the 
Shie XFIP Siicle Elzhner^ a useful series of types with 
attractive ornaments copied from Elzevir decorations ; and 
imitations of seventeenth century cursive fonts and initial 

* Werdet's Etudes Bibiiogra/ihigues sur la Famille de» Didot (Paris, Dentu, 
1864) should be consulted for an account of the chief books and types pro- 
duced by the Didots. 


letters, produced by the Fonderie Mayeur. The utilization 
of fonts of older style was later helped by such men as Jules 
Claye (predecessor of A. Quantin et Cie.), who published in 
1875 Types de Caractbres et (POmements Anciens, an inter- 
esting showing of "special " types employed by him. These 
were cast from the original matrices of ancient fonts which 
he callfsd Elzevirien, and for them he produced some ex- 
cellent ornaments and initials — those in the Lyons style 
being particularly successful. "Modern designers," says 
M. Audin,"have wisely reacted against the tendency intro- 
duced by Grandjean in his types, a tendency that Basker- 
ville and Bodoni did not know how to escape and that Didot 
carried to its extreme. A better balance between the thin 
and thick strokes, a litde fancifulness also in line, has 
changed entirely the physiognomy of modern typography .** ^ 
While types showing Didot influence are still much used in 
France, the most carefully printed books are now often set 
in French old style fonts. During the present century, the 
"historical types" of the Imprimerie Nationale have been 
increasingly employed and appreciated — in works like 
Claudin's Histoire de P Imprimerie en France^ and in the 
agreeable editions of Balzac, Flaubert, and De Maupassant 
printed by the Imprimerie for the Paris publisher Conard. 
And some modem Parisian type-founders have resuscitated 
eighteenth century styles in fonts and ornaments, with most 
charming results. 

To see how early nineteenth century fonts compare with the 
historical fonts which preceded them, look at the compara- 
tive table of roman and italic types employed by the French 
National Printing-House from 1640 to 1825 {Jig. 327). It is 
one of the most enlightening documents about French type- 

'Audin's Lc UvrCy p. 50. 

OXZE !l« 16. — 5 pa. SO GBWT. LB KILO. 

Ego multos homines excellenti animo ac virtute ftiisse, el 
sine doctrina, naturae ipsius liabitu prope divino, per seipsos 
et moderatos et graves exslitisse fateor : etiam illud adjungo , 
s^pius ad laudem atque virtutem naturam sine doctrina, quam 
sine natura valuisse doclrinam. Atque idem ego contendo, cum 
ad naturam eximiam atque illustrem accesserit ratio quasdam , 
conformatioque doctrinae-, tum illud nescio quid praeclarum ac 
singulare solere existere. Ex hoc esse hunc numero, quem pa- 
ires noslri viderunt, divinum hominem, Africanum : ex hoc C. 
Lselium, L. Furium, moderatissimos homines et continentissi- 
mos: ex hoc fortissimum virum et illis lemporibus doctisslmum , 
M. Catonem ilium senem *. qui profecto, si nihil ad percipien- 
dam colendamque virtutem litteris adjuvarentur ^ nunquam se 
ad earum studium contulissent. Quod si non hie tantus fruetus 
ostenderetur , et si ex his studiis delectatio sola pcleretur : ta-- 
men, ut opinor, hauc animi remissionem, humanissimam ac li* 
beralissimam judicaretis. ^am caeterse neque temporum sunt, 
neque aetatum omnium , neque locorum : haec studia adolescen- 
tiam alunt.senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis 
perrugium ac solatium praebent, delectant domi, non impediunt 
foris, pernoctant nobiscum , peregrinantur ac rusticantur. Quod 
si ipsi haec neque attingere, neque sensu nostro gustare posse- 
mus, tamen ea mirari deberemus. Quis nostrum tam animo 

Ego mullos homines excellenti animo ac virtute fuisse, et 
sine doctrina, naturae ipsius habitu prope divino, per seipsos 
et moderatos et graves exstitisse fhteor : etiam illud adjungo, 
saepius ad laudem atque virtutem naturam sine doctrina, quam 
sine natura valuisse doctrinam. Atque idem ego contendo, cum 
ad naturam eximiam atque illustrem accesserit ratio quaedam , 

IMPRIMERIE. FONDERiE. 123456789 0. 

Fuit autem et animo magno, et corpore, imperatoriaqae 
forwOf ut ipso aspectu cuivis injiceret admirationem sui. Sed 

Fonderie Genomic, rue Mailame, ii^ 22, u Varia. 

325. ^^Ciassic^^ Types: Epreuves de Caractkres^ Fonderte Ginirale 

Paris, 1843 

c'est la famille des lettres Latines, lettres caractirisies 
par la substitution de traits plus nourris aux traits fins 
du type classique et par le l^ger raccord des empattements 
terminus en pointe, qui dilimitent les traits, avec ces traits 

Cest la une creation vraiment originale, qui a ouvert 
un champ nouveau a la Fonderie de caractires, champ 
si vaste qu'on peut dire que la plupart de ses creations 
se rattachent a ces types, depuis leur apparition premiere, 
en 1852. La Typographie a multipli^ leur emploi dans 
toutes les impressions si varices des ouvrages de ville, pour 
rompre la monotonie resultant de I'emploi unique des 
lettres d^riv^es du type classique. II n'est pas t^m^raire 
d'affirmer que cette substitution sera plus complete dans 
un jour prochain, et que des caract^res ordinaires proc6- 
dant des m^mes principes remplaceront nos types actuels 
dans presque tous les travaux de llmprimerie. 

La Typographie reconnaissante rapportera le m^rite 
de cette evolution, d^ja si ftconde, a son initiateur, et 
associera aux noms de ses illustres devanciers, les Didot 
et les Fournier, celui de de Berny. 

326. French Old Style revived by De Berny ^ Paris^ in 1852 











1818. (S) 

1825. (7) 






A « 







A a 

B * 







B h 

C c 







C c 

D irf 







D d 

E ie 







E e 

F i/ 







P f 

G 1^ 







G 9 

H \h 







H h 

I !'■ 









I I 

1 • 

" J 










J J 

K 1* 







K k 

L \l 







L I 

M iw 







M m 

N j» 







N n 

O \o 





P !/. 







P P 

a, ? 







Q 7 

R Ir 







R r 

S i* 







S s 

T i^ 







T t 









U 11 


V f^ 







V V 









X X 









1' y 









Z z 

to 1825 



faces in existence,* The letters of the Garamond fonts of 
1540 are most irregular, and this is true of the characters 
cut by Grandjean in 1693 and finished by Alexandre, and 
those of Luce of 1740 — when compared with the greater 
mechanical perfection of roman letters in Didot's font of- 
181 1. The older types make elegant, easy, readable pages, but 
pages set from Didot types appear rig^d, formal, and tire- 
some. This is sdU truer of the fonts of Jacquemin and of 
Marcellin Legrand, who cut a more condensed version of 
his type in 1847 — which by no means bettered its desig^. 
Compare the Garamond types of 1540 with the Legrand 
types of 1825, and it is plain enough that mechanical per- 
fection does not necessarily make a fine font And yet these 
types were intended to supersede the splendid romain du mi 
of earlier days. All this came about in French typography 
through Grandjean's mischievous serif, Baskerville's influ- 
ence, the later printing of Bodoni and the Didots — and some 
English fashions, which must now be considered. 

From Mtes ntr lea TSffiea Etrangeradu Sjfiecimen de i* Im/irimerie Royale 
(Paris, 1847) . There is a similar table in Duprat's Hiaioire de P Imfirimerie 
IntfiMaie de France (Paris, 1861). 


ENGLISH types: 18OO-I844 

IN England, a change in type-forms, analogous to that 
which was taking place in France, and a like final crys- 
tallization, brought about a new style of English type. 
Transitional fonts which were far on the way to this, we 
have seen in the work of English presses at the end of the 
eighteenth century. It is their nineteenth century develop- 
ment of which we have now to speak. 

Classification of types by centuries is an arbitrary thing. 
Typographical style does not, of course, change because im- 
prints are dated 1800 instead of 1799, and many books pro- 
duced in England early in the new century resembled, in 
type-forms and manner, those issued during the last years 
of the old. For instarice, a poem in folio entided The Sover- 
eign. Addressed to His Imperial Majesty Paul^ Emperourof 
all the Bussias^ by Charles Small Pybus, London, Bensley, 
1800, is a superb showing of transitional English types 
just about to become modern face(^^. 328). Dibdin wrote in 
1817 that he considered this book the finest piece of print- 
ing that Bensley had produced. Tasso's Jerusalem Deliv- 
eredy printed by Bensley and brought out in 1803, is a quarto 
showing the use of old style type, much leaded, which was 
one of the ways of obtaining the light effects then the mode. 
Another book by Bensley which is interesting to the student 
of transitional types is Macklin's beautifully printed folio 
Bible of 1800 — an imposing work of great reputation, in- 
tended to rival Bulmer's "Boydell Shakspeare." Hume's 
History oj' England, in five folio volumes, printed for Rob- 
ert Bowyer in 1806 by Bensley, was highly praised by the 
lovers of fine books of that day. Then again, Blair's Gravey 
printed by Bensley and published by Ackermann in 1813, 


















































B ^ 














" ] 




1818. (0) 



1825. (7) 

































































































































































































































V if 






























^ 1 










to 1825 



it was translated into English for the use of her illustrious 
daughters" — the "Female Personage" being no other than 
Queen Charlotte. This book was the first volume stereo- 
typed by Elarl Stanhope^s process, and is interesting on that 
account The standard rules of the Stereotype Office affixed 
to this book state that nothing is to be printed against Re- 
ligion, everything is to be avoided upon the Subject of Pol- 
itics offensive to any Party, that the Characters of Individ- 
uals are not to be attacked, and — what concerns us most 
— that every Work which is stereotyped in this Office is 
to be composed xvith beautiful Types. This notice throws 
a certain light on the innocuous role which the Stereotype 
Office proposed for itself, and also shows that they thought 
this book printed from good types — it being the first of 
their publications. These types are not old style at all. They 
are what we now term modern face, and the book is men- 
tioned because it shows an early use (1804) of this type- 
form {Jig. 330). 

An extremely good specimen of a real modern face roman 
type was used in Thomas Frognall Dibdin's Bibliographical 
Decameron^ printed in 1817 by Bulmer in three volumes 
{Jig. 331). This work is one of the most successful typo- 
graphical achievements of the early nineteenth century. The 
typography is excellent, the pages splendidly imposed, and 
the reproductions of old printers' marks and other illustra- 
tions beyond praise. In presswork it is one of the finest of 
modern volumes. It needed, however, all that the printer 
could do for it ; for its author wrote in an affectedly playful 
style which makes his books among the most tiresome and 
irritating in the language. Bulmer's fine edition of Dibdin's 
Typographical Antiquities of Great Britain (Volumes II, III, 
IV) and theBibliotheca Spenceriana (1814-15) are also worth 

Though thy disloyal sons, a feeble band, 
Sound the loud blast of treason through the land : 
Scoff at thy danger^ with unnatural mirth. 
And execrate the soil which gave them birth, 
With jaundiced eye thy splendid triumphs view. 
And give to France, the palm to Britain due: 
Or, — ^when loud strains of gratulation ring. 
And lowly bending to the eternal King, 
Thy Sovereign bids a nation's praise arise 
In grateful incense to the favoring skies — 
Cast o'er each solemn scene a scornful glance, 
And only sigh for anarchy and France, 

Yes ! unsupported Treason's standard falls, 
Sedition vainly on her children calls ; 
While cities, cottages, and camps contend. 
Their King, their Laws, their Country to defend. 

Kaise, Britain, raise thy sea-encircled head, 
Round the wide world behold thy glory spread ; 
Firm as thy guardian oaks thou still shalt stand, 
The dread and wonder of each hostile land 1 

329. Types used in Poetry of the Anti^Jacobin: Bulmer^ London^ 1801 



The Stereotype Office. 

1. . Nothing is to be printed against Religion. 

S. Every thing is to be avoided, upon the subject 
of Politics, which is offensive to any Party. 

3. The Characters of Individuals are not to be at- 


4. Every Work which is stereotyped at this Office, 

is to be composed with beautiful Types. 

5. All the Stereotype Plates are to be made accord- 

ing to the improved Process discovered by 

6. School Books, and all Works for the Instruction 

of Youth, will be stereotyped at a lower Piice 
than any other. 

330. Types used by the Stereotype Office^ London^ 1804 


see you in this field of contest, brandishing your unerring 
lanccj or quietly reposing beneath the panoply of your 
seven-bulls-hide shield ! . . 

Lysakdeb. This must be a vety extraordinary cham- 

LiSABDO. ^ In his way ^ (as they call it) he hath absolutely 
no compeer ; and Magliabecchi yields entirely to his ascen- 
dant genius — for Nennius not only loves bohes as lustily as 
did the librarian of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, but he 
hath something more than a mere title-page acquaintance 
with them. His memory also is equally fiuthful and well- 
furnished — and such a gluttonous bibliomaniacal appetite 
doth he possess, that even Bymer^ the Gallia Christianay 
and Bouquet's Recuetl des Historians des GauleSy will scarcely 
suffice him for a twelvemonth^s * victualling.^ Ma]billon, 
Montfaucon, and Muratori are his dear delights as foreign 
authors ; while his deal-shelves groan beneath the weight of 
annotation upon our home historians ; such as Gildas, 
Jeffirey, his namesake, Ingulph, Hoveden, Malmesbury, 
Matthew Paris, Ralph ,de Diceto, and Benedictus Abbas, 
&c. &c.— and then for the < scribbled margins' (asWarburton 
used to express it) of his Leland, Camden, Twysden, Gale, 
Sparke, Heame, Batteley, Grose, King, and others of the 
like character — oh, ^twould do your heart good only to have 
aglimpse of them ! 

LoBEKZo. More and more wondrous ! 

LisAEDO. I have not yet done with Nennius. He hath 
no small knowledge of the art of design ; and brandishes his 
pendl upon castles, cathedrals, and churches, that it were a 
marvel to see how his drawers and portfolios are cra:mmed 
with the same. There is not a church, nor place of worship, 
nor castle, within the counties of Sussex, Kenty and Bedford^ 

331. Pag'e of Bibliographical Decameron: Bulmer^ London^ 1817 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1800-1844 191 

Other examples ofthe employment of these modern face 
types are found in the text of Rudolph Ackermann^s cele- 
brated series of illustrated quartos on Westminster Abbey 
(1812) and the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge 
(1814-15), and in the inimitable Microcosm of London 
(1808-11), etc., the coloured plates of which are so delight- 
ful that they have obscured the merit of their straightfor- 
ward typography — some of it Bensley's work. Another edi- 
tion which shows this kind of type (and also its falling off) 
is John Murray's 16mo edition of Lord Byron's Works^ 
published in five volumes in 1823. Here we begin to see 
what such types were coming to when less well cut, less well 
printed, and less well imposed, and also how poor they were 
in smaller sizes. For printers at that date found the same 
trouble with delicate modern face types that we do now. In 
fact, Dibdin, in one of the few directly written passages in 
the Bildiographical Decameron^ mentions this difficulty, and 
(somewhat surprisingly) seems to feel that old style types 
were better than the modem cut of letter in which his own 
book had been printed. " In regard to Modem Printing^ he 
says, "you ask me whether we are not arrived at the top- 
most pitch of excellence in the art? I answer, not quite at 
the topmost pitch : for our types are, in general, too square, 
or sharp; and the finer parts of the letters are so very Jine^ 
that they soon break, and, excepting in the very first im- 
pressions, you will rarely find the types in a completely per- 
fect state. There is more roundness, or evenness, or, if you 
will allow the word, more comfortableness of appearance, in 
the publications of Tonson and Knapton, than in those of 
modern times.'' Now Tonson's and Knapton's types were 
old style. 

As in all periods when particular attention was paid by 
printers to making fine books, the cultivated amateur was 


not lacking, ajid one such man, now forgotten, was Julian 
Hibbert He was an interesting character who, besides hav- 
ing a hand in the social and political reforms of his day, 
undertook to reform the Greek fonts then used in printing. 
In 1827, he brought out at his private press in his house in 
London, The Book of the Orphic Hymns^ "in uncial letters, 
as a typographical experiment'' {fig* 332). Hibbert says of 
his alphabet that it " was first composed from the inspection 
of Inscriptions in the Musasums of London and Paris, and 
thus it is no wonder, if it still retains more of a sculpdtory 
than of a scriptitory appearance." After reading Montfau- 
con's Palaeographia Grseca and examining facsimiles of the 
Herculanean manuscripts, he altered the forms of many of 
the letters. "If I had adopted the Alphabet of any one cele- 
brated ms.," Hibbert says, I should have had less trouble. 
... As it is, I have taken each letter separately from such 
Mss. as I thought best represented the beau ideal of an uncial 
type ; . . . yet as placed side by side, they look very different 
from a ms." But he calls it " a Greek type, which, at the same 
time that it is calculated for ordinary use, approaches nearer 
to old MSS. than types that have been hitherto used,'' and 
"represents with tolerable accuracy the forms of the letters 
used by the Greeks themselves, in the brightest days of 
their literature. ... I do not mean," he adds, "a type like that 
used in Bodoni's Callimachus, . . . ornamented (or rather 
disfigured) by the additions of what, I believe, type-founders 
call st/rifsj or cerefs^^ Two books were printed by this fore- 
nmner of Robert Proctor, who was indeed vox clamantis! 
The fonts had considerable charm, but were at the time 
considered — if they were considered at all — as complete 
failures ; and were afterwards melted. 

* See " Preface addressed by the Printer to Greek Scholars" in The Book of 
the Orfihic Hymns, 31 

LV . (64) €ic A(t>pOAITHN 


oyp'^NiH . noAyytAHe . ^iaommciahc A<t>pOAITH • 
noNTorcNHC • rcNCTcipx ecA < ^iaohj^nnyxc * ccmnh . 




occA T CN oypANCdi ecTi . Kai cn taihi noAyKApnui . 
€N noNToy T€ tyeui . C€mnh BAKXOIO nApcApc . 


neieOI ACKTpOXApHC . Kpy^lH . XApiAC^Tl ANACCA . 




CNzey^ACA BpOToyc axaainutoicin anapkaic . 


cpxeo . KYnpor€N€C eciON rcNOC ; eiT €n OAYMnCdl 15 
ccci . ecA BAciACiA . KAAUi rHGoycA npocuncji : 

€lTe KAI CyAIPANOy CypiHC €AOC AM<^inOA€y€lC » 

€iT€ cy r €N ncAioici cyN iipMAci xpyceorcyKToic 
XirynTOy katcxcic lepHC tonimcoaca AoyTpA . 



H NyM^iLic TcpnHi KyAN(oniciN €N jceoNi i^lXI . 
eyiAc cn aihaaoic 4'Amm(oa€cin aamati Koy^oi } 



332. Julian Htbberfs Uncial Greek Types^ London^ 1827 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1800-1844 193 

It is to Scotch founders that we must turn for the next c /*. "^ 
Step in the development of the modern face type-family. ' 
Alexander Wilson, who in the eighteenth century made 
types for the brothers Foulis, had left a foundry which was 
still maintaining scholarly traditions. The taste which led 
to the adoption of lighter type-forms had been followed 
consistendy by his house ; and, probably still further influ- 
enced by Didot types, the Wilson foundry early in the nine- 
teenth century produced an English version of them — the 
best English variant of this form of letter that we have. It is 
sturdier and pleasanter to read than parallel French types, 
and we are much more at home with it It is not as good a 
type as the Caslon character, but as produced by Wilson it 
is a very handsome and serviceable letter, and in it we have 
another English type-family — the Scotch modem face. It is 
an English equivalent of the fonts shown in the 1819 speci- 
men of the Didots. 

The fonts, practically as we have them to-day, are beau- 
tifully shown in the Specimen of Modem Printing Types cast 
at the Letter-Foundry of Alex. Wilson &f Son^ at Glasgow^ 
1833. This quarto specimen is in two parts. In an ** Ad- 
dress to the Printers," which prefaces the volume, the Wil- 
sons say : '^ In conformity with ancient, immemorial usage, 
we have, in Part I. displayed our Founts in the Roman 
garb — the venerable Quousque tandem; but lest it should be 
supposed that we had chosen the flowing drapery of Rome 
for the purpose of shading or concealing defects, we have 
in Part II. shown off*our Founts in a dress entirely English.'* 
Two pages of titling-letters are displayed before we come 
to the first body type — a spirited and fine cut of great 
primer. Then follow varieties of roman, from pica to dia- 
mond. A page of double pica Greek (used in the Homer 
printed by the Foulis brothers) is followed by Greek fonts 


down to "mignon," and two pages of Hebrew. The roman 
and italic types are again displayed in Part II, set in Eng- 
lish, sometimes in prose, sometimes in poetry, and variously 
leaded. A broadside specimen of Wilson's newspaper fonts 
ends the book.^ Every roman and italic type in it is mod- 
ern face. We show a pica font {Jig* 333). "The Foundry of 
Messrs. Wilson," says Savage (writing in 1822), "at Glas- 
gow, has been long established, and for many years enjoyed 
a monopoly of letter founding in Scotland. They have, how- 
ever, of late experienced a formidable competition from 
Mr. Miller of Edinburgh, who derive4 his knowledge of the 
art from them, and whose types so much resemble theirs 
as to require a minute and accurate inspection to be dis- 

William Blades considered " the year 1 820 as a boundary 
line between the old and new style of punch-cutting. About 
that time great changes were initiated in the faces of types 
of all kinds. The thick strokes were made much thicker and 
the fine strokes much finer, the old ligatures were abolished 
and a mechanical primness given to the page, which, ar- 
tistically, could scarcely be called improvement At the same 
time, printers began to crowd their racks with fancy founts 
of all degrees of grotesqueness, many painfully bad to the 
eye and unprofitable alike to founder and printer."' Thus 
taste, which in England had sanctioned very light types, 
began to change to heavier faces about 1815.^ Elxacdy as 

> A simOar quarto specimen was issued in the same year by the Edinburgh 
branch house of Wilsons & Sinclair, which may be also consulted. 

^Decorative Printing, p. 73. 

• Blades' Eariy T^fie Sjfiecimen Books of England, Holland, France, Italy ^ 
and Germany, London, 1875, pp. 21, 22. 

* Blades says 1820, but Vincent Figgins' specimen of 1815 is full of these 
dropsical types, and Thome's specimen of these letters appeared as early as 

Quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nos- 
tra? quamdiu nos etiam furor iste tuus eludet? 
quern ad finem sese effrenata jactabit audacia? 
nihilne te noctumum praesidium palatii, nihil ur- 
bis vigilisd, nihil timor populi, nihil consensus bo- 
norum omnium, nihil nic munitissimus habendi 
senatus locus, nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt? 
pater e tua consilia nonsentis? constrictam jam 
omnium horum conscientia teneri conjurationem 
tuam non vides? quid proxima, quid superiore 
nocte egeris, ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid 
consilii ceperis, quem nostrum ignorare arbitraris? 
O tempora, o. mores I Senatus hoc intelligit, consul 
vidit: hie tamen vivit. vivit? immo vero etiam in 
senatum venit : fit publici consilii particeps : notat 
et designat oculis ad csedem unumquemque nos- 
trum. Nos autem, viri fortes, satisfacere reipub- 



Pica ItaliCy No. 3. 

Quousque tandem abvtere^ Catilinaj patientia nos- 
tra f qtiamdiu nos etiam furor iste tuus eludet ? 
guem ad finem sese effrenata jactabit audacia^ ni- 
hilne te noctumum prcesidium palatii, nihil urbis 
vigilicBy nihil timor pcpitli, nihil consensus bonorum 
omnium^ nihil hie munitissimus habendi senatus 
locus J nihil horum ora vultusgue moverunt; patere 
tua consilia non sentis; constrictam Jam omnium 
horum conscientia teneri conjuratumem tuam non 
vides ? quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris ^ 
ubi fueris^ quos convocaveris^ quid consilii ceperis, 
quem nostrum ignorare arbitraris? O tempora, o 
nwresi Senatus hoc inteUigUj consul vidit, hie tamen 
vivit. vivit? immo vero etiam in serwlum venit: fit 
publici consilii particeps : notat et designat oculis 
ad C€edem unumquemque nostrum. Nos autem, viri 
fortes, satisfacere reipub. videmur, si istitcs Jiirorem 



333. Modem Face Types: Alexander Wilson isf Son's Specimen 

Glasgow^ 1833 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1800-1844 195 

in France, the weight of these new type-faces was at first 
gained, not by a greater weight of line throughout^ but by a dis- 
proportionate thickening of heavy strokes of letters, which 
left their hair-lines much as before. This reaction from fra- 
gile to sturdy letters was a change which, if it only had been 
guided by some one familiar with early type-forms, might 
have led to better results. But at that time materials for the 
comparative study of types were not readily assembled. 

The further development of these fashions brought about 
a kind of swollen type-form^ in which all the lines of a letter 
were of nearly equal strength, and these were the types of 
which Savage says: "The founders have now introduced 
another change in the proportions of letters, and have gone 
to a barbarous extreme, from their first improvement The 
rage is npw, which of them can produce a type in the shape 
of a letter, with the thickest lines, and with the least white 
in the interior parts.'' He adds that the founders scad that 
such types were meant for printing hand-bills, etc., and if 
they were introduced into book-work, that it was contrary 
to the original intention. Savage displays sheets in which 
original Caslon types are shown in contrast to the current 
Caslon types. If these are bad types, he says, "it may be 
attributed to the bad taste of others, whom the founders are 
desirous of obliging'' — but this is merely an ancient and 
poor excuse for not sticking to one's principles! These hid- 
eous fashions for a time drove original Caslon types to the 
wall. Hansard, writing in 1825, says : "Caslon's fonts rarely 
occur in modern use, but they have too frequentiy been su- 

' These characters were often called in type-specimens and elsewhere "Egyp- 
tian" (no doubt in allusion to their "darkness"); and a London jest-boolL 
of 1806, under the heading "Fashionable Egyptian Sign-Boards, "says : "An 
Irishman describing the Egyptian letters which at present de&ce the Me- 
tropolis, declared that the thin strokes were exactly the same size as the thick 
ones! " 


perseded by others which can claim no excellence over them. 
In fact, the book-printing of the present day is disgraced 
by a mixture of fat, lean, and heterogeneous types, which 
to the eye of taste is truly disgusting.'' ^ 

In London, Robert Thome, successor to Thomas 0)ttrell, 
is responsible for the vilest form of type invented — up to 
that timc^horne's specimen-book of "Improved (!) Types'^ 
of 1883 should be looked at as a warning of what fashion 
can make men do. His "jobbing types'' look as their name 
suggests ! His black-letter is perhaps the worst that ever ap- 
peared in England. In Vincent Figgins' specimen of 1815, 
and in Fry's specimen of 1816, and naturally in the speci- 
men of William Thorowgood (Thome's successor) of 1824, 
1832, and 1837, the new styles are triumphant {Jigs. 334 
and 335). Fashions like these, as Hansard says, " have left the 
specimens of a British letter-founder a heterogeneous com- 
pound, made up of fat-faces and lean faces, wide-set and 
close-set, all at once crying Quousque tandem abutere patientia 
nostra?'^ The Caslon specimen of 1844 shows the adop- 
tion of some of the worst current fashions in types; and we 
exhibit a selection of the unattractive ornaments intended 
to accompany the " fat-face " fonts produced by this famous 
house {Jigs. 336 and 337). A tide of bad taste had swept 
everything before it by 1844 — the precise year of the revi- 
val of Caslon's earliest types! 

Much the same thing was happening on the Continent, 
and the curious may consult such "documents" as the Sup- 
plement to the Specimen of the Spanish founders, J. B. Cle- 
ment-Sturme y Compafiia, published at Valencia in 1833, 
which is full of types of this kind ; the Didot, Legrand et Cie. 

' Hansard's Tyfiografihia^ London, 1825, p. 355. As early as 1805 the Cas- 
Ions ceased to show in their specimen the original types cut by the first 
William Caslon. 

English No. 2. 

Quousque tandem abutere^ Catilina, patientia 
nostra ? quamdiu nos etiam furor iste tuus elu- 
det? quem ad finem sese effrenata jactabit au- 
dacia? nihilne te nocturnum prsesidium palatii 
nihil urbis vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil 
consensus bonorum omnium^ nihil hie muni- 
tissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum or 
vultusque moverunt? patere tua consilia non 


iEGS £1234567890 


Quousque tandem ahutere, Catilina, patientia 
nostra ? quamdiu nos etiamfuror iste tuus elu- 
det? quem ad finem sese effrenata jactahit au- 
dacia? nihilne te nocturnum prtBsiaium palatii 
nihil urbis vigilinB, nihil timor populi, nihil 
consensus bonorum omnium, nihil hie muni- 
tissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum or 
vultusque moverunt? patere tuaABCDEFGH 


English No. 2, on Pica Body. 

Quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia 
nostra ? quaindiu nos etiam furor iste tuus elu- 
det? quem ad finem sese effrenata iactabit au- 
dacia? nihilne te nocturnum praesidium palatii 
nihil urbis vigiliae, nihil timor jiopuli, nihil 
consensus bonorum omnium, nihil hie muni- 
tissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum or 
vultusque moverunt? patere tua consilia non 


MiE. £1234567890 


Quousque tandem abutei^e, Catilina^ patientia 
nostra? quamdiu nos etiam jfiiroi' iste tuus elu- 
det? quem ad finem sese effrenata Jactabit au- 
dacia? nihilne te nocturnum prresidium palatii 

334. Roman and Italic: JF. Thorowgood'* s Specimen^ London^ 1824 


3Mtf "bt ft fnti^tt fftt^p m= 
liKi, or Dti^et f^t^ (Bf&ttti of 
tntt, f>t(ng a ^nititt w ^ni 


^nDT be it fuxtbtt iberetis tmttttt, tbut 
tbt 0t«soxi, ^uilifti, ox otbtx irolf 

iM^ttx^ of e\iers €oi»n anti place tor 

SoxkU, km ^its ^ittin tibi^ 9BleaIni> 
tins %n^tittox%uiititt&ot^tast$c 


8199^ %t it fmt^tt liimrib^ immrttek 

335. Black-letter: IV. Thorowffood'^ s Specimen^ London^ 1824 

Double Pica. 





12 El 



336. Ornaments to accompany *'^ Fat'Face^^ 'Fypes 
Henry Caslon^ London^ 1844 

Two-Line English. 



12 ^^^^Me^^ 


14 G 


^^^&(QF QfPi 

Four-Line Minion, No. 7, 

No. 8. 

33r. Ornaments to accompany ^^ Fat^Face'^'* Types 
Henry Caslon^ London^ 1844 

Pica, No. 9. 

Quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nos- 
tra? quamdiu nos etiam furor iste tuus eludet? 
quern ad finem sese effrenata jactabit audacia? ni- 
nilne te nocturnum prsesidium palatii, nihil urbis 
vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil consensus bonorum 
omnium, nihil hie munitissimus habendi senatus 
locus, nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt? patere 
tua consilia non sentis? constrictam jam omnium 
horum conscientia teneri conjurationem tuam non 
vides? quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris, 
ubi fueris, quos convocaveris, quid consilii ceperis, 



£ 1234667890 

Quotisqve tandem abuterCy Catilina, patientia nos- 
tra? quamdiu nos etiam furor iste tuus eludet? 
quern adjinem sese effrenata jaetahit audacia? ni^ 
mine te nocturnum presidium palatii^ nihil urbis 
viffiliie^ nihil timor populi^ nihil consensus bonorum 
omnium^ nihil hie munitissimus habendi senatus lo^ 
cuSy nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt? patere 
tua consilia n>on sentis? constrictam jam omnium 
horum conscientia teneri conjurationem tuam non 
vides ? quid proximay quid superiore nocte egerisy 





58 •0^-0-0-0-i^-0"0-#-0--4^ 

338. Types and Ornaments of Period of Caslon Revival 
Caslon Son and Livermore and Henry Caslon Specimens, 1844 

ENGLISH TYPES: 1800-1844 197 

Specimen issued in Paris in 1 828, for like French types ; for 
similar Italian fonts, the 1838 Specimen of Cartallier, of 
Padua, in which some characters show this tendency. En- 
sched&s LetterpTvefj^ issued atHaarlem in 1841, as compared 
with older Enschede specimens, is another telling but dismal 
document in the annals of this change of style — a few good 
fonts being buried in pages of uninteresting or ugly letter- 
forms. The Second and Third Parts of Enschede's Letter- 
firoejl issued in 1850 and 1855, leave one nothing to say, 
except that nothing good can be said ! But if this great house 
sold or threw away interesting ancient types to buy Di- 
dotschen rubbish, it must be remembered that the Caslon 
foundry had sacrificed to False Gods its own Children! 
{Jig. 338). 

I have said that Grandjean, Baskerville, Bodoni, and 
the Didots had a mischievous influence on type-forms ; for 
the derivations from types that their work made popular 
culminated in a kind of letter which was capable of greater 
vulgarity and degradation than was ever the case with older 
fonts. The ordinary English, French, or Italian book printed 
between 1830 and 1850 was very often a cheap and mean- 
looking production. Perhaps Bodoni and other great per- 
sons were not wrong in their own day ; but they put type- 
forms on the wrong track. Their "recovery" in Elngland is 
the subject of another chapter. 

^ Proeve van Drukieitcren . Lettergieterij vanJoh, EnachedB en Zonen. Haar- 
lem, 1841. 



REVIVALS of type-forms are periodical. They are 
usually brought about by dissatisfaction caused 
L. by too intimate knowledge of the disadvantages 
of types in use, and ignorance of disadvantages which may 
arise in the use of types revived. In other words, one set of 
types falls into neglect through certain inherent draw- 
backs; and it is not revived until the difEculties known to 
those who formerly employed it are forgotten and only the 
advantages appear. A constant factor also is a natural love 
of variety and change. 

The best early work of the nineteenth century was the 
result of a sincere effort toward the betterment of printing, 
according to the standards of that day; but before the mid- 
century, Ejiglish typography, except here and there, had 
again fallen behind. The fine editions printed by Bulmer and 
Bensley were things of the past Bulmer was dead in 1830 
— Bensley in 1833. Several other publishers brought out 
well-printed books, but they were without the distinction of 
those issued some years earlier. There was, however, an ex- 
ception in the work done by the two Charles Vl^hittinghams 
— uncle and nephew — at the Chiswick Press, founded in 
1789, though established at Chiswick in 1810. This press 
is famous in the annals of English typography, the sound- 
est traditions of which it has upheld for over a century. Its 
best books were printed by the younger Whittingham for 
the publisher Pickering. In 1844, Pickering and Whitting- 
ham proposed to issue an edition of Juvenal (in contempla- 
tion since 1841), and requested the Caslon foundry to cast 
some of the original Caslon types which they wanted for it 
This Latin edition of the Satires of Juvenal and Persius, in 


her Cheeke by fome Query refpedting a parti- 
cular Piece of Needle-work in hand; and 
added, on perceiving the EfFedt fhe had pro- 
duced, fhe had heard S"". Erafmus de la Foun- 
tain much commend the delicate Paterne: 
whereat poore Margaret attempted to look up 
unconcern'd, but was obliged to fmile at her 
Sifter's Pleafantry. I was difcreet, and led the 
Converfation back to the Spinning. 

The Days paffe fmoothly, yet Time feemeth 
very long fince my deare Lord departed on his 
Journey. We heare no News. Armjirong will 
perchance gain foiiie Ty dings at Colchejler: 
and I muft await his Return with fuch Patience 
I can. 

Since my little Fanny s long Sicknefle I have 
continued the Habit of remaining by her at 
night, fometime after fhe is in Bed: thefe are 
Seafons peculiarly fweet and foothing; there 
feemeth fomething holy in the Aire of the 
dimly lighted Chamber^ wherein is no Sound 



339. Caslon Type as revived by JVhittingham^ London^ 1844 


quarto (a handsome book except for its red borders), was 
delayed, however, and not published until 1845. So the great 
primer "old face" Caslon font intended for it, appeared first 
in 1844 in The Diary of Lady Willoughby. For this fictitious 
journal of a seventeenth century lady of quality, old style 
type was thought appropriate. The Diary was a success, ar- 
tistically and commercially. Though its typography does not 
seem much of an achievement now, it came as a novelty and 
relief to printers who had long since abandoned good earlier 
type-faces in favour of the fonts of the school of Thome 
{^fig. 339). This was the beginning of the revival of original 
Caslon fonts, and a very sound revival it was. From that 
time to this, Caslon type has had the popularity it merits. 
In fact, the chief typographic event of the mid-nineteenth 
century was this revival of the earliest Caslon types in the 
competent hands of Pickering and Whittingham. United 
States founders reintroduced these fonts about 1860, but 
they did not become popular until some thirty years later. 
The Aldine Poets, Walton's Complete Angler^ the beauti- 
ful Latin Opera of Sallust (in the type of the Juvenal and 
Lady fVilloughby\KTi octavo edition of Milton and Herbert, 
and the famous series of folio black-letter Prayer Books are 
among the best of Pickering's publications. But the series 
of 16mo volumes, which for beauty and utility have not been 
surpassed in modern times, are what is particularly meant 
by a "Pickering edition" {Jig, 340). All these were printed 
at the Chiswick Press, as well as many other beautiful books 
for publishers, book-clubs, and individuals — among them 
the Bannatyne Club's Breviarum jiberdonense and Henry 
Shaw's books on mediaeval alphabets and ornament The 
Chiswick Press still holds preeminent rank — the present 
establishment at Tooks Court, Chancery Lane, London, 
being conducted by Charles Whittingham and Griggs, Ltd. 


The use of the Fell types, which had lain for many years 
neglected at the Oxford University Press, was revived by a 
little press (first started atFromein 1845, and continued at 
Oxford) which was a private venture of the Rev. C. H. O. 
Daniel, late Provost of Worcester College. Dr. Daniel had 
the taste to recognize the possibilities dormant in Fell's fonts, 
and after 1877 he used them in his rare litde issues with 
delightful discrimination {Jigs. 341 and 342). The Daniel 
books were printed in both roman and black-letter, and in 
connection with the former type many pleasant old orna- 
ments were revived. The publications of this press were 
continued until 1919.^ The Fell types are now the pride — 
or one of the " prides" — of the Clarendon Press. Their re- 
vival was of real importance in modem printing. The Ox- 
ford Book of English Verse^ the volumes in the Tudor and 
Stuart Library, the Trecentale Bodleianum of 1 9 1 3 {Jig. 343), 
and the Catalogue of the Shakespeare Exhtbitum held in the 
Bodleian Library to commemorate the Death of Shakespeare 
(Oxford, 1916) are familiar examples of their admirable and 
eflfective modern use. 

The Ballantyne Press of Edinburgh, founded at Kelso by 
James Ballantyne in 1796, later, at Sir Walter Scott's sug- 
gestion, coming to Edinburgh, and known under the name 
of Ballantyne, Hanson & Company, has done delightful 
work for many years past The business has been acquired 
by Messrs. Spottiswoode & Company of London, and has 
been removed from Edinburgh. This firm, that of Messrs. 
R & R. Clark, and the establishment of T. & A. Constable 
of Edinburgh, have been more constant to types of Scotch 

* See The Daniel Press. Memoriala of C, H, O, Daniel, with a Bibliografihy 
of the Press, 1845-1919. Oxford, Printed on the Daniel Press in the Bod- 
leian Library, 1921 — " the first book printed within the walls of the Bod- 
leian," where the third Daniel press, on which it was printed, is deposited. It 
is illustrated with portrait, facsimiles, etc. 


The Dedication, 

Lord, myjirjifrmli prefeni thmfdves H tbit ; 
Ttt net mine neither : fer front thee they came. 
And mujl return. Aittpt ef tbent and me. 
And make us Jirive, whojhallftng btfl thy name. 
Turn their eyei hither, who Jbalt make a gain 
Theirs, whtjhall hurt tbemfehii or me, refrain. 

I. The Church-porch. 


ilHOU, whofc fweei youth and early 
hopes inhance 
Thy rate and pricr, and mark thee for 
a trcafure. 

Hearken unto a Verfcr, who may chance 
Ryme thee to good, and make a bait ofpleafure . 
A vcrfe may findc hira, who a fermon flies, 
And turn delight into a lacntice. 

Beware of lull ; !i doth pollute and foul 

Whom God in Baptlfme walht with his own blood 

It blots thy leflbn written in thy foulj 

The holy lines cannot be underllood. 
How dare thofe eyes upon », Bible look, 
Muchlcffe towards God, whofeluft is all their book! 

340. Caslon Type used in a '''^ Piciering- edition'" 
Whittingham, London, 1850 


6 ^ 





o ^ 

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342. Fell Types as used by the Daniel Press 

Oxford, 1896 

LIFE of Sir Thomas Bodley, 

Written by himself. 

I Was borne at Exeter in Devon, the tarty aj;. 
2 of Marche, in the yeare 1^44; 
descended, both by Father and 
Mother, of Worshipfull parentage. By 
my Fathers side, from an antient familie 
or Bodley, or bodleigh,. of Dunscombe 
by Crediton j and by my Mother from 
Robert Hone Esq^ of otterey Saint Marie, 
nine Milles from Exon. My Father in 
the time of Queene Marie, beinge knowne 
and noted to be an enemie to Popene, 
was so cruelly threatned, and so narrow- 
lie observed, by those that malliced his 
religion, that for the safegarde of him- 
selre, and my Mother, who was wholly 
affected as my Father, he knew no waye 
so secure, as to flie into Garmanie ; 
B z Where 

343. Fell Types as used In Trecentale Bodleianum 
Oxford University Press, 1913 

O U 

*" 6 

tuo a; 
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a; 0) 




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If I were in need of a single word to 
express the idea which I wish to follow out in this essay, I 
could scarcely, I think, find one in English ; none, at least, 
that would completely fit my meaning : I should have to fall 
back upon the Greek. We translate the word Koa-fiog by orc/er, 
beauty^ or world, according to the context ; but we have no 
single phrase that combines and identifies in our minds, as 
this word did in the minds of Greeks, the beauty of harmo- 
nious arrangement with the beauty of the visible world. We 
do not seem, indeed, to have at all the same quick perception 
of this kind of beauty that they appear to have had. The 
Author of *' Modern Painters " has pointed out that, in the 
Odyssey, when Hermes approaches Calypso's cave, what he 
admires is, not so much the wild beauty of the island, as the 
trimness of the goddess's own domain, her four fountains 

345. Type used in The Hobby Horse: Chiswick PresSj London^ 1890 


letter-founders, and for many years have successfully used 
"revived old style" and also characters of the modern face 
family.^ Constable employed an interesting Scotch modern 
face for David Nutt's distinguished series of Tudor Trans- 
lations. The fine revived old style or (as I should prefer to 
call them) modernized old style fonts were used by the same 
printer in the three volumes of Bibliographica (1895); and 
Mr. J. P. Morgan's monumental Catalogue of Manuscripts 
and Early Printed Books from the Libraries of Morris^ Ben- 
netty etc. (1907), is a magnificent example of the skilful use 
of these types by the Chiswick Press. In smaller sizes this 
type was delightfully employed by the same press in their 
reprint of Sir Henry Wotton's Elements of Architecture, 
issued by Longmans in 1903 {fg. 344). 

But the early and "classic" use of this type was in Her- 
bert Home's periodical, The Century Guild Hobby Horse 
(1886-92). Its later volumes (beginning in 1888), printed in 
a large size of the "modernized old style" character, with 
delightful decorations drawn by Mr. Home, are most dis- 
tinguished pieces of typography {fg. 345). Of The Hobby 
Horse not many volumes were issued, but they will always 
hold a place in the annals of the revival of printing at the 
end of the last century. 

In Mr. Home's typographical venture, William Mor- 
ris had a hand ; but as Morris rode a very Gothic hobby- 
horse of his own, and Mr. Home's charger was much more 
Italian than Gothic in its behaviour, it is easy to see why 
Morris soon turned his attention to printing in a way more 
to his mind. His endeavours, their results, and the influ- 
ence they have had on modern printing have now to be con- 

* In England Caslon types are called "old face"; what we call "modernized 
old style * * is there termed * * revived old style " — a type designed about 1 850. 



WILLIAM Morris was born in 1834 — the son 
of prosperous middle-class people, who lived 
freely and pleasantly. He was educated at Marl- 
borough School and Exeter College, Oxford, where he formed 
a lasting friendship with Burne-Jones. Originally intending 
to take Holy Orders, he changed his mind, and studied ar- 
chitecture for a year or two under Street; then, between 1857 
and 1862, through Rossetti^s influence, he took up painting. 
Meanwhile he had begun to write — his Defence of Guene- 
vere appearing in 1858. From then until his death he wrote 
many volumes of poetry and prose, most of it of a very high 
order. Painting proved unsatisfactory, so he began about 
the year 1870 to work as a decorator, eventually turning his 
hand to illumination, — in which he was expert, — to the 
making of wall-papers, rugs, hangings, and stained glass, 
and to house decoration. It was an era of pattern, and though 
in Morris's hands the pattern was often magnificent, houses 
decorated or furnished by him would now appear rather 
tiresome and aflfected. 

In socialism Morris was seriously interested. It was the 
somewhat romantic socialism of a well-to-do, fastidious man, 
which had the added attraction of placing him in the oppo- 
sition ; for he somewhat enjoyed "otherwise-mindedness." 
Morris never went into the slums and lived with the people 
— indeed, he gave scant attention to the particular individ- 
ual in his large and roomy movements — it was not the 
manner of his time. He desired with great desire to see 
the life of workmen improved by being made more like his 
own, rather than to get nearer the workmerCs point of view 


by making his life more like theirs. Yet he was thoroughly 
in earnest about his socialism. That the workman's life was 
so sordid made him miserable. He loved mediaevalism 
because it appeared to him — I think rather unhistorically 
— a close approach to the life he wished to see commonly 
lived in the world. None the less, he had sometimes impos- 
sible manners, often a furious temper, always short patience 
with fools, and there was a bit of pose and "bow-wow " 
about his daily walk and conversation. In his character, as in 
his wall-papers, one was a little too conscious of the pattern, 
but the pattern was fine, and there was lots of it ! Over and 
above all this he was an educated, cultivated man, tremen- 
dously observant and shrewd, and his driving power was 
enormous. Like Bodoni (whose work Morris detested), no 
man knew better what he wanted to do. Morris's motto was 
" If I can," and by hard work, enthusiasm, and — we must 
admit — a fixed income and a good deal of incidental pros- 
perity, he usually "could." 

Morris's style of printing, therefore, may be partly ex- 
plained by the interiors of his own houses or those he deco- 
rated ; and iX&motivehyhx^ idea of socialism, which, through 
a kind of Religion of Beauty, was to produce the regenera- 
tion of a work-a-day world. It was to be a wonderful world, 
and it was, potentially, very real to him. His printing was 
for it, or was to help to its realization by others. If his deco- 
rations now appear a bit mannered and excessive, and his 
socialism somewhat romantic and unreal, it is because Mor- 
ris was very much of his period. Thus (again like Bodoni, 
though from diametrically opposite theories) Morris made 
magnificent books, but not for ordinary readers — nor, for 
the matter of that, for ordinary purses — but only for a cer- 
tain fortunate group of his own time. 

To understand the work of the Kelmscott Press we must 


understand this much of the environment and ways of 
thinking of a man as forcible and sincere as he was many- 

Some years before Mr. Morris set up any press of his own, 
he had made a few essays in printing. The Roots of the 
Mountains^ which was issued in 1889, was printed ^or him 
at the Chiswick Press in a character cut some fifty years 
earlier, belonging to the Whittinghams, and modelled on 
an old Basle font; and in 1890, the Gunnlaug Saga was 
printed in a type copied from one of Caxton's fonts. In 189 1, 
almost fifty years after the Whittinghams' revival of Cas- 
lon's type, and some fifteen years after the Fell types were 
resuscitated, Morris established the Kelmscott Press, named 
after Kelmscott Manor House (on the upper Thames, about 
thirty miles from Oxford), which Morris acquired in 1871. 
The first "Kelmscott" book that he issued was The Story of 
the Glittering Plain, and its effect upon lovers of fine books 
was instantaneous. Opinion was at once divided about Mor- 
ris's printing. To a limited public, the Kelmscott editions 
opened the millennium in book-making. Others were irri- 
tated at what they considered their affectation and faddish - 
ness, and condemned them utterly, as unreadable — which 
was only a half-truth. The effect on printing in general that 
Morris was to have through his types and type-setting en- 
tirely escaped most printers, as did the sources from which 
he derived his methods. Because they knew very littie about 
early manuscripts or early books, about the characters of the 
one or the types of the other, the Kelmscott books appeared 
to them to have fallen from the sky — either very new and 
wonderful or else very freakish and senseless — just as they 
would to anybody who knew nothing whatever about it ! On 
the great English public, or the majority of English print- 


ers, Morris's books had — at that time — scarcely any eflFect 
at all. Indeed, Mr. Morris was a much more widespread 
popular force in America and Germany than in England, 
where his work was known only to a comparatively small 
artistic group. 

"I began printing books,** said Mr. Morris, **with the 
hope of producing some which would have a definite claim 
to beauty, while at the same time they should be easy to read 
and should not dazzle the eye, or trouble the intellect of the 
reader by eccentricity of form in the letters. I have always 
been a great admirer of the calligraphy of the Middle Ages, 
and of the earlier printing which took its place. As to the fif- 
teenth century books, I had noticed that they were always 
beautiful by force of the mere typography, even without the 
added ornament, with which many of them are so lavishly 
supplied. And it was the essence of my undertaking to pro- 
duce books which it would be a pleasure to look upon as 
pieces of printing and arrangement of type. Looking at my 
adventure from this point of view then, I found I had to 
consider chiefly the following things : the paper, the form of 
the type, the relative spacing of the letters, the words, and 
the lines ; and lastly the posidon of the printed matter on the 
page. ... 

"Next as to type. By instinct rather than by conscious 
thinking it over, I began by getting myself a fount of Ro- 
man type. And here what I wanted was letter pure in form; 
severe, without needless excrescences; solid, without the 
thickening and thinning of the line, which is the essential 
fault of the ordinary modem type, and which makes it dif- 
ficult to read ; and not compressed laterally, as all later type 
has grown to be owing to commercial exigencies. There was 
only one source from which to take examples of this per- 
fected Roman type, to wit, the works of the great Venetian 


printers of the fifteenth century, of whom Nicholas Jenson 
produced the completest and most Roman characters from 
1470 to 1476. This type I studied with much care, getting it 
photographed to a big scale, and drawing it over many dmes 
before I began designing my own letter; so that though 
I think I mastered the essence of it, I did not copy it ser- 
vilely ; in fact, my Roman type, especially in the lower case, 
tends rather more to the Gothic than does Jenson's. 

^ After a while I felt that I must have a Gothic as well 
as a Roman fount ; and herein the task I set myself was to 
redeem the Gothic character from the charge of unreadable- 
ness which is commonly brought against it And I felt that 
this charge could not be reasonably brought against the 
types of the first two decades of printing ; that Schoefier at 
Mainz, Men telin at Strasburg,and GuntherZainer at Augs- 
burg, avoided the spiky ends and undue compression which 
lay some of the later type open to the above charge. . . . 
Keeping my end steadily in view, I designed a black-letter 
type which I think I may claim to be as readable as a 
Roman one, and to say the truth I prefer it to the Roman. 

" It was only natural that I, a decorator by profession, 
should attempt to ornament my books suitably: about this 
matter, I will only say that I have always tried to keep in 
mind the necessity for making my decoration a part of the 
page of type." ^ 

Morris's three types (two black-letter and one roman) 
were as follows : 

A roman letter, called the Golden Type, cut in fjiglish 
size, finished in 1890, and first used in his Golden Legend, 
issued in 1892 (/^. 346). 

* ^ JslUe by William Morris on his Mms in Founding the Kelmscott Press, 
Tbgeiher vnth a Short Descrifition of the Press by S. C. Cbckerell, llT an 
Annotated List of the Books Printed Thereat, Hammersmith, London, 1908. 


jUCIUS Tarquinius (for his excess 
sive pride sumamedSuperbus)afx 
ter hee had caused his owne father 
in law ServiusTuUius to be cruelly 
murdered, and contrarie to the Ro^ 
maine lawes and customes, not re^ 
quiring or staying for the people's suffrages, had 
possessed himselte of the kingdome : went accom^^ 

Sanyed with his sonnes and other noble men of 
Lome, to besiege Ardea, during which siege, the 
prindpall men of the Army meeting one evening 
at the tent of Sextus Tarquinius the King^s sonne, 
in their discourses after supper every one commen^^ 
ded the vertues of his owne wife : among whom 
Colatinus extolled the incomparable chastity of 
his wife Lucretia. In that pleasant humor they all 
posted to Rome, & intending by theyr secret and 
sodainearrivall to make triallot that which every 
one had before avouched, onely Colatinus finds 
his wife (though itwere late in the night) spinning 
amongest her maides, the other ladies were all 
found dauncing and revelling, or in severall dis^ 
ports : whereupon the noble men yeelded Cola^ 
tinus the victory, and his wife the fame. At that 
time Sextus Tarquinius being enflamed with Lu^ 
crece beauty, yet smoothering his passions for the 
present, departed with the rest backe to the campe : 


346. Morrises Golden Type: Kelmscott Press 


A black-letter great primer font, called the Troy Type, 
showing the influence of SchoefFer of Mainz, Zainer of 
Augsburg, and Koberger of Nuremberg, although different 
from any of these, and first used in the Historyes of Troye^ 
issued the same year {Jig. 347). 

A black-letter, called the Chaucer Type, differing from 
the Troy type only in size, being pica instead of g^eat 
primer. This was used in some parts of the Historyes of 
TroyCy but was first employed for an entire book in The 
Order of Chivalry, published in 1893 (/^.348). 

Morris also designed a fourth type, based on the fonts 
used by Sweynheym and Pannartz in St Augustine^s De 
Civitate Dei, but it was never cut All Morris's types were 
finally lef\ to trustees, and their use is occasionally permitted 
for special books. The wood-blocks of illustradons to his 
editions have been placed in the British Museum* 

As we look at Morris's typographical achievements in per- 
spective, they seem to be more those of a decorator apply- 
ing his decorative talents to printing, than the work of a 
printer. His books are not always what he said books should 
be — easy to read, not dazzling to the eye, or troublesome 
to the reader by eccentricities of letter-form. He says he 
admired fifteenth century books because they were beau- 
tiful "by force of the mere typography, even without the 
added ornament, with which many of them are so lavishly 
supplied.'' But what is true of those books is only partly 
true about his own. He did make books which it was a plea- 
sure to look at — as arrangements of type and fine pieces of 
printing — but he did not make books that it was a pleasure 
to read. If Morris admired Jensen's fonts, it is hard to see 
why he did not copy their best points more closely. One has 
only to take a Kelmscott book and compare it with a good 


specimen of Jenson^s printing to see how far away one is 
from the other. 

On the other hand, many people did not at all under- 
stand Morris's greatness — for great he was. As he was both 
visionary and practical, his visions bothered the practical 
man, while his practicality somewhat disturbed the vision- 
ary. ^^ Perhaps this kind of character is rare in our time,** says 
Mr. Clutton-Brock, "only because craftsmen are rare; for 
the craftsman, if he is to excel, must be both industrious 
and a visionary, as Morris was. He must have honesty and 
common sense as well as invention; and his work devel- 
ops and harmonizes both sets of qualities. We shall under- 
stand Morris best if we think of him as a craftsman, . . . 
as one who could never see raw material without wishing to 
make something out of it, and who at last saw society itself 
as a very raw material which set his fingers itching.^ ^ 

I doubt if Morris himself realized the enormous eflfect his 
work would have upon typography. Neither did he know 
that, while his types were not particularly good types, and 
his decorations were often unduly heavy, by this very over- 
statement in the colour of the type on its paper, in making 
characters which loudly called attention to earlier ones, and 
in designing somewhat over-splendid decorations (which, 
nevertheless, were in harmony with his type), he led the 
printer of his particular moment to see how imposing, and 
even magnificent, masses of strong type, closely set and well 
inked, combined with fine decorations, may be. And Morris 
taught a lesson in the unity of effect in books for which the 
modern printer is deeply in his debt — a unity now influ- 
encing volumes very far removed from those rather precious 
productions in which it was first exemplified. Nowadays, 

* Wiiliam Morris: His Work and Influence , by A. Clutton-Brock, London, 
1914, p. 208. 

;eh it: it 18 neither 
tut a decent borne. 


nSR praise nor 
ame, but say that 
'aise this bometi- 
38 overmuch, as 
the land were the 
ry axle/tree of the 
hers there arc who 
meness of it: not 
I any the more: though it would in- 
deed be hard if there were nothing 
else in the world, no wonders, no ter- 
rors, no unspeahable beauties. Yet 
when we tbinh what a smalt part of 
the world's history, past, present, & 
to come, is this land we Uve in, and 
howmuch smaller still in the history 
of thearts, &yet howourforefathers 
clung to it, and with what care and 


347. Morris's Troy Type: Kelmscott Press 

paths tb«y adomcd It, this unromanMc, un- 

eventful/loohim? Undorengland, surely by 

> be touched and our 

R as was the land, 
uch was the art of it 
hile folh yet troub- 
;d themselves about 
uch things ; it strove 
ttle to impress peo- 
le either by pomp or 
igenuity : not unsel- 
om it felt into com- 
:was it never oppres/ 
>e'8 nightmare or an 
^ at its best it bad an 
i\ individuality, that 
ave never overpass- 
, and that was in its 
riven as freely to the 
,and the humble vtl- 
3 the lord's palace or 
ledral: never coarse, 
te enough, sweet, na- 
d, an art of peasants 

r»i,<.. ..,»..v. .hantprincesorcourt' 

ters, it must be a bard heart, I tbinlj, that 
does not love it; whetheraman baa been bom 
among it tihe ourselves, or has come wonder/ 

348. MorrisU Chaucer Typti Keinucott Press 


the old-fashioned method of using various fonts of type on 
a tide-page, or an unnecessary number of sizes of type in a 
volume, has been given up — even in the commonest com- 
mercial work. And, too, Morris's reforms have extended to 
illustrations, which are at present almost always by one 
hand, and not, as in old-fashioned illustrated books, by 
half a dozen different designers and drawn without any 
relation to the type-page. These newer and better fashions 
in book-making may be directly traced to sounder concep- 
tions of what a book ought to be; and Morris — as with 
the weapon of the Viking heroes he loved so well — ham- 
mered this conception into the consciousness of gentlemen 
who will even use Truth, if it appears to be an "asset"! For 
no man ever had the courage of his convictions more than 
Morris, or a heartier contempt for foolish opponents. When 
asked to hear the other side, he replied (like Garrison on the 
slavery question), "There is n't any ! " This very intolerance 
made Morris a tremendous force in typography; for, in spite 
of certain conscious overstatements, it was a sincere intol- 
erance, and was aimed not at people, but at their shallow 
views of things. In the last year of his life, when in failing 
health, he attended a public meeting, and returning from 
it with a friend, showed signs of weakness. The friend, more 
amiable than discreet, suggested that this was the worst 
time of the year. "No, it ain't," said Morris, "it's a very 
fine time of the year indeed. I 'm getting old, that 's what it 
is." In short, Morris hated humbug, though he sometimes 
mistook for humbug, opinions with which he disagreed — 
as 't is human to do. He was a great printer because he was 
a great man who printed greatly, as he did much else. 

When Morris began to work with types of his own in his 
own way, other people (most of whom knew rather less 


about it) began to design their own types and print with 
them too. Charles Ricketts of London, who was already 
interested in making fine books, instituted the Vale Press. 
Mr. Ricketts' books were actually printed at the Ballantyne 
Press, but the types were designed by him and arranged 
under his direction, and some very charming decorations 
for the Vale Press books were by his hand. In a paper issued 
in 1899, called A Defence of the Revival of Printing (which 
no one had seriously attacked), he contrasted the work of 
the great Venetian printers and of William Morris, with his 
own. Morris, as was well known, hated the Renaissance,^ 
but Mr. Ricketts called it "a charmed time in the develop- 
ment of man." Admitting himself " utterly won over and 
fascinated by the sunny pages of the Venetian printers," he 
defined the pages of a fine Kelmscott book as "full of wine" 
and those of an Italian book as " full of light" This being 
Mr. Ricketts' point of view, it is surprising that his type 
appeared so much like Mr. Morris's ! For it is fair to sup- 
pose that the types which he designed looked precisely as 
he meant that they should. Apparendy the Vale Press in- 
tended to deal not in "wine" but in "light," and it must be 
terribly uncomfortable when you want light to get wine! 
But in spite of this rather afiected Defence^ the Vale books 
had style and distinction — being more classical in feeling 

* Mr. Mackail says, in his life of Morris : ** With the noble Italian art of the 
earlier Renaissance he had but little sympathy : for that of the later Renais- 
sance and the academic traditions he had nothing but unmixed detestation. 
Some time in these years [c. 1873], his old fellow-pupQ, Mr. Bliss, then 
engaged on researches among the archives of the Vatican, met him in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford, and pressed him to come with him to Rome. 
His reply was too characteristic to be forgotten. 'Do you suppose,' he said, 

* that I should see anything in Rome that I can't see in Whitechapd? ' Even 
the earlier and, to his mind, the far more interesting and beautiful woriL of 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in Italy did not appeal to him in the 
same way as the contemporary art of England or Northern France. " Mackail 
adds: "He much preferred Iceland to Italy." 


^i^f^In pinacothecamperveni^ variogenere tabu-* 
latum mirabilem : nam et Zeuxidos manus vidi, 
nondum vetustatis injuria victas ; et Protogenis 
rudimenta, cum ipsius naturae veritate certantia, 
non sine quodam horrore tractavi. Jam vero 
Apellis, quam Gr^^ci monochromon appellant, 
etiam adoravi. Tanta enim subtilitate extremis' 
tates imaginum erant ad similitudinem pr^^cisa^, 
ut crederes etiam animoram esse picturam. Hinc 
aquila fer ebat, coelo sublimis, deum. lUinc can«- 
didus Hylas repellebat improbam Naida. Dam^^ 
nabat Apollo noxias manus, lyramque resolutam 
modo nato flor e honorabat. Inter quos etiam pic*' 
torum amantium vultus, tanquam in solitudine 
exclamavi: Ergo amor etiam deostangitt^ Jupiter 
in coelo suo noninvenit quod eligeret, et^peccca^' 
turus in terris, nemini tamen injuriam fecit. Hy^^ 
lam Nympha praedata imperasset amori suo, si 
venturum ad interdictum Herculem credidisset. 
Apollo pueri umbram revocavit in florem,et om^^ 
nes fabulad quoque habuerunt sine aemulo com^^ 

Elexus. At ego in societatem recepi hospitem, 
ycurgo crudeliorem. Ecce autem, ego dum 
cum ventis litigo, intravit pinacothecam senex 
canus, exercitati vultus, et qui videretur nescio 
quid magnum promittere ; sed cultu non proinde 
speciosus, ut racile appareret eum ex hac nota 
litteratorum esse, quos odisse divites solent. Is 
ergo, ut ad latus constitit meum. Ego, inquit^ 

349. The Vale Fount: Vale Press 

t^Ejosmodi tabulae vibrAbant, qoam Trimalduo intrayif, et, 
detersa fronte, unguento manus lavit, spatioque minimo inter'* 
posito: Ignoscite mihi (tnquit), amici, multis jam diebos venter 
mihi non respondit: nee medici se inveniunt; profuit mihi tamen 
malicorium, et taeda ex aceto. Spero tamen jam ventrem pudorem 
sibi imponere; alioquin circa stomacham mihi sonat, pates 
taurum. Itaque, si quis vestnmi voluerit stue r^i causa Cacere, non 
est quod ilium pudeatur. Nemo nostrum solide natus est. Ego 
nullum puto tam magnum tormentum esse, quam continere. Hoc 
solum vetare ne lovis potest. Rides, Fortunata! quae soles me 
nocte desomnem facere. Nee tamen m triclinio uUum vetui facere 
quod se juvet : et medici vetant continere; vel, si quid plus venit, 
omnia foras parata sunt: aqua, lasanum, et cetera minutalia. Cre^ 
dite mihi, anathymiasis si in cerebrum it, in toto corpore fluctum 
facit. Multos scio sic periisse, dum nolunt sibi verum dicere. 
Gratias agimus liberalitati indulgentiaeque ejus, et subinde casti«« 
gamus crebris potiunculis risum. Nee adhue sciebamus nos in 
medio lautitiarum, quod aiunt, elivo laborare. Nam communda*- 
tis ad symphoniam mensis, tres aibi sues in triclinium adducti 
sunt,capistris et tintinnabulis culti, quorum unum bimum nomen** 
culator esse dicebat, alterum trimum, tertium vero jam senem. 
Ego putabam, petauristarios intrasse, et porcos, sieut in circuits 
mos est, portenta aliqua facturos. Sed Trimalchio, exspectatione 
diseussa: Qgem, inquit, ex eis vultis m coenam statim fieri/' 
Galium enim gallinaceum, phasianum, et ejusmodi naenias rustici 
faciunt: mei coci etiam vitulos, aeno coctos, solent facere. Conti'* 
nuoque cocum vocari jussit, et, non exspeetata electione nostra, 
maximum natu jussit occidi; et elara voce: Ex quota decuria es/ 
Qgum ille, ex quadragesima, respondisset: Emtitius, an, mqmt, 
domi natus es^ Neutrum, mquit cocus, sed testamento Pansae 
tibi relictus sum. Vide ergo, ait, ut diligenter ponas; si non, te 
jubebo in decuriam villicorum conjici. Et quidem cocus, potentiae 
admonitus, in culinam obsonium duxit. 
i^Trimalchio autem miti ad nos vultu respexit; et, Vinum, in- 

2uit, si non placet, mutabo: vos lUud, oportet, bonum faciatis. 
)eorum beneficio non emo, sed nunc, quidquid ad salivam facit, 
in suburbano nascitur meo, quod ego adhue non novi. Dicitnr 
confine esse Tarracmensibus et Tareminis. Nimc conjungere 
XXX vii 

350. The Avon Fount: Vale Press 

Qyane non pacimus / Tarn eqo, Tories exci'* 
TQTUS, plane vehemenreA excandui, ex ned^ 
didi illi voces suas : Aut doAmi^ out eqo jam 
paTAi dicam. 


;)^f^G AecTus his se Amonibus, consule ac pAuden-^ 
TioAes coepi dGTares TabulaAum^ ex quaedam 
OAQumenTa mihi obscuAO, simulque causaih de*^ 
sidiae pAaescnxis excuxeAe, quum pulcheAAimac 
aAxes pcAiissenx, inxcA quas picxuAo ne mini'^ 
mxim quidem sui vesxiqium Acliquissex. Turn 
ille : Pecuniae, inquix, cupidixas haecxAopica in*' 
sxixuix. 'i^ftVenum, ux ad plasxas conveAXOA^ 
Lysippum, sxaxuae unius lineamenxis inhaBAen^ 
xem, mopia exsxinxix: ex MyAon, qui paene 
hominum animas FeAOAumque aBAe compAe^ 
hendix, non invenix heAedem« Ax nos^ vino 
scoAxisque demcAsi, ne pOAOxas quidem OAxes 
audemus coqnosceAe ; sed, accusaxoAes anxi-« 
quixaxis, vixia xanxum docemus ex discimus. 
U bi esx dialecxica ^ ubi asxAonomia (^ ubi sa^^ 
pienxiac consulxissima via (^ Qi|is, inquam, venix 
m xemplum, ex voxum recix, si ad eloquenxiam 
peAvenissex .^ quis, si philosophiac Fonxem ax- 
xiqissext^ Ac ne bonam quidem valexudinem 
pexunx : sed sxaxim, anxequam limen Capixolii 
divixem exxulcAix: alius, si xhesauAum ePFO-^ 
dcAix : alius, si ad xAecenxies HS. salvus pcA ve** 
ncAix. Ipse senaxuSiAecxiboniquepAaecepxoA, 

351. The King* 8 Fount: Vale Press 


than the Kelmscott books, and less so than those of the 
Doves Press. 

The Bibliography (the last book issued by the Vale Press, 
in 1904) is printed in Vale type, and at the end a page of 
Latin text is shown in the Vale Fount {Jig. 349) ; another in 
the Avon Fount — a smaller roman type more successful, to 
my eye, than the Vale {Jig. 350); and a third in the King's 
Fount, which is less happy through the introduction in its 
lower-case of some capital letter-forms {Jig. 351). The first 
Vale Press book was Milton's Early Poems, issued in 1896. 
The Avon seems to have been first used in 1902. Unfor- 
tunately, most of the wood-blocks of the ornaments were 
lost in a fire at the Ballantyne Press; and the punches, ma- 
trices, arid type were destroyed on the issue of the last of 
the Vale publications. The tendency in these books was cer- 
tainly toward Italian models, but so much influenced were 
Messrs. Hacon and Ricketts — like every one else at that 
moment — by Morris's work, that they did not get as far 
from it as they either thought or intended. 

Four years after Morris's death in 1 896, T. J. Cobden- 
Sanderson, with Emery Walker, Morris's learned associ- 
ate in the work of the Kelmscott Press and a man who (as 
every one but himself would admit) has been the mov- 
ing spirit in most of the good and scholarly ventures in 
modern English typography, founded the Doves Press. It 
owes its odd name to an old riverside inn at Hammersmith 
on the Thames, familiar to rowing men, which in turn gave 
its name to a cottage which Mr. Cobden-Sanderson (who 
had already set up a bindery) used as a work-shop. The 
Doves Press was founded, says Mr. Cobden-Sanderson, in 
his Catalogue published in 1908, "to attack the problem 
of pure Typography, as presented by ordinary books in the 
various forms of prose, verse, and dialogue, and keeping 


always in view the principle . . . that *The whole duty of 
Typography is to communicate to the imagination, without 
loss by the way, the thought or image intended to be con- 
veyed by the Author,' to attempt its solution rather by the 
arrangement of the whole book, as a whole, with due regard 
to its parts and the emphasis of its divisions, than by the 
splendour of ornament, intermittent, page after page.** For 
this press, a single roman font was cut, and the first book 
produced in it (in 1891) was the jigricola of Tacitus. This 
Doves type discarded the extreme blackness of Morris's 
fonts, and was more Italian in character than any which had 
hitherto appeared in England. It is based on Jenson's roman 
font, "freed from the accidental irregularities due to imper- 
fect cutting and casting," — perhaps a fault rather than a 
virtue, — "and the serifs altered in some cases." It is a very 
beautiful type, although its regularity, and the rigidity of the 
descender in the y,^ make it thin and spiky in appearance, 
and thus a little difficult to read ; nor has it the agreeable 
"opulence" of the best Italian fonts {Jig. 352). The Doves 
Press books have been, however, among the very best of 
those printed under the influence of the Morris revival The 
Doves Bible (1903) is a masterpiece of restrained style; and 
although in one or two later volumes a commonplace italic 
is introduced into the fine roman text, the Doves books have 
delightful consistency and simplicity. All ornament is es- 
chewed in them, but fine, free initials give a decorative note 
to the pages here and there. Mr. Walker withdrew from 
the undertaking in 1909. Mr. Cobden-Sanderson has lately, 
with considerable elegiac ceremony, brought its work to a 

^ A test of the excellence of any type is this — that whatever the combination 
of letters, no individual character stands out from the rest — a severe require- 
ment to which all permanently successful types conform. 

between the seen and the unseen, the finite and the 
infinite, the human and the superhuman, and is a 
firom the seventeenth century, the century of the 
Bible and of Milton* Finally, in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, Sartor Resartus, the Essays of Emerson, and 
Unto this Last, are related & charadkeristic attempts 
to turn back the Everlasting Nay of scepticism into 
the Everlasting Yea of affirmation, & in the presence 
of the admittedly inexpL'cable & sublime mystery of 
the whole, to set man again at work upon thecreation 
of the fit, the seemly,, and the beautiful. Browning's 
Men & Women, now in the press, conceived about 
the same time, is a more diredt presentment of the 
same positive solution. 

|£ These Books printed, as a first essay, the whole 
field of h'terature remains open to seledl from.To-day 
there is an immense reproduction in an admirable 
xrheap form, of all Books which in any language have 
stood the test of time. But such reproduftion is not 
a substitute for the more monumental produftion of 
the same works, & whether by The Doves Press or 
some other press or presses, such monumental pro- 
duftion, expressive of man's admiration, is a legiti- 
mate ambition and a public duty. Great thoughts 
deserve & demand a great setting, whether in build- 
ing, sculpture, ceremomal, or otherwise ; & the great 
works of literature have again and again to be set 
forth m forms suitable to their magnitude. And this 

352. Doves Type: Doves Press 


A private venture which has produced comparatively 
few books, but among them some of the greatest beauty, is 
the Ashendene Press, established in 1895, and directed by 
C. H. St John Hornby of London. Its first books employed 
the Caslon and Fell characters — up to 1902. Later,'an Ital- 
ian semi-gothic character, closely resembling the Subiaco 
type of Sweynheym and Pannartz, was designed for this 
press by Mr. Walker and Mr. Ox^kerell {Jig. 353). This 
type was first used in Dante^s Inferno^ issued in 1902. Thq 
splendid Dante of 1909 — the works entire, with illustra- 
tions by C. M. Gere; Le Morte Darthur (1913); and the 
beautiful Boccaccio (1913-20), with rubrication, and initials 
designed by Graily Hewitt, are among its greatest achieve- 
ments. The Dante ranks with the Doves Bible and the 
Kelmscott Chaucer — described as the "three ideal books 
of modern typography," from the three ideal presses of the 
Revival.^ In many books the initials are in colour, and some- 
times in gold. 

Lucien Pissarro's Eragny Press (like the Kelmscott and 
the Doves Press, placed at Hammersmith) took its name 
from Eragny, the Normandy village where Mr. Pissarro was 
bom, and where he studied and worked with his father. 
His earlier books were printed in the Vale typfe designed 
by Ricketts, The Brook type, in which an account of the 
Eragny Press was printed in 1903, is an agreeable roman 
letter designed by Pissarro on the lines of the Vale type, 
with a pleasant movement and admirable legibility {jig* 
354). The superiority of its appearance to that of the Vale 
fonts is due pardy to the paper generally used, which is most 
delightful. Wood-blocks printed in colours are a favourite 
feature of the Eragny Press books, and the text is their ac- 
companiment The designing, wood-engraving, and print- 

* See Peddie's Cantor JjecturtB on Printings, London, 1915. 


ing are all the work of Pissarro and his wife, though some- 
times the illustrations are by other hands. 

The Essex House Press, although its first issues were 
brought out in Caslon types, producfsd, in 1903, a font called 
the Prayer Book type — ambitious, but not entirely suc- 
cessful. It was designed by C. R Ashbee, the director of this 
press. There are some curiously unfortunate characters in 
its lower-case letters — the g and f, e and n, for instance — 
which resemble pen- work, and not very pleasant pen-work 
at that His Endeavour type, which in 1901 preceded the 
Prayer Book font — a letter smaller in size, but with many 
of the same eccentricities — is obscure and dazzling. And 
set in these types, it is not surprising that the Elssex House 
books have no great merit Its work in Caslon types was 
much the best — and was (as when combined with Exlmund 
New's delightful illustrations in Wren's Parentalia) harmo- 
nious and simple. As for the Cambridge type of the Uni- 
versity Press, Cambridge, it is an unattractive letter, which 
combines many of the defects of the fonts we owe to the 
modern revival. It is difficult to see why it was ever cut at 

Herbert P. Home designed three types of importance — 
the Montallegro, the Florence, and the RiccardL These may 
be called sister types, for they show a certain, progression 
of idea, and all attack the problem of what a fine type for 
commercial printing should be — elegant, yet readable from 
a present day standpoint 

The Montallegro type came first This type was mod- 
elled, as were the others, on an early Florentine font, and 
was intended to be a good 'heading type,'' which should have 
rather more flexibility and grace than the fonts based on 
older Italian forms. It was first used in Condivi's Life of 
Michelagnolo Buonarroti by the Merrymount Press, Bos- 

ODJ ptx)Fanuin vulgus Si arceo ; 
Fiivece Unguis : carmiiu non prius 
Audita Musarum sacerdos 
Vitpnibus puerisc^ canto. 
R^um nmendorum in proprios gr^es, 
R^es in ipsos imperium est lovis, 
CUri Giganteo tKumpbO) 
Cuncfca supercilio moventis. 
Est ut viix) vir Utius ordinet 
Arbusta suIdS) hie generosior 
Descendat in Ginipum petitor, 
Moribus hie meliorque fama 
Contendat, ilU turba clienrium 
Sit maior: aequa \egc Necessitas 
Sortitur insignis 6C imos ; 

Omne capax mover urna nomen. 
Destrichis ensis cui super impia 
Cervice pendet, non Sicutae dapes 
Dulcem elaboiabunt saporem, 
Non avium cithaiaecp cantus 


353. Type used by the Ashendene Press 


MR, PISSARRO first learned to draw from 
his father* m the fields far frotn any art 
school. One day M. Lepire, the well/known 
engraver, showed him how his tools were held* 
& finding him interested, gave him two gravers 
and a scorper. Thus furnished with the means 
he made a start and taught himiself ; with the re/ 
suit that in 1886 F. Q. Dumas, editor of the cRe/ 
vue IIlustr^e», commissioned him to illustrate 
a story, cMait' Liziard», by Octave Mirbeau. 
Four woodcuts appeared, but the subscribers to 
the Review expressed so much disapproval of 
these illustrations, conceived and executed in 
the uncompromising spirit of Charles Keene's 
work, which Mr. Pissarro greatly admired, that 
his collaboration was cut short tnere and then. 
He learnt later that this epistolary demonstra/ 
tion against his work, which inundated Mr. 
Dumas' office, was the work of some students 
in the atelier of a well/known painter. Dis/ 
appointed, and having heard that in England 
there was a group of young artists who were 
ardently engaged in the revival of wood/en/ 
graving, he crossed the Channel with the in/ 
tention of joining them, having in his pocket 
an introduction from F^lix Fin^on to John 
4 Oray 

354. Brook Type: Eragny Press 


ton, in 1905, and since in the volumes of The Humanist^ 
Library {Jig. 355 a). This type was cut under Mr. Home's 
direction by E. P. Prince of London, an Elnglish crafts- 
man of great ability and experience, and — within a nar- 
row circle — of great reputation. The types of the Kelmscott, 
Doves, and other English private presses were from his 
hand, as well as the Florence and Medici fonts. 

The Florence type of 1909 came next It is somewhat 
smaller in face and simpler in form than the Montallegro; 
and is perhaps the most successful of the three. It was cut 
for Messrs. Chatto & Windus of London (Jig. 355 b). 

The last was the Riccardi type, also cut in 1909, based 
on fonts cut by Miscomini. It has been used in the ^Ric- 
cardi Press^ editions published by the Medici Society of 
London. A little monotonous in effect and gathering too 
much colour in printing unless carefully managed, it is so 
practical that it loses the elegance of the other two fonts 
{Jig. 355 c). A smaller size of the type (11 -point) has been 
cut for the same series of volumes.^ 

Among other interesting typographical experiments of 
the later nineteenth century was a Greek type designed 
by Selwyn Image. This was cut in two sizes, both used in 
a Greek Testament issued in 1895 {Jig. 356). It was based 
on the letter-forms of early Greek manuscripts, modified 
as little as might be by concessions to the familiar cursive 
Greek characters of Aldus, which have so unhappily in- 
fluenced Greek typography. These types are not particu- 
larly successful. Robert Proctor's very fine Greek type — 
the "Otter" — used in the Oresteia of Aeschylus, printed 
in 1 904, was another important essay in Greek type-forms 

* There are other modem private fonts on which I have not touched. For fee- 
similes of some of them, see Steele's Revival of Printings London, 1912, 
and The Art of the Book (a Special Number of The Studio), London, 1914. 
Also The Saturday Review, London, November, 1919. 


{Jig, 357). It was based on the noble Greek characters em- 
ployed in the New Testament in the G>mplutensian Poly- 
glot Bible, printed at Alcalfi in 1514. For this type Proctor 
designed the capital letters — except thell.^ It is fully de- 
scribed by Proctor in a note at the end of the volume ; which 
was produced at the Chiswick Press, for Emery Walker, 
S. C. Cockerell, and A. W. PoUard.' 

Next to English special types, similar American fonts are 
perhaps the most interesting. The fine Montaigne font 
designed by Bruce Rogers for the Riverside Press, Cam- 
bridge, was cut in 1901 for a monumental edition of the 
Essays of Montaigne^ published in 1903, This, Mr. Rogers 
said, ^ was an attempt to meet a want that was felt for a 
large type-face that should avoid, on the one hand, the ex- 
treme blacknessof the types which Morris's work had made 
popular, and, on the other, the somewhat thin effect of the 

^ Proctor says that with this excq)tion the orig;inal font had no capital letters ; 
but according to other authorities it actually had nine. See J. P. R. Lydl's 
Cardinal Ximenea, Ixndon, 1917, p. 47. 

' It would be an injustice to think that all the best eneiig;ies of modem Eng- 
lish printing (which for books I think at present the ' ' soundest ' ' in the world) 
were exhausted in the work of special presses or the use of specially designed 
types. All along there has been a steady flow of admirably printed English 
lxx)ks of a more normal kind, printed from old style, modern &ce, and other 
fonts commonly obtainable. In these types the best English printers have con- 
sistently produced a certain class of memoir and many books on architecture, 
painting, and the fine arts, which are delightful — agreeable to look at, to han- 
dle, and to read. The Oxford University Press, the Chiswick Press, the Ar- 
den Press, the houses of Constable and of Ballantyne have printed many such 
books, and there are other less fisimous presses which almost, and sometimes 
quite, equal them. Work like this is what the student must look to for some 
of the best and most characteristic English typography of to-day. Though 
American ephemeral printing has generally been superior to English, of late 
some English presses have turned out such work most successfully. The cir- 
culars, placards, etc., of the Pelican, Cloister, and Curwen presses are most 
agreeable in feeling, and their striking effects have been arrived at with com- 
mendable simplicity of attack and economy of means. 

And if you set him beneath as good a man as him 
self at the table: that is against his honour. If you 
doe not visite him at home at his house: then you 
knowenot your dutie. Theis maner of fashions and 
behaviours, bring men to such scome and disdaine 
of their doings : that there is no man, almost, can 
abide to beholde them : for they love them selves 
to farre beyonde measure, and busie them selves 
so much in that, that they finde litle leisure to 


La lungheza di decta chiesa insulata e braccia du- 
cento sexanta: la quale di fuori etucta di uarii marmi 
incrustata, con statue di marmo et porphiri molto 
adornata per mano di nobili sculptori; maxime di 
Donate ui e il gigante prime, dalla porta della As- 
sumptione marmorea per mane di lehanni Banchi, 
sopra la Annuntiata di musiue per manedi Demenice 
Grillandaro. Nella facciata dinanzi e uno euangelista 
a sedere et una statua di une che si piegha, et in sul 
cantene une uecchie, tucte per mane di Donate. Ma 
a dirti la uerita» decta facciata, la quale Lorenzo de' 


and it is no exaggeration to say that in no printed 
book between the closing years of the fifteenth 
century and those of the nineteenth was any at- 
tempt made to obtain them all, though the tra- 
ditions of good craftsmanship ensured that some 
of them were preserved in many cases. The 
fifteenth-century book was avowedly an imita- 
tion of a fine manuscript ; its type was a copy 
of the current writing hand, the arrangement of 
its page was that of a manuscript, its spacing 

355. Herbert Home's Montallegro^ Florence^ and Riccardi Types 

1 EN AE TAIZ HMEPAIZ babmc napagiiKm 'leotfNiic 
3 & BarmcTHC xHpiiooooN bi tA ipAuxip tAc *Ieuddiac KbxoM 

3 MctonocTtc HmKCN r2ip A BaoXcto t&n oOpoif&N, OOroe 
r6p tcTUi & ^Hodc bA 'Hccrfou toO npo9iiTOU XfroNTo c 

^oank Bo6ntoc hi tQ ipikuxi^ 
'ETouidccrrc tjm 6d6N Kupiou. 
cOmIoc noi^Ttc the rpCBoiic qOtoO. 

4 AiMc M & *IoodifHc cTxcn rb cNdujuw adnroO An& rpoc&M 
KOAJuiXou Ko) zc&NHN dcfMAOTfofMN ncp) THN iofinf oOtoO, 

5 A M rpo^k Am outoO ixpfdcc xol ju^i orpioN. T^tc 
facnopcucro np&c ourbN *IcpoG6Xujua xcd n8oa A 'loudcrfa 

6 Ko) ndca A ncp(xo»poc roC 'lopd^Nou, xa) ttamfioiiTo bt 
T& 'lopd^NH noTOu& On' airroO faauoXoroiijucNOi Tac 

7 Auaprfoc ouTooN. 'Idd>N M noXXoiic toon ^^opiocrfooN xot 
Zaddouxa(ooN ipxouiAfouc M ih Bdnmcjuci cTncN oOroTc 
TcNNifjucrra halbM6^M9 tic AnAcixcN OjuiTn 9ureTN iai6 

8 THC JucXXoOcHc iprflc; noiAccrrc o&N*xopnbN oaoN mc 

9 jucroNoCoc ' xcd julh d6iMTc X^^on In iouToTc rior^ 
XxojucN rhM 'ABpadu, Xlro* r2ip AjulTn Sn dtiNOTcn & 
m6c Ik t&n X(mon Toi i TooN IrcTpcn rlxNa t^ *ABpadu. 

356. Selxvyn Imagers Greek Type 


vJ'3 O g 

y i B g 

Z z~ P 

Z O '- 

w Z K 

O c» R 

b SJ* P 






ordinary book-faces when used in the larger sizes. It was 
modelled as closely as possible upon photographs of a page 
oT Jenson's ' Cicero,' but partly by reason of the designing, 
and partly through the conventional training of the punch- 
cutter (who was nevertheless a most admirable and skilful 
workman), the desired quality was only partially attained. 
The upper-case letters were fairly successful from the first, 
and required little modification; but the majority of the lower- 
case characters were recut several times — and were allowed 
to pass when the expense and the delay became prohibitive. 
This type is on the 16-point body." It has been delightfully 
used by Mr. Rogers in the Montaigne and in some other 
beautiful books designed by him {Jig. 358). Since that time 
Mr. Rogers has designed another and, to my mind, finer 
font — the Centaur. The upper-case letters of this font have 
been, since 1914, in use for the work of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art in New York, and in 1916 the complete 
font in 14-point size was shown in Maurice de Guerin's 
Centaur. Mr. Rogers describes the letter as a refinement on 
his Montaigne type, and though — as is his wont — he sees 
ways in which this font could be bettered, it appears to me 
one of the best roman fonts yet designed in America — and, 
of its kind, the best anywhere {Jig. 359). 

The type known as Merrymount was designed for the 
Merrymount Press about 1895 by Bertram Grosvenor 
Goodhue, the architect, who designed the well-known Chel- 
tenham fonts. He, too, based the Merrymount font on the 
Jenson letter, but instead of having the courage of our rather 
wavering convictions and making a type as light as Jen- 
son's, both he and I were seduced by Morris's unduly black 
types. So we merely modified the heaviness of the Morris 
fonts, although adopting an early form of roman letter. The 
result is that the type is too black unless used on large pages. 


as in The Altar Book{\^96) and an edition of the jigricola 
of Tacitus (1904), both in folio {Jig. 360). 

The Humanistic type was designed in Italy, and was 
based on a manuscript Virgil in the Laurentian Library at 
Florence. It was cut for the University Press, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. Elxtremely ingenious in its clever render- 
ing of a written letter, it is not, as type, easy to read, and the 
excessive length of the descenders compels a somewhat 
leaded composition. It is an interesting letter-form and shows 
research, but it was not a wholly fortunate experiment, be- 
cause more calligraphic in effect than is comfortable to the 
eye. It just lacks the charm of fine writing, and yet is too 
like it to make a fine type ; and so falls between two stools. 

What value have these specially designed and privately 
cut fonts of type? And the answer is : In themselves, very 
little. They are only in the nature of interesting experi- 
ments ; and there is scarcely one of them that is absolutely 
practical. If they have failed, the causes are not far to 
seek. One minor reason is that most of them were not cut 
by the man who designed them, and the type-cutter cannot 
put into them as he works the touches which the designer 
would instinctively give, if he were a type-cutter too. An- 
other reason is, that when a book becomes decorative at 
the expense of its readability, it ceases to be a book and be- 
comes a decoration, and has then no raison (Titre as a book. 
Again : being unaccustomed nowadays to the purer letter- 
forms to which these types usually approximate, fonts of the 
kinds we have been considering are for continuous read- 
ing almost always consciously trying to the eye. Last and 
chiefly, such types do not readily lend themselves to the lit- 
erary and typographical needs of to-day; and indeed there 
is a great deal of printing that must to-day be done and done 


APOLLODORUS. I think that the 

subject of your inquines is still fresh 

in my memory; for yesterday, as I 

chanced to be returning home from 

Phaleros, one of my acquaintance, see^ 

ing me before him, called out to me 

from a distance, jokingly, * ApoUodo^ 

rus, you Phalerian, will you not wait 

a minute?' — I waited for him, and as 

soon as he overtook me, * I have just 

been lookingfor you, Apollodorus,'he 

said, 'for I wish to hear what those 

discussions were on Love, which took 

place at the party, when Agathon, Soc-^ 

rates, Alcibiades, and some others met 

at supper. Someone who heard it from 

Phoenix, the son of Philip, told me that 

you could give a frill account, but he 

could relate nothing distinctly him^ 


358. Bruce Rogers* Montaigne Type 


iWas bom in a cavern of these mountains. 
Like the river in yonder vaIIey,whosc first 
drops flow from some cliff that weeps in a 
deep grotto, the first moments of my life 
sped amidst the shadows of a secluded re/ 
treat, nor vexed its silence. As our mothers 
erns, and in the innermost recesses of the 
wildest of them all, where the darkness is 
most dense, they bring forth, uncomplaining, offspring as silent as 
themselves. Their strength/giving milk enables us to endure with/ 
out weakness or dubious struggles the first difficulties of life; yet 

359. Bruce Rogers* Centaur T)fpe 



^ -s ^ .sis 
<: 8-1-3 ||-g"— 


s III 1 1 -^13 


» -iS I ^ > « 




"S 1 


well, to which these fonts are not suited at all. The conven- 
tion which is properly required in their employ restricts their 
use. For in '^ardstic ^ types, as in so much else, art to the 
Anglo-Saxon is thought out, not felt — conscious rather than 
instinctive. So-called aesthetic printing, — be it English, 
American, or German, — taken en blocy is, in the long run, 
a bit tiresome. It is so much in earnest that it charms too 
wisely rather than too well, and fails in the purpose for 
which all types and books exist 

These fonts have not, I think, direcdy accomplished all 
that the designers in their enthusiasm expected. But they 
are indirecdy of value in making us think about earlier and 
purer type-forms. Students of typography must be familiar 
with them; and it is only the student who can place them in 
their proper perspective, and, because he does so, appraise 
them at their relative and therefore true value. And if type- 
founders who produce new fonts will continue to study (as 
they are at last beginning to do) the originals which usu- 
ally inspired these modem essays, they will recognize how 
much men have to hark back for good models to the older 
types, after all. So in spite of some faults and impractical 
qualities, such essays stimulate the eye and remind print- 
ers of standards set by the past It is from this point of 
view that they are one of the important contributions of 
late years to the appreciation and practice of good book- 


OUTSIDE of England, Germany was most influenced 
by the English revival of twenty years ago; more 
"popularly'' influenced than England itself. Up to the time 
of the War there was a sort of renaissance in German type- 
founding and printing. The German books of the early nine- 


teenth century were not well printed, — neither type nor 
paper was good, — but they were simple in their poverty, 
"poor but honest'' From 1850 to 1880, the ordinary Ger- 
man book was very bad indeed, because it was at once so 
cheap and so pretentious. But a new "secession" movement 
began about 1890, not only in painting but in other fields 
pertaining to the arts. As far as printing was concerned, the 
first important note of this revival was struck by George's 
Blatter fur die Kun^; followed in 1894 by the appearance of 
the secessionist periodical Pan^ which introduced Morris's 
books to the German public, and the typographical style of 
which greatly influenced contemporary German printers. 
This was followed in 1899 by the Insely a similar review, 
from which g^ew the Insel-Verlag, Leipsic, whose entire 
product took on a fine and thoughtful typographical form. 
Some of its books were printed in modified German gothic 
types. Books printed in roman type show the influence of 
English models. Its ventures were eflfectively supported by 
the public. Private presses were also set up, and some fine 
special types were cut for them. Great attention was paid 
to good calligraphic lettering,^ for which instructors were 
brought over from England by the German Government 
The volumes brought out by the Hyperion- Verlag and Cen- 
tury Press of Munich (Hans von Weber), by the Tempel- 
Verlag, the Insel-Verlag, and the Janus Press at Leipsic, 
the " special editions" of E>nst Rowohlt (Drugulin-Drucke) 
of Leipsic, the books of Diederichs of Jena, and of Georg 
Miiller of Munich show the best book-making of this mod- 
em German revival. 

As to types, besides the best current German and roman 

* For Austrian work in callig^phy aee Rudolph von Larisch's Unterricht in 
OmamerUalcr Schrift. K. K. Hof- und Staata druckerei, Vienna, 1913 — an 
important and interesting study. In this connection a roman type designed by 
C. O. Czeschka — the Czeschka Antiqua — should be looked at. 


types obtainable, fonts in both were specially designed and 
cut for the work of these houses — notably the modified 
gothic character designed by K R. Weiss. This Weiss- 
Fraktur was highly considered in Germany, and was an 
attempt to solve the problem of a "book face" of German 
script which should be agreeable and readable. The types 
designed by Behrens, Koch, Tiemann, Wieynk, Kleukens, 
Konig, Holzl, and Elhmcke, are characteristic of the merits 
and defects of this school of type-design. 

Of the results of all this effort, it is less easy to speak. 
While the cheapo popular books were admirable, the more 
ambitious German volumes were mannered and intentional. 
Like most modern German work in other forms of artistic 
endeavour, they produce a certain sensation, but not that 
of pleasure ; they astonish rather than charm. To one who 
possessed a modem "secession" house, with a classic-hy- 
gienic-penal looking library, I suppose such books would 
be the only kind to have.^ For these determined volumes, as 
we view them in perspective, seem to have run true to form 
and to have been characteristic of the life about them — but 
alas, that is another story! 

For us, German book-making closed memorably with the 
beautiful exhibition held at Leipsic in the summer of 1914. 

No doubt a certain northern quality in Morris's work 
commended itself more to Teutonic than to Latin taste. So 
in Italy the "revival" showed itself chiefly in a return to 
old forms of roman letter. A type closely modelled on Mor- 
ris's Golden type was used by the Fratelli Treves of Milan 
in an edition of D'Annunzio's Francesca da Rimini issued in 
1902. Since that time there have been many similar books, 

* For illustrative material I refer the reader to the T^mes Printing Mimber, 
London, 1912 (Fine Printing' in Germany, pp. SSetaeg.), and 77ie Art of 
the Book, Special Number of The Studio, \9lAi {Ihe Art of the Book in 
Germany, by L. Deubner, with specimens of types described) . 


but the tendency has been toward lighter types and free 
and sometimes startling unconventionality in decoration. 
The magazine edited by the Milanese printer Bertieri — 
Risorgimento Grqfico — and printed by Bertieri and Van- 
zetti, employs a roman type of free design which is agree- 
able to the eye, though there is too much space between 
individual letters to make it wholly successful {Jig. 36l). 

In Holland, there is evidence of the spread of the move- 
ment toward earlier letter-forms in the Distel type designed 
for J. F. van Royen's Zilverdistel Press at The Hague, by 
Lucien Pissarro. This is intended to imitate old Nether- 
lands writing (Jg. 362). The narrowing of paragraph- 
marks is a clever way of subduing an obstreperous char- 
acter in such fonts. The Zilver type (Jig. 363), on the order 
of the Doves Press font, was cut for the Zilverdistel, and 
the historic Enschede types have been employed for some 
of its work. Interest in typography is also evidenced by the 
existence of the Typografische Bibliotheek at Amsterdam. 
In Belgium, the Musee du Livre at Brussels is a somewhat 
similar establishment The latter lately issued Sept Etudes 
piibliees a Poccasion du Quatrieme Centenaire de Christophe 
Plantirij printed from old types — more curious than beau- 
tiful — in the Musee Plantin at Antwerp. 

Although in France the Morris revival never had much 
vogue, it is interesting to recall that a year or two before 
the founding of the Kelmscott Press some delightful gothic 
types — a clever rendering of the best form of lettre batarde 
— were cut by EL Mouchon for a reproduction of Simon 
Vostre's H cures a F Usage de Rome of 1498, of which a 
page is reproduced {Jig. 364). The book was printed by 
O. Jouaust and published in 1890 by L. Gauthier, who 
was, by the way, ilh)e and successor to Curmer of Paul 
et Virginie celebrity. Save for this and a few similar exam- 



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f COfe fel den ho^ben dans verfraen 

Dae nfsjbcn dat fwC^bcn dar ftdlc fcaen 

Dar fwcucn ommc ende ommc 

Dae rreden van dac fweuen an 

D(e fnellc bo^bc fpronsjbe 

("Die m(nnc iraecdfe mfnne^acc 

Dfc mfnnc ftn^bec d(e mfnne fprfn^bcc 

D(c mfnne rufc (n der m(nncn 

D(e mfnne (laepr die mfnneVaecr 

Q3(e macb die al verffnnen 

fD(c blenkende cleder ft |n al ^bcfprcfc 

D(c duerbaer vacr ffjn al berefc 

6lc nae fffn beboren 

Al war dar (n den boue dfenr 

Dat becfc die mfnne vercoren 

f Dfc duerbaer vaet van bo^ben fcbffn 

(Dfcedelen cruden mfcpuren wf|n 

Si bouden edel wf fe 

Si tonen baren edelen aert 

Dfe mfnne df e wf Ife prf fen 

fUOaz vroecbde macb f n den boue ff |n 

Daer alfo mflde fcbcnkers ffjn 

Dfe bo^be vroecbde maken 

362. Distel Type: Ziherdistel Press, The Hague, 1918 

ZILVERDISTEL In ccn uitcenzetting, die afzori/ 
dcriijk wordt uitgcgcven, zal men alies omtrcnt haar 
grondbeginfelcn, haar ftrcvcn, haar programma kuri/ 
nen lezen. Dit gefchrift dicnt flcchts, om ccn vastcre 
wcrkwijzc tc vcrzckcrcn voor ccn dcci onzer voor/ 
nemens. IfDc crvaring hecft: geleerd, dat ons ftrcvcn 
in het buitcniand allc waardccring vindt, die het mo/ 
gelijk maakt om de door ons overwogen fcrie buiten/ 
landfchc bpeken uit tc geven; naaft deze willen wij 
echter die van Nederlandfche littcratuur niet ter zijde 
latcn. Veclccr dringt zij zich het cerft aan onze aan/ 
dacht op* Zij is het, aan wier meesterwerken wij in de 
ecrfte piaats de zorgen van DE ZILVERDISTEL 
wenfchen tc befteden, opdat zij de boekkunftige ver/ 
als gerechtigd, ons als verplicht erkennen. De erva/ 
ring hecft nochtans mede gclcerd, dat voor hetuitvoc/ 
ren van onze planncn op dit gcbied een andere werk 
wijze ware te voigen, dan voor onze bocken voor het 
buitcniand beftemd. Kleiner immers is ons land, gC/ 
ringer het aantal van hen, die tegelijkertiid tn in de 
Nederlandfche lettcrkunde tn in de vaaerlandfche 
boekkunft belangftellen; en al weten wij door onder/ 
vinding, dat een voldoende gctal perfonen, die de bc/ 


363. Ziher Type: Zilverdistel Pres,% The Hague^ 1915 

36+. French Letire Batarde^ Paris, 1890 


pies of reproduction of old types, the old-fashioned ^/onw^/se 
for fine book -making still survives. 

Entirely outside any influence of Mr. Morris, and for that 
reason scarcely within the limits of this chapter, some recent 
developments in French type-founding may be mentioned 
here. Of modern French foundries, that of G. Peignot & 
Fils, Paris, has contributed most to interesting and unus- 
ual typography. Founded by Gustave Peignot (who died 
in 1899), in the hands of his second son, Georges Peignot, 
it issued several series of type which strike a new note in 
French printing. The first — which appeared in 1897 — 
was the Grasset type, followed in 1902 by the Auriol type, 
designed by Georges Auriol. Both of these had considerable 
vogue in France, but were too distinctly Gallic in flavour 
to commend themselves to the public of other countries. 
A contribution of more general application is the series 
called Les Cochins^ based on eighteenth century engraved 
and typographic material, but by no means slavishly fol- 
lowing it About 1914, a brochure was issued describing 
and showing these fonts, entitled Les Cochins^ Carac&res £sP 
Vignettes renouveles du XVIII^ Steele. Of the type-designs, 
the first, Le Cochin^ is based on engraved characters, espe- 
cially in its delightful italic (Jig. 365), and may be used for 
entire books ; Le Nicolas-Cochin (in roman only) is an exag- 
gerated form of letter with extremely tall ascenders, more 
obviously based on engraving, which it recalls in its sharp- 
ness of outline. It is effective for tide-pages or ephemeral 
printing, though too eccentric to have lasting value. Both 
types are admirably adapted for what are called in France 
travQux de ville. They have been used with charming eflFect 
in the Gazette du Bon Ton^ in Qiristmas numbers oiUIllus- 
trationy and in similar ephemeral publications. To them were 


added as equipment he Foumier-le-jeunej a series of orna- 
mental italic capitals a la Foumier, which he in turn had 
adapted from engfraved originals ; and Le Moreau-le-jeuney 
an imitation of engraved open lettering — wrong in theory, 
but so well done as to be charming. The Vignettes Foumier 
supplied to accompany these types are more or less faithful 
renderings of ornaments shown in Fournier's Manuel. The 
other ornaments by Pierre Roy and by Marty are not good. 

The type designed by Giraldou and cast by De Bemy 
is an essay in aesthetic characters which is creditable but 
scarcely successful, though used by Jules Meynial, who has 
employed the Cochin types with such exquisite results. 

But to my mind, the healthiest sign in modern French 
printing has been the popularity of a revived use of Gara- 
mond's and Grandjean's types and other ancient fonts in 
editions printed by the Imprimerie Nationale. The monu- 
mental Histoire de P Imprimerie en France auXF^ ei au XVI^ 
siicle, by Anatole Claudin,^ begun in 1900, is the classical 

' Monsieur Claudin had his Paris book-shop in a series of somewhat forbidding 
rooms on the rive gauche, not &r from the Institut, and there I once or twice 
met him. Like most French bibliophiles, he was full of enthusiasm for his 
&vourite subject, took rare books most seriously, and — like most Frenchmen 
— did not much enjoy travel. A friend of mine, a great collector of fine books, 
met Claudin in Paris many years ago, andGaudin told him that he was mak- 
ing some investigations about the Horas of V^rard and others. '' Monsieur,*' 
said my friend, ''I have in America several of V6rard's Books of Hours 
which are entirely at your disposal." Monsieur Claudin thanked him politely » 
and the conversation turned to other things. The next summer, my friend, 
being again in France, paid another visit to Claudin. *' I have so often thought 
of those books you spoke about," said Claudin, "and wished that I could see 
two or three of them." ** Oh," was the reply, "had I known that, I could 
have brought them over with me." Monsieur Claudin looked very serious. 
"Sir," he said, " is it not enough to entrust your own life to the terrible sea, 
without also offering to imperil the existence of les vrais chef 9 d'cmvre?** 
A much less &mous bookseller on the rive droite, to whom I once applied 
for a book, shook his head, saying wearily, " No, I have not that work. It 
can only be obtained across the water." After some questioning I discovered 
that by "the water" he meant the Seine! 







— ^— ^— ^"^ ' p pj ffili ' ^i^aaaaa 


2171 ' Corps 6. 

Drai !•■■«■ geai vlaaMst « Parit 4«a* ■■« TWtura paUiqa*. 
L'ya rMMto qa'il «i«al pomr ifomatr 1* fill* dc M.... dll M* Immm^ 
I'^Ut 6» «M fin, cte. lU vmI oovckw 1 U aJm Mb«rg^ U ImU- 
■■h, r^povamr SMwri i wpt Iwurn da iMtia, avast d'avoir Cut m 
viaitfl. L'avtrt, qni itait «■ plauaat dc prolliniiw, •'•■ ▼■ chaa l« beaa- 
pirt fvtor, M doBD* pour la fndn, •• eoadtut •■ hoaaM d'aapril «t 
rhirMa loata U Lmdlm, Inqv'aa ■■■a a t d« aoa dipart, qa'll pracipl- 
tait, diaait4l, parca qa'il avail raadaa-vwM i aU k««raa poar w Cu«« 
•atcmr. C^tait •• aflcl I'kaura ou la )aaaa hoauaa aart la Batfai 
davait Urm aalarrd. La doaiaatiqaa alia a Taaliarga. 


2116 -Corps 8. 

Ccux qui rApportent tout k ropinlon, 
ressemblent k cet com^dicns qui jouent ixiaI 
pour £trc applAudis, quand le gout du public 
est mAuvais. Q,uelques-uas Auraient le mo^en 
de bien jouer si le gout du public etAit bon. 
^/... Btdail ^ Af. de la Rt^nUre, ebez ^uUoul U 
monJe va pour da tahlt, el qu'on Uvuve ennuyeax : 
on te ttUM^cJ, maU on ne U digh^ p€UL/, 
1334567890 — Jtj4^6Sjjfo 

2118- Corps 10. 

La plupart des faiseurs de 
recueils de vers ou de bons mots 
ressemblent k ceux qui mangent 
des cerises ou des huitres, choi- 
sissant d'abord les meilleures et 
(inissant par tout manger. 

C'e^t un j>royferbe tare que cc beau 
mou/ : ^ O malbeurl le te rend^ 
ffrdccp, nFi lu eoj jeulf » 

1334567890 — ^^J4S^7^9^ 



2115 -Corps 7. 

Le medecia Boav»rd avait sur le risAge une 
'^balafre en forme de C qtii le deBgunIk beaucoap. 
DideroC disait que c'^tait un coup qu'il s'etait donni 
en tenant maledroUcment la faux de la mort. 

Om dtuuutdtut i na paiicAuieiU ee ^i/il y mmuI datu 
4Q. ho44e Be BevanL*, Dt^ orOruif, dit-U. — Et daiu 
U Amm Be Berntro? — * Dee cmdre-oidreeLf, 

193^567890 — iaj4$6'j8«fo 

21 17. Corps 9. 

II en est de la valeur des hommes 
comme de celle des diamants qui, k une 
certaine mesure de grosseur, de puret^, 
de perfection, ont un prix fixe et marque 
mais qui, par dela, restent sans priz. 

Un iyfrogne, bu^anl un verre de vUu, 
ltd dil : arrange-lol bien^, lu ^nujfouU. 
1234567890 — i2j4$6j8^o 


2119 -Corps 12. 

On est heureux ou mal- 
heureux par une foule de 
choses qui ne paraissent 
pas, qu'on ne dit point et 
qu'on ne pent dire. 

Et I'on faiu^e son cspriuj 
comme on gate jotu edtomac. 

1234667890 — i2j4j6j8^o 








365. Le Cochin: G. Pagnot &? Ftk, Paris, 1914 


example of the modern use of such types. The prefatory 
matter is composed in Garamond's characters, and the text 
of the work in Grandj can's rvmain du roi^ from fonts newly 
cast for this purpose. It is probably the finest book on print- 
ing that has ever been published. 



IN suggesting types for the equipment of a composing- 
room, I take for granted that the owner of the ideal 
printing-house ^ of which it is to form a part is a man 
who adopts the professional rather than the trade view of his 
occupation. This means that the workmanship in all depart- 
ments of his establishment will be of the best, and that the 
types will be chosen with an educated taste and from a schol- 
arly point of view. The product of such a printing-house 
cannot, from the necessity of things, be termed either "com- 
merciaF' or "artistic," as these words are usually employed ; 
since artistic printing is merely printing so exactiy and 
agreeably suited to its object as to charm us, which work 
called commercial may certainly do. For "charm is noth- 
ing but the kind of light that shines out from the fittingness 
of things which are well put together and well devised one 
with another and all together. Without this measure even 
the good is not beautiful ; and beauty is not pleasing." Such 
a press as that of which I speak should have the aims which 
so often exist in the mind of the amateur without technical 
ability to execute them, combined with the execution of the 
skilled technician who may not possess the point of view of 
the lover or student of fine printing. Furthermore, if a press 
is to do the work of to-day in a satisfactory manner, the 
class of equipment analogous to that of the first printers — 
which consisted of a few fonts of type, generally employed 
in a somewhat rigid and inelastic manner — will not serve 
its purpose. In making a choice of types for a composing- 

s c< 

Printing-house ' ' was the old term for what is sometimes erroneously called 
a print-shop — the latter, properly speaking, being a shop where engravings 
or prints are for sale. 


room, while some types of early form may be desirable, we 
shall find more material among those designed by Basker- 
ville, Caslon, Didot, Bodoni, Wilson, and other eighteenth 
century founders, and their derivatives; to which must be 
added the best types of to-day. 

There are two preliminary statements which apply to the 
purchase of all types. First, that in buying a series of type, 
every size obtainable should be procured, so that the range 
shall be as great, and the gradations as slight, as possible : 
good typography demanding that the sizes of type used 
must be, not approximately, but precisely, those that suit the 
eye. Second, that each size must be bought in sufficient 
quantity to meet all probable needs; for a few complete series 
in large fonts are far more valuable than thrice the amount 
broken up into small fonts of many different series. If a 
printer knows how to use type, the variety of accent he can 
obtain from one series is almost unlimited. For instance, 
in a I2-point type he has roman capitals, italic capitals, ro- 
man capitals in combination with small capitals, small capi- 
tals alone, and roman and italic lower case — six variations 


Cambridge Cambridge 

Cambridge Cambridge 

in size, colour, or effect, which should be, and indeed are, 
enough for the requirements of an entire book. Multiply 
these six variations by the number of body-sizes in a series 
of type, and you have an enormous keyboard on which the 
typographer may play. If, with this great repertoire to choose 
from, a printer is obliged to resort to fanciful display letters 
or heavy-faced type for accent, it proves that he lacks un- 
derstanding of the use of normal types. 


In discussing the selection of types and decorative mate- 
rial I have made the following classification : 

1. Types that seem indisputably standard, on which there 
is no possibility of going astray ; or, if I may so call them, 
"types of obligation." 

2. Types which, while standard, are not of universal util- 
ity, as they can be used appropriately only for books of a 
particular character. 

3. Types that are based upon some historic fonts or show 
that their designer was a student of early type-forms; and 
fonts adapted for "publicity,'^ though not usually suitable for 
the printing of books. 

4. Types of approved utility for decorative use. 

5. Initial letters and type ornaments. 


In the class of types which appear to be beyond criticism 
from the point of view of beauty and utility, the original Cas- 
lon type stands first This is a letter idendfied with old Eng- 
lish work, and as we follow the traditions of English print- 
ing rather than those of Continental countries, Caslon's types 
are ours by inheritance. Enough has been said about their 
history to make further words here unnecessary. Caslon type 
should be had from the Caslon foundry; for the versions 
offered in various other quarters are not in all respects as 
good. Fonts should be as closely fitted as possible — not al- 
ways the case, even in types put out by the Caslons them- 
selves. NoCaslon font — or for that matter any other — is de- 
sirable if adapted to the standard lining system by shortened 

The variant letters which are supplied with Caslon and 
with many other types in the nature of old style, are charac- 
teristic and useful — such as swash italic capitals, the italic 


lower-case > and '^ used to begin words, and the ^ for use 
at the ends of words. These swash letters, as employed by 
thoughdess compositors or designers, have sometimes pro- 
duced very absurd eflFects. Only certain of the swash italic 
capitals can be successfully placed in the middle of a word, 
the design of the rest suggesting their position either as 
initial or final letters. Used "discreetly, advisedly, soberly,'' 
swash letters give variety and movement to pages of type. 
Furthermore, both in roman and italic, long s and its com- 
binations with ascending letters are interesting letter-forms.^ 
Some tied letters lately supplied in the reproduction of an his- 
torical font are : as, is, «f, 5, fr, 0, ^, 5, tt. It is to be wished that 
terminal a's, e's, m's, and n's, with tails intended to fill out 
lines, were available. Apart from the agreeable appearance 
of these specially old-fashioned characters, they are useful in 
reprints of old books. And so, too, are superior letters, which 
are desirable for reprints of old work, or for modern books 
printed in antique style. In old style fonts, signs to indicate 
notes — star, dagger, double dagger, etc. — are more interest- 
ing and picturesque, typographically, than superior figures, 
which I prefer not to use with an old style type. They are 
particularly appropriate to books of an historical or genea- 
logical nature. For liturgical books the common liturgical 
signs must also be supplied, and of these peculiar sorts I sug- 
gest — at the risk of repetition — that there must be enough 
of each of them to allow work to go on unimpeded by an in- 
adequate supply of a kind of material that at short notice it 
is hard to get. 

Finally, the original old style arabic figures — nowadays 
called "non-ranging" — should be used with all old style 

^ The abolition of the long s, it is popukriy thought, we owe to the London 
publisher John Bdl, who in his BrUiah Theatre , issued about 1775, discarded 
it. Franklin, writing in 1786, says that " the Round s begins to be the Mode 
and in nice printing the Long f is rgected entirely." 


fonts. Such figures as those in the Dutch types given by 
Dr. John Fell to the Oxford University printing-house are 
among the best of their kind; and Caslon's old style arabic 
numerals are lively and agreeable type-forms/ Of these, the 
numbers 1, 2, and cover only the middle of the body ; 6 
and 8 are the ascending, and 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 the descending 
figures {Jig. 366). "In no characters," said Mr. Morris, "is 
the contrast beti/^^een the ugly and vulgar illegibility of the 
modern type and the elegance and legibility of the ancient 
more striking than in the arabic numerals. In the old print 
each figure has its definite individuality, and one cannot be 
mistaken for the other ; in reading the modern figures the 
eyes must be strained before the reader can have any rea- 
sonable assurance that he has a 5, an 8 or a 3 before him, 
unless the press-work is of the best." 

Second in the first class of types stands the modern face 
known in America as "Scotch." In this type the letters are 
more regular in design than in old style fonts. Perhaps the 
most beautiful form of it ever brought out was that cut by 
William Martin ; and a very close copy if not actually the 
same face was produced in Scotland in the last century — 
notably in the "Series of Old Founts" by Messrs. Miller & 
Richard of Edinburgh. The Wayside Series of the Ameri- 
can Type Founders Company — if in its original form, with 
long descenders — is a fairly satisfactory equivalent 

Modern face types appear, at first sight, clearer to the eye 
and more easily read than old style, but they are really less 
so in the long run. Our newspapers are printed in various 
poor forms of "modem face," which is, therefore, familiar 

*The old-&shioned figures were employed untU about 1785, when Hunter 
introduced into his logarithmic tables the new form called "ranging." In 
them a larger size was needful for legibility. About 1843, both the Royal As- 
tronomical Society and the Superintendent of tlie (English) MitUical Mmanac 
decided to restore the non-ranging figures. 

[partes^ } 

m. a 

J. «.7. 




o. o. o. o. o.o.o 
o. o. o. o*o. 0.0 

41. 3Z. 18 .25. O. 0.0 

50.46. 9. 13. o. o.o 
55. 23.4 .36.30. 0.0 
36* 55*2.3. 4.20. 0.0 
27. 41. 32 . 18 . 15 . 0.0 

41 1 

57. 41.29 .14 . o * 0.0 
51. 55. 0.28. 53.21.0 



50.44.37 . O • o. o . o 

46. 10.46. 4.20. o*o 

41. 30.46. 13. 55* 0.0 

1087(41* 30.46* 13. 55. o.o| 

32. 13* 51. o. o. 0.0 

4. 32. 18 .41 .45. o.o 

27. 41*32 .18. 15. o.o 

55. 23. 4 ♦36.30, Oto| 

Arabic Figures used by Simon de Colines, Paris, 1536 

Old Style 



1 234567890 



366. Arabic Figures^ Nori'Ran^ng and Ranging 


to the public ; so that old style types seem a little archaic 
to most persons. Modern face type is admirable for books 
of a scientific or technical character, and, as it is likely to be 
used for such work, the mathematical, geometric, algebraic, 
botanical, astronomical, and other special signs should be 
fully supplied with it Very beautiful books have been made 
from larger sizes of this type — such as the pica — gener- 
ously leaded; but smaller sizes appear monotonous if set 
solid, and if leaded, weak ; and any size, if unskilfully used, 
may become very commonplace in effect To make a distin- 
guished use of a modem face is more difficult, it appears to 
me, than with old style type. None the less, it is excellently 
adapted for certain sorts of work which could not be exe- 
cuted so appropriately in an old style letter. 

A third type (which originated with Binny & Ronald- 
son of Philadelphia over a hundred years ago) is in design 
transitional between old style and modern face. For books 
where the old-fashioned air of Caslon w^ould be too obtru- 
sive, and yet which call for a letter more interesting in de- 
sign than the somewhat bald Scotch face, there is nothing 
better. I should not advise the purchase of this transitional 
series at the expense of the first two types chosen, but it 
will frequently do the work of either. Some of its italic has 
a certain naive quality, though that for the 11-ppint (No. l) 
— superior to the rest — was the work of an accomplished 
type-cutter. This type is not obtainable above 12-point or 
below 9-point, although Binny & Ronaldson's specimen 
of 1812 shows also brevier and minion.^ It is called "Ox- 
ford'' by the American Type Founders Company, from 
whom it may be had. I have used it for this book. It seems 
to me a type of real distinction. 

* The nonpardi and pearl do not appear to be of the same series. 


Types of our second class, while standard, are limited in 
utility, because only to be used appropriately for certain 
kinds of printing. 

The type which stands first in value in this category is 
called in English specimen-books "revived old style face," 
and in this country "modernized old style." It was an in- 
tentional attempt on the part of English letter-founders to 
modify the rather irregular character of Caslon^s letter de- 
sign without copying the rigidity of the modem face. It 
has, in certain ways, an affinity with some of the types 
which were put out by Wilson, in which he modified the 
Caslon irregularities; and this type in turn is a modifica- 
tion of the more spirited designs of Wilson's fonts. It is 
rather a broader letter than Caslon's, with a body notably 
high in relation to its ascenders. This type is useful only in 
its best form, which appears to be that cut in England about 
1850. If this best form is well composed and well printed, 
fine books have been and can be made from it ; but it re- 
quires care in setting and printing because, like some of 
its precursors, its effect may be spoiled by uneven type- 
setting and poor presswork. While not a necessary type for 
an office, it is a good one. It has the advantage of giving to 
the repertoire of a printing-house a certain variety; for print- 
ers often become weary of using the same kind of type, even 
though their customers may appear to desire no change. 

Another type for which one has a high respect, but which 
can only be used for even more special occasions, is that 
commonly called "French Old Style" or "EUz^vier." The 
best form of this type appears to be that brought out by 
Mayeur of Paris, about 1878. Although styled "Elzevier," 
it has a greater resemblance to the types poitiques cut by 


Luce in the eighteenth century. Its italic is more useful than 
its roman, because it has an interesting series of swash 
capitals and some unusual tied lower-case letters. Exten- 
sively copied, I do not think that versions produced in this 
country — of which the best is called "Cadmus Old Style" 
— are as good as the French original. I should therefore 
suggest that the type be procured from French foundries. 
If used with a nice sense of taste, such a type is suitable 
for entire books and is excellent for ephemeral printing. 

The last fifteen years have witnessed, in architecture and 
decoration, an increasingly careful study of the art of his- 
torical periods, and this has had an effect upon book-mak- 
ing. At first, such types as were available were utilized to 
reconstitute books in the styles of difierent times and coun- 
tries. Naturally enough, this soon led to the production of 
types inspired by certain historical type-forms, the earliest 
of which were privately owned fonts specially designed for a 
given purpose or a particular press. Later, similar fonts were 
put on sale by founders for whatever use a printer chose 
to make of them; the success of their use depending on 
the printer's skill. In the first of these, type-founders "im- 
proved" what they said they set out to copy, with the in- 
evitable result of impairing the original design; but several 
later fonts of this class indicate a growing appreciation of 
the necessity of a stricter adherence to the originals. 

The Cloister Old Style roman was based on a study of 
Nicolas Jensen's long-suffering and as yet unrivalled font, 
and its italic is of an interesting early form. It is a practical 
type; not very inspired, perhaps, yet quiet and satisfac- 
tory because not atten^pting too much; and, just because 
of its unobtrusive quality, lending itself better to a good 


deal of work than the more distinguished Garamond series, 
based on the Caracteres de P Universite cut by Claude Gara- 
mond in the seventeenth century. In the latter, the italic 
is better than the roman; for in its roman the height of 
capitals as compared with short lower-case letters is much 
greater than in the original, and they are also more con- 
densed. Less free than the type which Garamond cut, it is 
yet so much freer than most modem fonts that it may be 
recommended as a picturesque and useful letter. 

While the Cloister or the Garamond — both brought out 
by the American Type Founders Company — may not be 
absolutely necessary to an office, a type of this historic class 
should be selected because occasionally useful in books deal- 
ing with artistic subjects where slightly archaic types are 
suitable; or for announcements and other ephemeral printing 
which permit a certain latitude of treatment I doubt if such 
fonts make comfortable reading editions of standard works. 

The Kennerley type, cut by Frederic Goudy, whose work 
has had a distinct influence on recent American type-forms, 
is a freely designed letter which has been much praised in 
many quarters/ Its capitals are excellent, but the lower-case 
roman, except perhaps in 10-point, seems to "roll" a little; 
and, as was said of another of Mr. Goudy's types, "when 
composed in a body, the curves of the letters — individually 
graceful — set up a circular, whirling sensation that detracts 
somewhat from legibility. That is to say, the curves are per- 
haps too round and soft, and lack a certain snap and acid- 
ity." The italic lower-case — less successful — is a letter of 
approximately uniform line, recalling (to its disadvantage) 

' This and other fonts produced by Mr. Goudy on his own account are inter- 
estingly displayed on a broadside entitled, jf Sfiecimen of T)ffiea detignedand 
sold by Frederic W, Goudy, The Village Letter-Foundery, Foresi Hill Gar- 
dens, Mw York. 


those used by some early French printers. The Kennerley 
appears to me a little consciously modelled on early types — 
more "precious'^ than valuable. It is a question whether it 
is merely an ennobled form of publicity type or a book face 
the value of which has yet to be proved. According to 
Leonardo, "Truth was the daughter of Time.** So it will 
be more polite — and safer — to let the Lady decide. 

Cheltenham Old Style, designed by Mr. Goodhue, is 
among those types that Time and his Daughter have defi- 
nitely devoted to publicity, although it has been occasionally 
used for books. Owing to certain eccentricities of form, it can- 
not be read comfortably for any length of time. Its capitals 
are better than its lower-case, which is too "perpendicular'' 
in effect — a fault appropriate to so distinguished an archi- 
tect of Gothic buildings ! It is, however, an exceedingly 
handsome letter for ephemeral printing. 

A second type that seems to me to have found its place 
in the same class is Bodoni. Some people might call it an 
historical font; but the "Bodoni" type of commerce is a 
composite picture of many of Bodoni's fonts, rather than a 
reproduction of any one of them. None the less, it is in effect 
somewhat foreign, and that is its disadvantage ; for a vol- 
ume set in it suggests a Continental reprint of an Elnglish 
book — an impression by which one is perpetually, though 
perhaps subconsciously, teased. It can be utilized for short 
addresses, circulars, and advertising, with great success — as 
in the charming use of it by Mr. T. M. Cleland. To printer- 
designers as skilful as Cleland it may be recommended. 


Black-letter, though nowadays rarely used, as it originally 
was, for the text of entire books, has survived for ornamental 
purposes; especially in liturgical printing. This type is un- 


readable to some people and puzzling (in mass) to most, so 
it must be used cautiously. It can be combined most sue- 
cessfuUy with old style types. With more "modern" faces 
it is out of accord. The best form of this Ejiglish national 
letter is that cut by William Caslon in 1734. Most of the 
variants of Caslon's black-letter have been unsatisfactory 
because too thick or too thin, too modelled or not enough so. 

The gothic paragraph-marks that sometimes accompany 
black-letter types are interesting and should be had; as 
well as the "peculiar sorts'' of these fonts — the round r (j), 
old ampersand ((t), ligatured letters, liturgical signs, etc. The 
so-called black-letter arabic figures, the dollar-mark, and 
modem ampersand may be rejected. Roman forms of enu- 
meration — by letters — should be used in printing numbers 
in black-letter type, and the word "dollars" printed in full. 
In many gothic fonts, the same letter-form is still used — 
as it should be — for both capital I and J. But the capital 
U — anciently used for V as well — is generally supple- 
mented by a V of modern design, which is seldom satis- 

Other black-letters that are sometimes useful and always 
interesting are the Old Flemish Black, based on one of Cax- 
ton's types, cut by Vincent Figgins ; and a round gothic 
letter called Old Tudor Black, cut by F. Tarrant and E. P. 
Prince for Messrs. Miller & Richard, recalling round Italian 
gothic types. Beautiful French batarde and dvi/itS fonts may 
be secured from French foundries. 

A type based on eighteenth century engraved lettering, 
although of an entirely different kind from black-letter, may 
be employed in a similar way — to give here and there an 
ornamental touch to pages set in old style types. Its pecul- 
iarly French character limits its use, which must be spar- 
ing in any case. It is called in this country French Script, 


but the series brought out by Mayeur of Paris is styled Les 
Batardes Coulees, 

For lines set in capital letters on covers and in title-pages, 
the Goudy Old Style roman capitals are good. In design they 
have an agreeable freedom, and they compose into strong 
lines of dignified letter. Where a more unconventional letter- 
design is not unsuitable, Goudy's Forum capitals are to be 

For "free" initial letters — to cover two, three, or more lines 
of text — fonts of capitals cast without shoulders are de- 
sirable. Complete series of these " tiding -letters "Mn both old 
style and modern face should be procured. With transi- 
tional types, old style initials will serve satisfactorily. 

French Old Style roman capitals make a distinguished 
initial letter, and Goudy Old Style roman capitals are also 
effective for this purpose. For use with black-letter, a few 
good alphabets of free gothic capitals — notably the series 
called "Missal'' — are available. These plain roman or gothic 
letters are, as a rule, preferable to ornamented initials. 

For occasional use in printing of a more fanciful kind, 
the four sizes o{ Moreau-ie-Jeune outline roman capitals and 
the three sizes of Foumier-le-Jeune ornamented italic capi- 
tals brought out by the Peignot foundry of Paris are very 
good indeed. 

Of decorative alphabets there are three classes: old alpha- 
bets used by famous printers such as Tory, Ratdolt, Es- 
tienne, Plantin, and others, which are handsome but some- 
what hackneyed; alphabets of a much later style, some of 
them versions of those used by Whittingham at the Chis- 

' So called because often used for titles requiring several lines of capitals 
where the shoulder of regular capitals would introduce too much space be- 
tween lines. 


wick Press; and a few modem series. No rule can be laid 
down in selecting such alphabets, because it depends so 
much on personal taste. Nor can we tell where to find them, 
for they must be gathered from many different foundries. 
Initials of large size are comparatively rarely used ; so alpha- 
bets of small-sized letter are usually the most practical, and, 
it may be added, are somewhat harder to get Furthermore, 
if one can secure a capable designer who thoroughly under- 
stands the line required in decorations to be used with types, 
he may be employed to draw a special alphabet ; for this is 
a valuable asset to a prindng-office. Some volumes printed 
by T. & A. G)nstable employ an alphabet designed by Lau- 
rence Housman, intended to accompany a modified old face 
type, which is a good example of a fine specially drawn se- 
ries of decorative letters. 

In some of the best old and modern printing, the only typo- 
graphical ornaments used are solid black florets or ^ivy 
leaves." These are a very early form of type ornament, and 
fifteenth and sixteenth century books, in which they con- 
stantly appear, show most of the best varieties. Froben's books 
are full of such ornaments. Those still used by the Oxford 
University Press were part of Dr. Fell's gift Florets give life 
to a large or solid page of type, where other less sedate forms 
of ornament would not be appropriate. Most of them accord 
best with sturdy old style types. Some more sharply cut 
designs of later date harmonize better with modern face 

' Maltese crosses — still employed as florets in country printing-offices and by 
countrified printers in towns — are not ornaments at all, but a definite litur- 
gical sign indicating bleii<ssing. Except where one is placed at the head of 
a religious inscription as a symbol, they should not be used for decoration. 
Oddly enough, they are most frequently employed by printers for non-litur- 
gical Protestant bodies, which, if tiiey knew what they meant, would not want 


As early types became lighter, ornaments became more 
open and complicated in design, and in combination formed 
definite patterns. Examples have come down to us from the 
earliest foundries, and are seen in their specimen-sheets — 
e.g.^ that of the sale of the Van Dyck types. 

Rowe Mores (in his Dissertation) says, "Metal-flowers 
were the first ornaments used in printed books to be set at 
the head of the first page and the tail of the last page, as 
well as the head and tail of any separate part of the whole 
work. And they were sometimes used as an edging to the 
matter according to the taste of the author or the printer. 
They were used but sparingly and with small variety, but 
in rime they became more numerous, and were cut in sev- 
eral shapes, forms and devices, and continued in reputation 
till Cutters in Wood supplanted them. When Mr. Moxon 
wrote they were accounted old-fashioned. But the use of 
them was revived by the French and Germans and the 
variety of them considerably encreased by the Two Mr. 
Jameses in Ijigland." The older English "flowers,'' he con- 
rinues, often "expressed some meaning and were adapted to 
other purposes than barely to dress and decorate a page. 
They were formed from real objects, natural and artificial, 
civil and military — as from weeds and flowers of the field 
and garden, leaves, branches, fruits, flower-baskets, flower- 
pots, urns, crosses, banners, launces, swords, and tilting 
spears, and other simples culled from the fields of nature 
and of heraldry; yet germane to the subject matter of the 
work. They were frequently emblematical and monitory; as 
cherubs' faces for the hymns of charity girls, hour-glasses 
for lugubrious orators, and mort-heads for the parish-clerks. 
They were sjonbolical of nations; as the crown and rose, 
the crown and lyz, the crown and harp; — of dignities and 
orders; as diadems, crowns, mitres and coronets; the red 


hat called at Camb. the Cardinars cap, where too the mitre 
is called the golden night-cap; the courtelass; the arms of 
Ulster, and the anchor of hope; the Scotch thistle and sprigs 
of rue; . . . of states and conditions; as the myrtle, the weep- 
ing willow, and the bugle-horn." 

Equivalents of many of the "flowers" described by Mores 
are to be found in Caslon's early specimen-sheets, which 
show those he designed for use with his own types, and 
which are carefully adapted to harmonize in colour with 
letter-press. Solid black masses are usually avoided, and in 
some designs cross-hatching is employed to give variety of 
eflFect and help the presswork. Of their kind there is nothing 
superior to Caslon's "flowers," and the larger assortment of 
them one has,^ the better. 

With the ebb and flow of colour and strength in types, 
the weight of ornaments changed. As, toward the end of the 
eighteenth century, type-faces became lighter, "flowers" be- 
came more delicate — or, as Mores, writing in 1778, says, 
"mere figures of fancy, made up of circular oval and angu- 
lar turns, contrived to look light airy and unmeaning, and 
to try the genius or patience of a compositor." With mod- 
elled types of the early nineteenth century, ornaments be- 
came still thinner and more wiry in eflfect During the reign 
of fat-faced types the ornaments also waxed fat In short, 
there was a distinct difference between the type ornaments 
of 1750, 1790, and 1820, and accordingly they cannot be 
used interchangeably. The French ornaments, flowers, and 
borders in Fournier's Manuel of 1764 show that they were 
designed to decorate pages set in types of that time and in 

' About twenty years ago, these old ornaments fell on evil days, a few of 
them being redrawn for several American foundries in '^ chap-book" style. 
This heavy rendering accorded in weight with the massive black type then in 
fashion — a style with which they were out of keeping. The original forms are 
the only ones worth considering. 


those only. Employed with the types of Didot, used forty 
years later, they look coarse and inharmonious. We can use 
these "ivy leaves ** or "flowers'' properly, only by remem- 
bering that typographic ornament must harmonize in line 
and treatment with its accompanying letter-press. 

The supply of good florets is not as great as one would 
ezpectTo obtain them, specimen-books of different foundries 
must be consulted, and those selected that are modelled on 
the best old ones. Deficiencies may be supplied by specially 
designed florets, copied from those in old books. 

Before making a choice of " flowers," it is a good plan to 
study the specimen-books of Caslon, Fry, Foumier, Didot, 
and Bodoni, which will reveal many good designs and give 
hints for employing what might otherwise seem useless ma- 
terial. Many of the best "flowers" can still be had in their 
original forms, and fair equivalents of others can be picked 
up here and there. Good ornaments, which have been laid 
aside by their founders as old-fashioned, can sometimes be 
cast to order. 

In making such selections as this, if a man has knowledge 
and trained taste, it will show itself in a repertory of orna- 
ments distinguished, individual, and peculiar to his own 


OUR composing-room has, therefore, only about seven 
series of standard types for book work, and in all about 
a score of varieties : "For what, then," the reader may ask, 
"are all the other types in founders' specimen-books?" My 
answer would be, "Chiefly to avoid." We are told that if 
we know the truth, it will make us free ; and it will. If we 
know the truth typographically we shall be freed from using 
the many poor types that are offered us. There are hun- 


dreds of pages in founders' specimen-books; and yet ex- 
amples of almost every type that the world ought ever to 
have seen could be shown in a thin pamphlet^ If we know 
anything about the history of type-forms, or have learned 
to distinguish what pure type-forms are, most of the types 
offered appear absolutely negligible. If printers had been 
better educated in their own trade, many of these wretched 
letters could never have been sold at all. Horace Walpole — 
who printed none too well at Strawberry Hill — said about 
people, that nine-tenths of them " were created to make you 
want to be with the other tenth.'' This is true of types. 

The types I have recommended — all of which may be 
had from existing foundries — are mosdy standard, and all 
of them appear to me good. It is not, however, my purpose to 
choose types for a printer, but to show him how to choose 
types for himself. He may therefore make quite a different 
selection, and this is as it should be. If only the types sug- 
gested — no matter how excellent — were invariably chosen, 
all printing-houses would be as like as the proverbial two 
peas, with products as monotonous as Sahara. This can 
be obviated only by exercising individual taste — wisely; 
and the basis on which individual taste can be wisely exer- 
cised has been already pointed out It is applicable both to 
old types that we may come upon, and new ones that may be 
offered us. 

There is, for instance, that large and interesting class of 
types transitional between old style fonts and modem face 
characters, shown in late eighteenth century English and 
French specimen-books — types like Martin's in England 
or Didot's early fonts in France. Such a fine transitional let- 

^Out of 146 types classified by M. Thibaudeau in La Lcttre d* Imfirimerie^ 
I find but four types that seem "possible" ; and De Vinne's Plain Printing 
TyttCM displays only a very few. 

DoMiNE omnipotens, Deus patrum nostrorum Abra- 
ham, et Isaac et Jacob, et seminis eorum justi, qui. 
fecisti coelum et terram cum omni omatu eorum ; qui 
ligasti mare verbo praecepti tui ; qui conclusisti abys- 
sum, et signasti eam terribili et laudabili nomine tuo; 
quem omnia pa vent et tremunt a vultu virtutis tuae, 
quia importabilis est magnificentia gloriae tuae, et in- 

siistentabilis ira comminationis tua super peccatores; 
immensa vero et investigabilis misericordia promissionis 
tua: quoniam tu es DominuSy altissimuSy benignus, Ion-- 
gaminisy et mu/tum misericorSj etposnitens super mali- 
tias hominum. TUyDominey secundum multitudinem bo- 
nitatis tua promisisti pcehitentiametremissionem iiSyqui 
peccaverunt tibiy et multitudine miserationum tuarum 

DoMiNE omnipotens, Deus patrum nostrorum Abraham, et 
Isaac et Jacob, et seminis eorum justi, qui fecisti caelum 
et terram cum omni ornatu eorum; qui ligasti mare verbo 
praecepti tui ; qui conclusisti abyssum, et signasti eam terri- 
bili et laudabili nomine tuo; quem omnia pavent et tre- 
munt a vultu virtutis tuae, quia importabilis est magnifi- 
centia gloriae tuse, et insustentabilis ira comminationis tuae 
super peccatores; immensa vero et investigabilis miseri- 

cordia promissionis tua: quoniam tu es DominuSy altissimus^ 
benignuSy ItmgaminiSy et multum misericorSy et pcenitens super 
malitias Iiominum. ^Uy Dominey secundum multitudinem bonita" 
tis tua promisisti pcenitentiam et remissionem iiSy qui peccave* 
rvnttihiyet multitudine miserationum tuarum decrevisti panitenr 
tiam peccatoribus in salutem. T'u igitury Domine Deus justorumy 
non posuisti pcsnitentiam justiSy Abrahamy et Isaac et Jacoby 

367. Examples of Transitional Types 


ter wiU do all the work of an old style type, and has some- 
times, as I have said, a distinction and delicacy which old 
style fonts do not possess; while it is more interesting — 
less bleak and commonplace — than a modern face type. 
The two upper sections in our plate {Jig. 367) are set 
in a transitional font, which is, both in roman and italic, a 
fine and workable letter. The smaller roman beneath has 
certain interesting peculiarities that render it unlike Cas- 
lon's ordinary fonts — or Baskerville's either — but its ac- 
companying italic came from the Caslons when under the 
Baskerville influence, and is for all intents and purposes 
a characteristic "Baskerville" type. A man must be thor- 
oughly grounded in his knowledge of type-forms to select 
these fonts; for an untrained eye may be easily deceived 
by some mongrel type which is not transitional at all, but 
merely a bad type for any period. But an eye trained to be 
sensitive to type-forms will be able to "spot" good types 
amid masses of worthless material. There is no need to limit 
ourselves to American or English products in searching for 
such types. Continental type foundries must have many 
agreeable types hidden away among their material, which 
might well be resuscitated. 

And what are the types we ought not to want — which 
have no place in any artistically respectable composing- 
room? They are (in my opinion) practically all types on 
"standard line," all condensed or expanded types, all "sans- 
serif" or (as they are absurdly miscalled) "gothic" types, 
all fat-faced black-letter and fat-faced roman, all hair-line 
types, almost all "ornamented" types and types which imi- 
tate engraving, and, with one or two exceptions, all shaded 
types. To this list I would add the variant forms of many 
standard series of types, which make up their "families." 
These are principally condensations, distortions, or exag- 


gerations of the original letter — the disreputable offspring 
of honest parents. 


To the printer the moral of all this is that studies in type- 
forms teach us not only how to choose, but give us courage 
to eliminate. There are many ways of being wrong, but only 
one way of being right, and it is surely better to know the 
one way of being right, and purchase types few but fit, than 
to follow the many ways of being wrong, and expend much 
time, labour, and money in the experience ! I have called this 
book a study in survivals, because in it I have tried to show 
not only what types have survived, but what should survive 
through their fitness for the best typography, and in so do- 
ing to lay down those general principles which may help 
*'the survival of the fittest" in days to come. Elach year that 
passes, we shall be called on to judge the design of types, 
both old and new. We must have a trained taste and eye to 
make a rewarding choice. For if we do not judge types 
rightly, they will judge us — the penalty of foolish choice 
being the penalty we pay for choosing foolishly in life. We 
are punished by getting what we want ! 

It is a simple matter to make lists of good types — though 
not as simple as it seems. It is still simpler — and much less 
trouble — lazily to accept other people's conclusions and think 
no more about it But the ideal composing-room will never 
be equipped in this way. It will be made what it ought to 
be only by those adventurers who add to those types ac- 
cepted as '^ standard '^ other interesting fonts selected from 
sources to which study will have furnished a clue. The field 
for fruitful research is still great ; and the printer who seeks 
will find himself the possessor, not merely of delightful, 
individual, and rare types, but of the ideal composing-room. 



j4 T first sight, the conditions of industry in the past 
/% do not seem to have practical relation either to a 
A m. knowledge of printing types or to the work which 
a printer has to do with them. This same objection, however, 
might be made to the historical study of type-forms ; yet 
the deductions made from such a study have a practical 
bearing on the selection of material for to-day's work. I pro- 
pose to show that a knowledge of past industrial conditions 
is of like value. For over and above the eternal problem of 
how best to do our work, some ambitious beginners in print- 
ing have made a further problem of their own. These men, 
knowing little of economic and industrial history, have 
come to believe that the conditions under which a printer 
works now are somehow very different from conditions in 
the past, and that the reason men cannot do to-day what the 
early printers so splendidly did, is because to-day's condi- 
tions are so entirely different 

It is natural that any one who desires to become some- 
thing more than a commonplace printer should be beguiled 
by the romantic aspect of his art; and if he starts out with 
a false although conventional conception of ** the good old 
times,'' it is only because he has derived such views from 
pleasant papers, written by so-caUed "craftsmen," concern- 
ing ancient guilds, the former unity of aim among work- 
men, the stimulating environment which surrounded them, 
and the ease with which masterpieces were thus produced. 
The statements of these romantic writers have little rela- 
tion to facts, or their deductions much application to our 
problems now. Mr. Ruskin and Mr. Morris were long ago 


responsible for some of the harm done in this direction ; and 
the disciples of the ideals of the one, and the imitators of the 
work of the other, have had time to do even more harm. 
There have been, indeed, many well-meaning persons — 
some are still with us — who have written, and also talked, 
in a manner very near to nonsense, about the advantages of 
working long ago — though the precise years of these agree- 
able periods are usually left dans la vague. 

Such mistaken views have not been confined to writing 
and talking, but were sometimes acted upon. Theorists and 
sentimentalists here and there formed themselves into tem- 
porary industrial groups, fenced away from what they called 
the " corroding influences'' of the period to which they really 
belonged ! These men thought (or said they did) that they 
were reproducing that tranquil and contented industrial life 
under which — in some Golden Age — rgood work was uni- 
versally done. A litde study of the economic history of print- 
ing, and of the life of printers in old times, would perhaps 
have convinced these amiable persons that — as far as typog- 
raphy was concerned — no such conditions existed. The 
Gothic scene against which the old work was accomplished, 
made in some ways as litde difference to it as does the shape 
of a room to the sense of what is said in it. What we think of 
as the printers' foreground was usually their background, 
and the remoteness of the period should not lead us to ideal- 
ize it, or them. When we throw away all \h\s^ bric-a-brac sen- 
timentale et moyen-Qgeux^^ we find that the constant element 
was the human will struggling against human laziness; and 
that the victory of the one or of the other made for success 
or failure then, precisely as it does now. When what they 
did was admirable — as it sometimes, but not always, was — 
it was produced with travail. The pity of it is that much val- 
uable enthusiasm, which might have been applied to present- 


day needs, has come to nothing through these false concep- 
tions. " The chains of the mind are broken by understand- 
ing," says Gilbert Murray, "and so far as men are unduly 
enslaved by the past, it is by understanding the past thiat 
they may hope to be freed. But it is never really the past — 
the true past — that enslaves us; it is always the present" 


THE history of French type-founding, printing, and 
publishing is extremely "documented," and I write 
of early industrial conditions in France because we can so 
readUy get an idea of what they were at first in the print- 
ing industry and of what they subsequently became. To be- 
g^n with, the men who copied manuscripts before printing 
was introduced were often extremely inaccurate transcrib- 
ers. To establish some proper standard and supervision, 
they were placed under the control of the University of 
Paris. The University had the right to license proper copy- 
ists, and to approve the sale of their manuscripts — many 
of which were in the nature of text-books in which exact- 
ness was essential. To accomplish this, there was a great 
body of regulations in force. The copyists in France were an 
influential class — strong enough to prevent the setting up 
of a printing-press in Paris for fully twenty years after the 
invention of printing. Their opposition to the press shows 
us that industrial conflicts existed at the very birth of print- 
ing. Mellottee says that "documents of the period tell us of 
the frightful struggle of the manuscript-makers against the 
first printers. No improvements in our present-day machin- 
ery can be compared to the change which printing made 
in the production of books. And even the revolution at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, brought about by the 


introduction of the power-press, is as nothing really, com- 
pared with the complete overturn which took place in in- 
dustries connected with the book. In 1470, there were six 
thousand men occupied solely in transcribing manuscripts, 
and some years later they scarcely existed, the new process 
doing ten times more work than all of them together.'' ' 
Rome, Venice, Milan, Nuremberg, Cologne, Augsburg, all 
had printing-presses before a Parisian press was set up ; and 
when the first Paris press rms established, it was in a sense 
a private affair and came into being only through the influ- 
ence of scholars like Heynlin and Fichet of the Sorbonne. 
After a while the business men of that day saw the com- 
mercial advantage of such enterprises, and began to inter- 
est themselves in them. It was not, however, until about 
1480 that printing was fairly established in Paris. Twenty 
years later, there were Parisian establishments which pos- 
sessed as many as fifteen presses. 

If we keep steadily in mind that the making of printed 
books was nothing more than the reproduction of manu- 
scripts by mechanical means, we can better understand by 
what insensible steps the supervision of the University was 
transferred from the product of the copyists-by-hand {i.e^ 
manuscripts) to the product of the copyists-by-machine (r>., 
books). The copy ists-by-hand, after printing was introduced, 
had still some work to do on a printed book. In many cases 
they illuminated the first page, just as they had decorated 
the first page of the manuscript ; and they still filled in par- 
agraph-marks, initials, etc., in colour. There was no abrupt 
transition from hand-copying to press-printing. Many men 
continued in the waning industry of calligraphy and illu- 
mination until they died; but their places were not filled. 

* HUtoire &onomigue de I* Imfirimerie. Ulmfirimerie sous Pancien B^gime, 
1439-1789, Paris, Hachette, 1905, pp. 2, 3. 


Others were at once forced into other occupations, and many 
became writing-masters, some accountants. The same reg- 
ulations that had been applied to the scribe and his manu- 
script were applied by Louis XI in 1474 to the printer and 
his book; the transition was accomplished, and the printer 
found himself attached to the University in place of the 
ancient copyist 

On the other hand, the examining and licensing prerog- 
atives of the University, vested in a theological faculty, were 
one by one transferred to the King, and in the end it was 
to the Crown that the three grades of French printers — 
the apprentice, the journeyman, and the master-printer — 
had to look for such privileges as they enjoyed. The copy- 
ist having become a printer, and supervision having been 
slowly transferred from the University and from Parliament 
to the Crown — the chief result of sixteenth century legisla- 
tion — we have to find out what were the conditions in the 
printing and publishing trade in France during this and 
succeeding centuries. 

In the early days of French printing, there were, as has 
been said, three classes of printers : apprentice, journeyman, 
and master-printer. To be a master-printer, a man had first 
to be a journeyman, and before being a journeyman he must 
have been an apprentice. Certain conditions had to be ful- 
filled before admission was granted to these different ranks. 
The rules which governed these positions descended to the 
prindng trade from the ancient Corporation du Livre; and to 
this extent guild rules had some influence on prindng. In 
the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries the guild 
or trade-union was really a safeguard to the artisan, we 
are told by Mellottee. The head of the atelier was in some 
sense a father ; the workman lived under the same roof with 
him ; in disputes he had a right of appeal ; and he was 


backed by his guild or company as the cleric was by his 
bishop, or the student by his college* But this healthy and 
true form of paternalism was on the wane when printing 
was invented, and by the sixteenth century, although con- 
ditions appeared to be much as in former years, the guilds 
and similar associations had fallen into the hands of employ- 
ers and become close corporations and monopolies. The in- 
terests of the two classes became more distinct, and finally 
were antagonistic. Whatever the guilds may have done for 
manuscript-makers, as far as they influenced printing at all 
they were not a particularly salutary force. For printing was 
a trade that required capital, encouraged subdivision of la- 
bour, and, to be profitable, had to employ workers in large 

The first master-printers engaged their apprentices on 
various terms : sometimes paying in money only ; some- 
times undertaking to feed and lodge the apprentice, and to 
supply him with shoes during his stay — and at the end 
of his engagement to present him with an extra pair ! The 
apprenticeship generally lasted three years. In 1571, ap- 
prenticeship became compulsory, and a master was obliged 
to certify that an apprentice had duly learned his trade 
under him, and was fitted to become a journeyman. The 
journeymen complained that stingy, ignorant master-print- 
ers turned out half-educated apprentices, and that thus the 
whole class of journeymen was discredited; and as a remedy 
they suggested that pressmen should serve four years' and 
compositors five years' apprenticeship — in any case three. 
Later it was insisted — what from the first would have 
seemed desirable — that apprentices should know how to 
read and write ! In 1649, the lines of qualification were much 
more tighdy drawn, and apprentices were expected to know 
something of Greek and to be able to read Latin. The result 


was that so few apprentices applied for admission to print- 
ing-houses, that in 1654 master-printers were again allowed 
to engage apprentices who only knew how to read and write 
in the vernacular. 

There was also an inferior sort of apprentice called an 
alloue. Nothing was asked of him except hard work. He 
had the same obligations as other apprentices, but when he 
had finished his apprenticeship, he was still a mere work- 
man and not a journeyman. Journeymen could (if fitted for 
it) become master-printers; but the alloues could not. They 
first seem to have been recruited from the ranks of little 
boys, hewers of wood and drawers of water, who, because 
they were strong and willing, were useful in printing-offices 
and could be profitably employed. Later they arrived at the 
status we have described. They were an antique form of 
printer's devil. Child-labour — male and female — is not 

In those days of ancient peace there was really con- 
stant war between employer and employed over the appren- 
tices — a struggle that began with the invention of print- 
ing and is scarcely terminated yet The master-printer, to 
increase the number of journeymen, wished to be free to 
take as many apprentices as he pleased. The journeyman, 
on his side, wanted to reduce the number of apprentices 
so that the number of journeymen should be limited. A rule 
issued in 1541 has a significant clause to the effect that 
masters may make and take as many apprentices as they 
choose, and that the journeymen must not beat or menace 
the said apprentices, but must work with them for the good 
of the trade, under pain of prison, banishment, and other 
punishments. It was this dispute that was one of the causes 
of industrial troubles which will be mentioned later- 

The earliest French printing-offices were often very small 


affairs — ateliers de famille. They were conducted chiefly 
by foreigners, mostly Germans, whose common origin, em- 
ployment in a foreign country, and the fact that books were 
usually in Latin, sometimes led to real community of inter- 
est and some intellectual culture among the workmen. But 
in the sixteenth century, men of means, principally publish- 
ers who were not themselves practical printers, organized 
printing-offices simply for the returns they got from them, 
just as we now organize manufactories and, I am sorry to 
say, printing-houses, which interest us only for the money 
they bring in. Then, as now, the disparity between the social 
and financial situation of the two classes forced men into 
groups governed by opposing interests. As early as the year 
1536, a master-printer had been sentenced for the bad 
food given to a journeyman, and the decree also censured 
him for what it styled "his unbridled avarice," which made 
him care for nothing but getting rich, though he was re- 
ducing his journeymen and their families to objects of 
charity. When establishments came into existence which 
employed as many as two hundred and fifty workmen, the 
masters tried to reduce the rate of wages. To effect this, the 
number of apprentices was made as great as possible, for 
apprentices were paid less. 

The type-founders' legal situation was not, "up to 1686, 
very clear. They were not yet recognized as exercising any 
special trade, and they could not, as type-founders alone, be- 
come members of the Confrerie de St Jean PEvangeliste^ (a 
sort of guild-trade-union), or from 1618 become one of the 
Community of Printers and Publishers. This difficulty they 
got over by taking out permits, which allowed them to open 

' St. John the Evangelist is the traditional patron of printers and publisliers, 
"comme celui qui fiit le principal et le plus haut desdits secretaires ^van- 
g^istes de Notre Sauveur." 


shops and to call themselves publishers, or sometimes even 
paper-makers ; but real publishers were not pleased at this, 
and instituted a suit in 1614 to forbid them to take this 
title.'' ^ This quarrel lasted for a long time, and some thirty 
years later Richelieu's favourite, Ahtoine Vitre, wrote that 
"Letter-founders call themselves publishers, printers and 
binders because they cast letters for books. I tell them that 
the calf has about as much right to call himself a publisher 
because he furnishes the skin for the bindings." 

A decree of 1670 regulated the sale of new or second- 
hand typographic material, which was scrupulously looked 
after. No press and no font of type could be sold or ex- 
changed without a declaration before the authorities, if it 
was to be used in Paris ; or some special authorization, if 
sent into the provinces. The Crown took these measures to 
prevent the establishment of clandestine printing-offices, 
from which disquieting political pamphlets were often is- 
sued. Royal authority, enforced to the utmost through the 
censure^ had by the end of the seventeenth century reduced 
the University to a negligible r81e in relation to printing. The 
regulation of the printing and publishing trade I shall touch 
upon later. 


IT may come as a surprise to the lover of ancient cus- 
toms that among the picturesque habits of sixteenth 
century printers was that of going out on strikes. The print- 
ers' strikes and resultant disturbances at Lyons and Paris 
lasted from 1539 to 1572. The Lyons strike was an explo- 
sion among the rank and file of the work-people, the out- 
come of a series of abuses suffered at the hands of the mas- 
ters ; for master-printers appear to have determined to re- 

* Mdlott^'s HiHoire Eamomiqiie de Plmflrimerie, pp. 401, 402. 


duce their subordinates to men without powers or rights. 
This Lyons strike had been brewing for a long time. In the 
months of April and May, 1539, a number of the Lyonnese 
printers stopped work, and also disorganized the labour of 
other journeymen and apprentices, threatening them if they 
dared to continue in their places. The sequel was a strike 
so general that the printing industry was at a standstill. 
Armed bands of strikers marched the streets day and night 
and attacked masters, police, and officers of the govern- 
ment; but among the workmen themselves excellent disci- 
pline reigned, showing that a perfectly good understanding 
existed, and had existed for some time, as to what was to be 
done by the labour party. The outgoing men pledged them- 
selves not to work except in a body, and punished any one 
refusing to submit to the rules of their organization. The 
number of men in the labour group was so great that it was 
impossible to imprison them all, though here and there some 
workmen were arrested. 

The cause of the strike, according to the workmen's com- 
plaint, was that master-printers supplied insufficient food, 
that wages had been reduced, and that they were not free 
to do their work as, and when, they chose. The masters re- 
torted that there were certain classes of journeymen who 
were never contented with their food and never would be, 
and that there were always men who wished to take holi- 
days on work-days and to work on holidays. But the num- 
ber of holidays without pay was a positive evil then to the 
working-man, as they would be now, for he often needed 
to work at those times to support his family. On the chief 
festivals, naturally, no work was done, but there were mul- 
titudes of minor saints' days to be observed, leaving only 
about two hundred and forty working days in the year. 

The masters were willing to compromise on these points, 


but the workmen would not accept their offers. Meanwhile 
the authorities of Lyons insisted upon some solution, for they 
had the strikers' wives and children on their hands, many 
of them in real destitution. To settle matters, two commit- 
tees (one composed of journeymen, the other of masters) 
appeared before the Seneschal of Lyons, who had authority 
from the Crown to settie the dispute. The seneschal's de- 
cision shows on how many points the two groups differed. 
Journeymen were forbidden to take any pledge among them- 
selves, to gather outside work-rooms in larger parties than 
five, to carry arms or sticks in printing-offices or the street, to 
threaten or beat apprentices or to interfere with them; they 
were also debarred from labour on festivals and from stop- 
ping work on the eves of festivals earlier than was custom- 
ary, and were not allowed to leave work to go to a baptism or 
funeral unless it was in the family of their master or mistress! 
As to master-printers, they could take as many apprentices 
as they chose, but they must give the usual monthly wage 
to journeymen and must feed them properly, with as good 
food as they had customarily given five or six years before 
— a committee being appointed to decide wherein proper 
board and lodging consisted. In most of these stipulations 
journeymen were defeated and masters were triumphant ; 
but the Seneschal of Lyons, in receiving a group of jour- 
neymen representing the workmen, inadvertentiy recog- 
nized the labour party. By this an admission was practi- 
cally made that workmen had the right to act in a corpo- 
rate capacity and to be represented before the authorities. 
The Crown, however, accepted the settiement of the dispute 
and made a decree which was mandatory, and the strike 
was ended. The government found itself face to face with 
organized labour, and it was so frightened thereby that the 
decrees which it put forth not alone regulated printing. 



but were to be applied in principle to every other trade in 

The Lyons strike was a question of wages; the Paris 
strike concerned the conduct of employees. It was precipi- 
tated by complaints made by master-printers, who alleged 
that journeymen and their helpers, by private clubs and 
associations, had directly and indirectly stirred up dissat- 
isfaction among apprentices, and had so influenced them 
as practically to destroy their usefulness. The masters drew 
up regulations which they wished the King to enforce, 
based on decisions given in the Lyons strike, and meant to 
forestall similar difficulties. These proposed rules debarred 
journeymen from forming any club or electing representa- 
tives, from assembling outside their master^s house, and 
from being armed; forbade them to beat apprentices ; made 
masters arbiters of what journeymen should do and how 
and when they should do it ; forbade assembling at dinners 
to celebrate the beginning or end of an apprendceship and 
the asking of subscriptions for a common cause; forbade the 
use of the word "trie" (a signal used when work was to be 
stopped for a strike); forbade grumbling if work in a hurry 
should be distributed among a number of workmen ; and 
prohibited them from absence on eves of festivals and from 
working on the feast-day itself. Masters were to give jour- 
neymen reasonable nourishment, pay them monthly, dis- 
miss any who were mutinous or disreputable; were to insist 
on eight days' notice before workmen could leave them (al- 
though they were not to give notice of dismissal to work- 
men); were not to hire away one another's work-people, or 
use one another's printers' devices. They were also obliged 
to have proofreaders who knew how to correct proofs prop- 
erly. The working day was fixed from five o'clock in the 
morning until eight o'clock at night. Type-foundries were 


included in the preceding rules. The King approved the 
proposals and they became law. In Lyons, it was the jour- 
neymen who complained; in Paris, the masters saw an op- 
portunity to secure more power by precipitating questions 
which forestalled like complaints. In August, 1539, when 
the law was promulgated, the Paris strike began. The dis- 
turbances which it caused were not settled by the Crown 
until thirty years later — in 1572, by a compromise which 
was satisfactory neither to the employers nor the employed. 

Meanwhile, at Lyons the printing industry was ruined. 
The master-printers decided to leave the city for Vienne in 
Dauphiny, or some other place where conditions were bet- 
ter. The Lyons authorities, frightened at the removal of an ' 
industry and invested capital which would hurt the pros- 
perity of the town (for next to Paris Lyons was the great 
centre for printing), met the masters and endeavoured to find 
some way out of the difficulty. An appeal was made to the 
King, who finally modified the laws in eifect at Lyons, in 
accord with rulings which had been enforced at Paris; 
but it was only after some years of negotiation that the 
matter was finally setded, and then only by royal authority. 
It is recorded that among the many master-printers of 
Lyons, fitienne Dolet, the author-printer-bookseller, alone 
sided with the workmen, and incurred, by so doing, the last- 
ing hostility of other master-printers — a hostility which 
had something to do with the troubles to which he later fell 
victim. Dolet, who had been proofreader for Gryphius, and 
was friend to Jean de Tournes, was hanged at Paris in 
1546 for heretical opinions, and his body and books burned 

These are but two episodes in the history of the print- 
ing trade in France during the sixteenth century. Conditions 
were probably the same in greater or less degree in England, 


Holland, Germany, and Italy. At any rate, enough has been 
said to show how very like the industrial conditions were 
then to those we know now. Some of the details seem very 
modern ; and yet Aldus had been dead only about twenty 
years when these strikes began, and the Aldine Office still 
existed and was to exist for years to come. 


WE have seen what French industrial conditions were 
in the sixteenth century. At the end of the seven- 
teenth and the beginning of the eighteenth century, what 
was the condition of printing at Paris ? 

There was a certain Pierre Jacques Blondel who, about 
1724, wrote a sarcastic memoir on Parisian booksellers 
and printers,^ which, though not, perhaps, to be taken too 
seriously, casts light upon the situation at that time. It is 
amusing to find the writer begin, as we are apt to do to-day, 
by telling about the wonderful old times of long ago. In the 
happy days of Francois I, he says, wistfully, there were men 
like the Estiennes,^ the De Colines, Vascosans, Morels, and 

* Mhnoire sur ies Vexatitms qu^excrcetU lea Ubr aires et Imfirimeura de 
PtiriSf fiudli^ (Tafirta Pim/irimS de 1725 et ie mamiacrit de la BUUiothitque 
de la Ville de JParis fiar Lucien Faitcou. Paris, 1879. For laws relating to 
bookselling and printing in Paris in the eighteenth century, see Code de La 
Librairie et Imfirimerie de Baris, ou Conftrence du Riglement arrHf au 
Conaeil d* Etat du Roy, le 28 Fevrier 1723. . . . Avec lea jinciennea Or- 
donnancea, £dita, D^clarationa, jirr^ta, R^glemena \lt Jugemena rendua 
au aujet de la Librairie Isf de P Imfirimerie^ defiuia Pan 1332 tjuagu^d pri- 
aent. A Paria, aujc Defiena de la Communauti, 1744. 

'Yet it must be remembered that a Latin poem was written by Henri Es- 
tienne II in 1569, entitled Artia Tiffiografihicae Querimonia, de Uliteratia qui- 
buadam Tyfiografihia, profiter quoa in contemfUum venit. It was translated 
into French by Lottin in 1785, the title reading, Ptainte de la Tyfiografihie 
contre certaina imfirimeura ignorana qui lui ont attirB le m^firia oU elle eat 


others, who were "all men of letters, clever in their profes- 
sion and much more anxious to perfect their art than to 
make immense fortunes.^ And then Blondel goes on to speak 
of theCamusats,the Vitr6s,and the Cramoisys as men who, 
if not so learned, were at least. of respectable standing; capa- 
ble, as he quaintly says, of " consoling the Republic of Let- 
ters for the loss of the first group of printers." Here we have 
two sets of men. Note that the first class, who lived two hun- 
dred years before Blondel wrote, were perfect prodigies of 
learning, while the second group, living nearer BlondeFs 
time, though less learned were still acceptable. "But," says 
Blondel, "into what decadence has this important art fallen 
in our day, especially in Paris ! What a gap there is be- 
tween the printers that I named and those who mix them- 
selves up in printing now and who degrade a noble art by 
the meanest manoeuvres! . . . The earliest printers were 
industrious, they applied themselves to their profession, 
they were versed in belles-lettres and the learned tongues. 
To-day, printers are men occupied solely in gain or amuse- 
ment, without special knowledge and for the greater part 
without general education — as we say, ignorant and un- 
lettered men. ... If some of them went to college in their 
youth, they brought away but a mere smattering of learn- 
ing, . . . and the rest are simply tradesmen who have made 
their fortune in second-hand books and who began their 
career in situations so very different from their present call- 
ing that it is a wonder they are printers at all ! They are 
printers, not because of, but in spite of literature and men 
of learning ; and furthermore, are rich printers, which edu- 
cated men will never be." While Blondel is ready to admit 
that there are two or three persons in the profession at his 
own period who can be respected, he thinks that most of 
them are mainly supported by a bibliomania encouraged by 


financial magnates, who are in turn actuated more by van- 
ity than by taste or intelligence. He proceeds to describe 
the annoyances suffered by the public, the authors, and last 
of all by the workmen themselves. 

The privileges which the king accorded for the printing 
of books (to the thirty-six printers fixed by law by the edict 
of 1686),Blondel reminds us, expressly stipulated that books 
should be printed on good paper and from good type, and 
if they were not, the privilege became null and void. Print- 
ers and booksellers, however, now sold books of importance 
printed on wretched paper, from battered t3rpes, carelessly 
corrected — all to avoid expense. If the public complained, it 
complained without redress. Moreri's historical dictionary^ 
could not be bound properly, because the ink was so poor 
that it offset upon opposite pages, and some books were 
so carelessly printed that whole lines of text were left out 
Greek characters were used which were so worn that the 
accents could not be distinguished. Booksellers, who had to 
obtain a license for each new edition of a book, evaded this 
requirement by omitting the number of the edition on the 
tide-page, or by placing old dates on new editions. The Eng- 
lish at that period had a method of publishing works by 
subscription — a number of subscribers clubbing together 
to finance the expense of a book, each subscriber receiving 
copies of the edition so published at a lower price than 
outsiders. The French publisher took up this scheme and 
improved upon it He secured the subscribers' money in 
advance and this furnished the chief part of the capital ne- 
cessary for the enterprise ; and though subscribers got their 
books cheaper than outsiders, yet they paid exorbitantiy for 
them. Nor did the publisher, having received the subscrip- 

* Louis Moreri's (1643-1680) Grand Dictionnaire hiatorigue, ou Melange 
curicux de Phistoire aacrSe et profane. 


tions, hurry to issue the book. As long as it was ultimately 
printed, he thought it "did just as well''; and should any 
subscriber venture to suggest that the work ought to ap- 
pear, his subscription would be haughtily returned. Blondel 
says, humorously, that if all the subscribers had only asked 
for the return of subscriptions, somebody would have been 
much embarrassed! Again, when the public complained that 
books cost a great deal, the publisher said that paper was 
dear, that workmen insisted on enormous wages, — though 
workmen were really scandalously underpaid, — and that, 
after all, it was merely to keep business going that they 
printed at all ; they would willingly shut up shop, for all 
the profit they got out of it! But in spite of all this, no less 
a person than Jean Baptiste Coignard 11,^ who M'ith Denis 
Mariette printed Moreri's dictionary, boasted that every time 
he published an edition he was able to marry off a daugh- 
ter with a comfortable dowry. Some pious individuals, who 
wished to publish religious books at their own expense, to 
be distributed gratis among the poor, or sold at a small price 
to those in modest circumstances, were astonished to find, 
after these works of edification had been delivered to them 
and paid for, that before they could be distributed they were 
seized by booksellers as about to be illegally sold without 
a license. Those who seized them then sold them a second 
time for their own benefit 

The master-printers of an older day had the reputation 
of attracting educated men, whom they treated "with some 
consideration and not like convicts." But master-printers 
of BlondePs epoch had arrived at their position, as we have 
seen, not by knowledge or experience, but by favouritism 
and money. In other trades, masters directed their appren- 

^ Second of the three Jean Baptiste Coignards, all eminent Parisian printers, 
who held, among other posts, that of printers to the Acadhnie Pranqaise. 


tices, but here it was the apprentices who directed their 
masters. Masters were not only ignorant, but absolutely in- 
capable of working at the calling of which they were osten- 
sibly the heads. They had been, most of them, neither ap- 
prentices nor journejnnen, but simply moneyed men, — or 
sons of prosperous booksellers, — who looked at the whole 
aifair as trade, and who set up a printing-office because 
they thought they were rich enough to make it succeed. 
Workmen had from time to time brought complaints to 
Parliament, and masters had been forbidden by its decrees 
to harass them or to require that workmen who wished 
to change their place of employment must carry letters of 
recommendation from the old to the new master — a plan 
which, the authorities perceived, reduced workmen "to a 
servitude from which the commonest servant in France 
is exempt, because he is at least permitted to change his 
place if he wishes." Then, again, master-printers had so in- 
fluenced legislation, that when workmen tried to get justice, 
they found themselves forbidden by law to act in a collec- 
tive capacity, and consequently could not legally complain 
collectively before any tribunal. The men's wages were arbi- 
trated at a sort of board of trade, and were often determined 
by persons who knew nothing about typography or how 
much should be given to the printer for each page he com- 
posed. "You might as well," says Blondel, "have the tailors 
tell the cloth-makers what wages they should pay their 
employees," and, "in fact," he adds, " a great deal better, be- 
cause the tailors are far more conversant with the qualities 
of cloth than are publishers with printing and paper. AU 
they know is (as Harlequin said) that the white is the paper 
and the black is the print" 

If any workman complained of the insufficient wages, he 
was called mutinous, seditious, and dissipated; and yet, ac- 


cording to the statistics of the period, among the six hundred 
journeymen printers in Paris, there were very few who led 
loose lives; and Blondel adds sarcastically that ^^the ex- 
tremely small wages which they received were not capable 
of furnishing the means for very serious dissipation ! ** That 
the labourer is worthy of his hire, Blondel reminds his 
readers, is a precept of the Gospel ; but the Grospel did not 
interest Parisian bookseUers — unless it was to be printed. 

If an author was in a hurry to get his book finished, but 
some new work of a more important and paying sort came 
to the printing-office, work-people were taken off the book 
the author was clamouring for, and were compelled to stay 
all night working on the more profitable job that had to be 
printed quickly. If an author complained that his book did 
not get on fast enough, what was the reply? It was that 
printers were dissipated, and that, of course, was not the 
fault of the publisher ! 

Two well-known Paris publishers and printers, Barbou* 
and David,^ " as stingy as they were unprincipled,'' says 
Blondel, employed a publisher who had correspondents in 
various countries to secure printers from Germany, whom 
they would engage to pay three iivres a day, together with 
washing, lodging, and food. Eight German workmen, on 
the strengfth of the publisher's letter (which, unfortunately 
for them, they left behind at Frankfort), accepted the offer. 
Six of them went to Barbou, two to David. They all worked 
exactly three days. Then Barbou isaid he was not satisfied, 
because the men were Germans and did not know French ; 
also he alleged that they did not work in the Parisian, but 

' Josq)h Barbou, of the eminent fisunily of Barbou, printers at Lyons, Limoges, 
and Paris, who exercised their profession from 1524 to 1820. Most of 
Foumier's books bear their imprint. 

' According to Lottin, this was Christophe David II. 


in the German method — which (at this late period) appears 
to us natural. He would consent to keep them, he declared, 
only at two livres daily to include everything and on condi- 
tion they would engage to stay with him for three years. 
The men refused, saying that living was dear in Paris, they 
were accustomed to a good table, and they could not afford to 
stay at the wages offered. So Barbou locked them up in his 
printing-office without food, and there they remained until 
they made so much noise that he was shamed into setting 
them free. When the men tried to return to Germany, the 
masters held back their luggage. Their French comrades, 
angry at such scurvy treatment of strangers, made up a 
purse and sent them home. This the master-printers con- 
sidered insulting and insupportable to the last degree, and 
described as an attitude of open revolt 

At that day, there were six hundred printers in Paris, 
and great opposition was made to bringing in foreigners at 
all. "Why," says Blondel, "should people import labour? 
What injustice it is to hire abroad people who take the 
bread out of the hands of the French workmen." Little the 
masters cared whether their men were foreign or native, 
learned or ignorant ! " They judged their qualifications by 
their own," he adds, " and as many of the master-printers 
hardly know how to read, they are absurd enough to sup- 
pose that it is not necessary to know more, in order to be 
capable of correctiy producing Greek, Latin, French, and 
scientific works. ... If this sort of thing goes on, they will 
make negroes come to work at printing, as they employ 
them in the Indies to produce indigo and sugar. " 

But Parisian publishers in these sad, bad old times, did 
not worry as to whether the books they printed were cor- 
rect, or well produced, provided they could sell them at a 
high price. Illustrated Bibles had been printed a hundred 


years earlier which were cheaply and tastefully brought out, 
but new editions — sold at a high price — contained plates 
disgraceful in their slovenly execution, E/litions of poetry 
were issued, badly printed, wretchedly composed, with pages 
swarming with faults of spelling and punctuation. Absurd 
errors, the correction of which was absolutely essential, were 
passed over. In a book of prayers for the use of lay-people, 
a passage in St Matthew was made to read non timebis 
Dominum instead of non tentabiSy and in a missal, the Canon 
of the Mass lacked a word. 

"Instead," Blondel concludes, "of keeping the loyalty of 
their workmen by fair wages and inciting honest endeavour, 
the master-printers hold them only to persecute them, to 
decry their value, and to enviously snatch the very bread 
from their hands. Was there ever such terrible oppression ! 
Slaves at Algiers do not fare worse. Is n't this precisely the 
way to disgust decendy educated men, as journeymen ought 
to be, with such an ungrateful employment? . . . If matters 
go on in this way, and a deaf ear is persistendy turned to their 
complaints, they will flee a country where they groan under 
oppression. ... It is not to scandalize people, that this me- 
moir is written ; it is to end a violence so tyrannical that 
there is no way of opposing it save to cry loudly : Stop thief ! '^ 

The tone of much of this is disconcertingly modern. The in- 
troduction of the ill-paid and inexperienced foreign work- 
man, the oppression of the helpless labourer, the objection 
to his forming any corporate opposing body, the associa- 
tion of employers to determine the wages to be paid, the 
statement that books were dear because the workmen re- 
ceived such large returns — all these things are familiar to 
us. Our own troubles to-day are only repetitions of these 
old tumults : no more bitter, but on a greater scale. 


BlondePs memoir was satirical, — and intentionally so, — 
but it stated facts and reflected the general opinion upon 
conditions among booksellers and printers in Paris in the 
last years of the seventeenth century and the first quarter 
of the eighteenth. It made some noise, and (as was intended) 
aroused the authorities, who spent much time in trying to 
find out who wrote it and where it was printed. As a result, 
some real reforms were efiected. Publishers were obliged 
to submit to regulations which required the use of better 
paper and greater correctness in printing, and in the matter 
of subscription books they were held to stricter standards. 

THE censorship of books and its later development were 
further handicaps under which printers of old times 
had to work — for freedom was first allowed to the press in 
France in 1 789. The inspection of the book-trade under the 
kings of France was extremely severe, and imposed a strict 
surveillance upon every conceivable aspect of the printer's 
and bookseller's business, and a drastic censorship of all 
printed books. It was forbidden, under pain of punishment 
and fines, for any private persons, except master-printers, 
to have or to keep in any place whatsoever, or under any 
pretext, any press, type, forms, or printer's tools ; and to 
every one except the bookselling publishers, to take part in 
the commerce, sale, or purchase of books. All works printed 
without permission were taken from those who w^ere at 
fault, and in case they contained anything contrary to re- 
ligion, the King, the State, or public morality, the authors, 
printers, and publishers who had written, printed, or sold 
such books could be condemned and punished as disturb- 
ers of the public peace ; while the printers, booksellers, and 


peddlers could be degraded from their trade and declared in- 
capable of exercising it. Type-founders were not permitted 
to deliver fonts of types to any one except master-printers, 
or their widows carrying on the business; nor could they 
sell to any one save masters in the trade, printers, and book- 
sellers, in large or small quantities, their punches, strikes, 
and matrices. The quartierde P Universite on the left bank of 
the Seine, in which printers were obliged to live and work, 
was exactly marked in its limits, and non-residence there 
was punished by loss of outfit and sometimes by depriva- 
tion of privilege. 

The oversight of all this was exercised by different 
classes of police inspectors. One of the eighteenth century 
officials, d'Hemery, who became the general inspector of 
the whole bookselling community, was authorized to make 
visits to any bookseller or printer whom he chose to see, 
either by night or by day, and to have an account gfiven of 
anything that he happened to find, about which he wished 
to learn. He considered it necessary to know the precise 
number of presses and the amount of type in every print- 
ing-office, and to possess proofs of all vignettes and orna- 
mental letters. Founders were not to be allowed, without his 
consent, to deliver fonts of type without giving him a dec- 
laration of their number, weight, and kind, and the names 
of those to whom they were to be sold. He even expected a 
list of all the apprentices in Paris, to whom he wished to fur- 
nish tickets of ingress and egress for the particular print- 
ing-office in which they were employed. The power that he 
asked for was not fully granted; but it indicates an agree- 
able conception of his own sphere of labour ! 

It would seem logical that the author should be held re- 
sponsible for his ideas rather than the printer; but in early 
times, the printer suffered and the author often went free. 


Mellott6e tells us that this was due to the theory that the 
printer provided the author with the means of promulgat- 
ing the errors in his works, and that it was not attacks upon 
religion or existing institutions that were thought danger- 
ous, but rather the popularization of such attacks; in other 
words, the fact that they were printed and widely distrib- 
uted. In the Middle Ages, before the invention of printing, 
there had been many philosophers with heretical ideas, but 
they had been quickly stifled by the Church or the Crown. 
All this was quite different after the invention of printing. 
Such people no longer merely addressed an assembly of a 
few hundred individuals, but could make their appeal to an 
entire people, and printing being the only means which 
could give such power to thought, repressive legislation fell 
upon printers rather than upon authors. It was for this rea- 
son that such severe and rigorous penalties were inflicted 
in support of the censorship of the press ; for the men of 
the sixteenth century were so frightened at what appeared 
to them its incalculable power, that they took extreme mea- 
sures to counteract this new force. Besides confiscation 
and degradation, the ordinary punishments were imprison- 
ment, whipping, or banishment, and capital punishment was 
not uncommon. These pains and penalties were not alone 
applicable to printers because they produced dangerous 
publications, but even to people who merely neglected to 
take out proper authorization for otherwise harmless work. 
In 1547, punishment by death was proclaimed against all 
\ printers who published a book without the imprimatur of 
the faculty of theology of Paris. It was not only in the six- 
teenth century that death was meted out to printers, but as 
late as 1757, the declaration was made by the civil power 
that all persons who were convicted of having composed 
or printed works tending to attack religion, to disturb the 


public mind, or against royal authority, or the order and 
security of the government, were punishable by death. It is 
true that judges avoided these extreme measures as far as 
they could; but from 1660 to 1756, less than a century, 
eight hundred and ninety-six authors, printers, and sellers 
of books, prints, and pictures were arrested and imprisoned 
in the Bastille for having published works contrary to good 
manners, religion, or the Crown. A third of these men were 
printers. In addition to the more severe punishments men- 
tioned above was the public burning of volumes at the 
hands of the hangman — the author himself being occa- 
sionally added as kindling to the flames, as in the case 
of Dolet This charming custom was practised during the 
happy days of the manuscript-makers, and, as far as print- 
ing is concerned, was merely the survival of a picturesque 
old-world ceremony applied to a new form of industry.^ 

It was much the same all over Europe. In the Nether- 
lands, for instance, edicts were enforced by Charles V and 
PhDip II against printers who purchased or sold books fa- 
vourable to the Reformation ; and in the sixteenth century, 
Plan tin was granted the post of proto-typographer,which em- 
powered him to examine all candidates for the printer's and 
engraver's trades. Among requisite letters which a printer 
must produce was a certificate from his diocesan authorities 
that he was of the orthodox faith, while the magistrate of the 
district bore witness to his good reputation. The number of 
apprentices in his employ — if he was a master-printer — 
had to be stated. Proofreaders had to give certificates of 
birth, parentage, places of education and training, and good 

' Under such conditions, printers and publishers had recourse to all sorts of 
stratagems to conceal tlieir connection with a book. They invented names of 
imaginary cities for their imprints, to which they added equally imaginary 
publishers, non-existent streets, and absurd emblems which have caused no 
end of bewilderment to innocent readers. 


reputation as Roman Catholics, prior to an examination of 
their skill. Registers were kept, in which titles of the books 
printed and other particulars had to be inscribed . Imported 
books were subject to examination, and any sold in Antwerp 
had to be recorded. Houses in which heretical books had 
been printed were abbatues et ruynees par terre ! ^ quite in 
the modern German manner. 


AS to production — in 1571, three hundred to five hun- 
x\. dred sheets a day was considered a good output, 
but in 1654, it was twenty-seven hundred; and in 1650, 
twenty-five hundred was the rule. These were for sheets 
printed in black, but twenty-two hundred was considered 
enough if red was also used. These sheets were printed by 
hand on a screw-press. Such requirements put to flight our 
pleasant idea that work in the old days had none of the 
rush about it that it has now. 

Hours of work for foremen, workers by the day, and 
workers by the piece, were from six o'clock in the morning 
until eight o'clock at night in summer ; and in winter, from 
seven in the morning until nine o'clock. This was in the 
eighteenth century. But agitation by work-people about the 
length of the working day began as early as the fourteenth 
century, and was neither the child of the French Revolu- 
tion, nor the offspring of modern socialism. In 1395, shorter 
hours, with the same wages given for a longer working day, 
was a practical question. The Lyons printers complained 
in 1571 that their day began at two in the morning and 
lasted until eight or nine in the evening ; and this for print- 

* See Rombout's CertificatsdelrvrHauxImtirimcuradu Paya^Baaftar C/triM' 
tofihe PlarUin. Antwerp, 1881. 


ers does not seem to have been unusual. Night work, as 
such, it is true, was forbidden, — although most persons do 
not much differentiate between 2 a.m. and night — not be- 
cause it was bad for the workman, but, among other less 
creditable reasons, because the danger from fire was great 
and because the flickering lights of the period did not permit 
men to do justice to their tasks. In England, the working 
hours varied in different trades, and at different places and 
periods. Even as late as the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, the ordinary working hours of the printer were un- 
limited — though nominally from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. — in such 
excellent London printing-houses as that of the Spottis- 

If economic conditions are not kept in mind, we misunder- 
stand the significance of certain historical facts, and twist 
them to fit some fantastic theory. For instance, people talk 
loosely about great printing dynasties like the Estiennes, 
Elzevirs, Planrin-Moretus, etc., where generations of the 
same family succeeded each other as printers. This was 
caused to some extent, no doubt, by interest in and attach- 
ment to the work ; but it was also due to an economic reason. 
The amount to be had by the sale of the equipment of a 
printing-house was, as in our time, by no means commen- 
surate with the money value of the business if it could be 
carried on. That was the chief reason why large printing- 
offices were continued by one family, or by a long succession 
of partners. We know, too, that in early times the widows 
and daughters of master-printers were in great demand, 
because when a qualified journeyman married the widow or 
daughter of a master-printer, he acquired privileges facili- 
tating his reception as a master. And this was another of 
the causes for great printing families — which we like to 
style "printing dynasties" if it all happened long enough 


ago ! It was more commonplace and simpler — more reason- 
able — than we think. 

Nor were women in the bad old times permitted to lead 
peaceable lives, occupied by the cradle and the distaff. From 
the time of St Louis, women were employed in trades re- 
served for them — we find records of their names and occu- 
pations as early as 1296. Quite apart from learned ladies like 
Charlotte Guillard, who printed and published her famous 
Greek and Latin editions of the Fathers in the sixteenth 
century, women were very early employed in the humbler 
branches of typography, and women have been in our com- 
posing-rooms almost ever since. Like child-labour, it is 
nothing new; very few industrial "novelties'* are! 


THEUE is, therefore, litde excuse for thinking that con- 
ditions of labour to-day are very different from those 
that long preceded them ; and it is important to realize that 
these conditions were all along factors, as they are now, in 
the problem of turning out good printing. Types and books 
reflect the state of the arts around them, because on one 
side typography is an art ; but they are influenced by trade 
conditions, because it is also a trade. Not to face these two 
facts, or to neglect either one or the other, is merely to fool 
one's self! 

To make a book which should look like a manuscript, 
and indeed counterfeit it, was what the first printers tried 
to do. They wished to reproduce the manuscript of com- 
merce as nearly as they could, and they did it by imitating 
such manuscripts in type. It was an effort to make cheaply 
what had before been made expensively. Incidentally, they 
imitated beautiful written books, but there is no proof that 


their printed books were always consciously intended to be 

All along, the changes in books were influenced by com- 
mercial conditions. The first books were folios — large and 
dear. What did the printer do? He produced books which 
were small and cheap, and we have the Aldine 16mo vol- 
umes, printed in italic (a letter adopted chiefly because it 
was compact), for their period perfecdy commercial though 
attractive editions. Again, Pigouchet and V6rard at Paris 
printed their Books of Hours, and they were very charming 
volumes. They were not as charming as the manuscripts 
from which they were copied, but they were far, far cheaper. 
By and by, when printers discovered the ignorance of the 
public and its willingness to buy books however badly 
printed, they dared to make them poorer and poorer. They 
printed what we call "good" books, because ours are worse ; 
but what they thought were poor ones, because older books 
had been so much better. This they did because they could 
sell them, and because they did not even then realize what 
we know now — how wretchedly books can be made and 
still be sold! In short, the rank and file of early printers were 
not often actuated by conscious artistic standards, and they 
had trade conditions to struggle against, just as we have, 
and in an environment singularly like that of to-day. 

Yet beautiful printing was done, and fine books were 
made, because there were a few men among these early 
printers who were actuated by conscious artistic standards, 
and who made trade conditions helps, and not hindrances, 
to successful production. To print things suitably and well 
was the problem of the good printer then, just as it is now. 
The few printers and publishers who were then faithful to 
artistic and scholarly standards in the face of trade condi- 
tions are the men who did this, and the men we remember. 


As in the Roman alphabet as opposed to other alphabets — 
as in certain famous types as opposed to other types — we 
see a survival of the fittest, so the printers whose names have 
survived have had a modest immortality because, though 
few, they were fit 

Apparendy it was not so much conditions as personality 
and education that produced the fine books of early days. 
Typography was good then, and has been so, under va- 
rying circumstances, and at diflPerent periods, whenever it 
was practised patiendy by educated men of trained taste, 
who had convictions and the courage of them. When we 
think of a Jenson or an Aldine book, a Pickering or a Mor- 
ris edition, a definite typographical vision passes before the 
eye. All the greater printers had a conception of what they 
wanted to do. They did not permit themselves to be over- 
whelmed by trade conditions, by so-called practical con- 
siderations, by ^good business," or the hundred and one 
excuses which printers make for being too ignorant, too un- 
imaginative, or too cowardly to do what the older men did. 
Nor were they pulled about by ignorant customers who 
wanted first this type and then that ; and by obliging whom 
the work would have become merely a series of compro- 
mises. If they had allowed what some standardless, unedu- 
cated printers to-day allow, no individuality would have 
been left in their books to be remembered ! 

In every period there have been better or worse types 
employed in better or worse ways. The better types em- 
ployed in better ways have been used by the educated printer 
acquainted with standards and history, directed by taste and 
a sense of the fitness of things, and facing the industrial con- 
ditions and the needs of his time. Such men have made of 
printing an art The poorer types and methods have been em- 
ployed by printers ignorant of standards and caring alone 


for commercial success. To these, printing has been simply 
a trade. The typography of a nation has been good or bad, 
as one or other of these classes had the supremacy. And to- 
day any intelligent printer can educate his taste, so to choose 
types for his work and so to use them, that he will help 
printing to be an art rather than a trade. There is not, as 
the sentimentalist would have us think, a specially devilish 
spirit now abroad that prevents good work from being done. 
The old times were not so very good, nor was human na- 
ture then so diflferent, nor is the modern spirit particularly 
devilish. But it was, and is, hard to hold to a principle. The 
principles of the men of those times (since they require noth- 
ing whatever of us) seem simple and glorious. We do not 
dare to believe that we, too, can go and do likewise. 

The outlook for typography is as good as ever it was — 
and much the same. Its future depends largely on the know- 
ledge and taste of educated men. For a printer there are two 
camps, and only two, to be in : one, the camp of things as 
they are; the other, that of things as they should be. The 
first camp is on a level and extensive plain, and many emi- 
nentiy respectable persons lead lives of comfort therein; the 
sport is, however, inferior ! The other camp is more inter- 
esting. Though on an inconvenient hill, it commands a 
wide view of typography, and in it are the class that help 
on sound taste in prindng, because they are willing to 
make sacrifices for it This group is small, accomplishes 
little comparatively, but has the one saving grace of hon- 
est endeavour — it tries. Like Religion, "it will remain a 
voice crying in the wilderness; but it will believe what it 
cries, and there will be some to listen to it in the future, as 
there have been many in the past" Around this camp ideal- 
istic lunatics hover, but they are quite harmless, and were 
never known to hurt or print anything seriously. This camp 


I think the only one worth living in. You may not make 
all the money you want, but will have all you need, and 
moreover, you will have a tremendously good time; for as 
Stevenson said, ** work that we really love is nothing more 
than serious play." 

The practice of typography, if it be followed faithfully, 
is hard work — full of detail, full of petty restrictions, full 
of drudgery, and not greatiy rewarded as men now count 
rewards. There are times when we need to bring to it all the 
history and art and feeling that we can, to make it bear- 
able. But in the light of history, and of art, and of know- 
ledge and of man^s achievement, it is as interesting a work 
as exists — a broad and humanizing employment which 
can indeed be followed merely as a trade, but which if per- 
fected into an art, or even broadened into a profession, will 
perpetually open new horizons to our eyes and new oppor- 
tunities to our hands. 





Described, iiiiistrated, or m 

1486 Ratdolt, Augsburg ( Venice) , 
1, 77, 133 

1525 Petri, Basic, i, 133, 134, 145 

1561 Geyssler, Nuremberg, i, 134 

1567 Plantin, Antwerfi, i, 134, n, 

1592 TypographiaMedicea, /?om^, 

1, 134, 179 

1593 Van Hout, Leyden, i, 134 

1 595 Raphdengius, Leyden, i, 1 34 

1616 Fuhrmann, Miremberg, i, 
134, 146, 147 

1628 StamperiaVaticana, Rome, i, 

134, 166-168 

1629 Propaganda Fide, Rome, i, 

134, 135 

1658 Elzevir, Leyden, i, 135 

1665 Kicholls, London, i, 135, n, 

1669 Moxon, London, i, 135, u, 95 

1 670 Luther, Frankfort, i, 1 35 

1681 Elzevir (Van Dyck), Am- 
atcrdam, i, 135, n, 19-22 

1686? Athias, Amsterdam, i, 135, 
n, 22, 23 

1693 University Press, Oxford, i, 

135, n, 95 

1695 University Press, Oxford, i, 

1707 Cot, Am, I, 270 
1710 Pater, Leifi9ic, i, 152 

1713 Watson, Edinburgh, u, 44, 

1721 Endters (Emesti), Nurem- 
berg, X, 152, 153 

1732 Bordazar (Morales), Valen- 
cia, n, 50-52 

1734 Caalon, London, n, 103 

1739 Breitkopf,Z^fyi«c,i,154-156 
1739? Erhardt, Leifisic, n, 44 

1740 Luce, Paris, i, 246 

ntioned in these Volumes 


Foumier te jeune, Paris 
(two), 1, 252 

742 Lamesle, Pxris, i, 213, 270 

743 Mozet, Paris, i, 268 

744 Ensched6, Haarlem, u, 38 

745 Gando, Paris, i, 271 

751 Loyson & Briquet, Paris, i, 

756 Foumier le jeune, Paris, i, 

757 Briquet, Paris, i, 268 

757^ Foumier le jeune (?), Paris, 
I, 252 

757 Sanlecque, Paris, i, 212, 213, 
266, 267 

758? Foumier le jeune, Paris, i, 

758 Lamesle (Gando), Paris, i, 

759 Trattner, Vienna, i, 156, 157 

760 Gando, Paris, i, 271 
760 + Rosart, Brussels (?), ii, 40-42 

762 Baskerville, Birmingham 
(two),n, 113 

763 Caslon, London, n, 104, 105 

766 Foumier le jeune, Paris, i, 

766 Moore, Bristol, n, 1 1 8 

767 Foumier yS/«, I\Lris (two), i, 
250, 251 

768 Ensched6, Haarlem, n, 38, 39 

769 Trattner, Vienna, i, 156 
771 Bodoni, Parma, i, 184, 185 
771 Espinosa, Madrid, u, 80, 81 

771 Luce, Paris, i, 244-246 

772 H6rissant, Paris, i, 269 

772 Wilson, Glasgow, n, 1 1 7 

773 Delacolonge, Lyons, i, 213, 

267, 268 

1773 Gill€, Paris, n, 181 



1777 Convento de S. Josq)h, Bar^ 

ceiona, n, 81, 82 

1778 GiU^, JPtiha, n, 181 

1779 Decdlier, Brussels, n, 42 
1782 James, London, n, 102 

1782 Bodoni, Parma, u, 164 

1 783 Wilson, Glasgow, n, 1 1 7 

1784 Ploos van Amstd, jimsier- 

dam, n, 42 

1 785 Caslon, London, n, 1 1 9 
1785 Fry, London, n, 118 

1 785 Pierres, Paris, i, 272-274 

1 785 Thomas, Worcester {Mass, ) , 

n, 156-158 

1 786 Wilson, Glasgow, n, 1 1 7 

1 787 Baine, Edinburgh, n, 152 
1787 Fry, Lotidon, n, 120 

1787 Momoro, Paris, i, 249, 250 

1787 Real Biblioteca, Madrid, u, 


1788 Bodoni, Parma (three), i, 

185, n, 164, 166, 167 

1789+ H6rissant, Paris, i, 269 

1790? Bache, Philadeltihia,u, 153 

1791 J. de Groot, TTie Hague, n, 

1791 ? Unger, Berlin, i, 157, 158 

1792 Figgins, London, n, 122 

1793 Praddl, Madrid, n, 83, 84 

1794 Zatta, Venice, i, 186 

1 795 Fry & Stede, London, n, 1 20, 

1795 Ifern (Praddl), Madrid, n, 

1798 Caslon, London, n, 121 

1799 Imprenta Real, Madrid, n, 

1803 Thorne, London, n, 196 
1804? Harmsen, AmHerdam, n, 42 
1805 Caslon, London, n, 196 
1806+ L6ger, Paris, u, 183 

1 807 Harris (Martin) , Liverfiool, 

n, 124 

1808 G^€ Jib, Paris, n, \^\ 

1808? Gill6^, Paris, n, 182 

1 809 Binny & Ronaldson, PMladei" 
fihia, n, 154 

1811 Amoretti, Parma, n, 175 

1811 Praddl, Madnd, n, 57 

1812 Besnard, Paris, n, 182 

1812 Binny & Ronaldson, PhUadel- 
fihia, n, 154, 155 

1815 Figgins, London, n, 196 

1816 Fry, London, n, 196 

1816 Ronaldson, Philadelphia, n, 
155, 156 

1818 Bodoni, Parma, n, 169-171 

1819 Didot, Paris, n, 178, 179 
1819 Md6, ParU, n, 182 

1822 Ronaldson, miadelfihia, n, 


1823 Pasteur, Paris, n, 183 

1 824 Thorowgood, London, n, 1 96 

1828 Didot,Leg;randetCie.,Arw, 
n, 196, 197 

1830 Amoretti, Parma, n, 175 

1831 + L6ger, Paris, n, 183, 184 

1832 Thorowgood, Aom/on, n, 196 

1833 Clement-Sturme, VtUencia , n, 

1833 Wilson, G/a«jr<>n^,n, 193,194 

1837 Thorowgood, London, n, 196 

1838 Cartallier, Padua, n, 197 

1839 Fonderie G6n6rale, Artt, n, 


1841 £nsdied6, Haarlem, n, 197 

1 843 Fonderie G€n6rale, Paris, n, 

184, 185 

1844 Caslon, London, n, 196 

1 845 Imprimerie Royale, Paris, n, 


1850 Ensdied6, Haarlem, n, 197 

1855 £nsdied€, Haarlem, n, 197 

1875 Claye, Paris, n, 186 

1 905 Mus6e Plantin-Moretus, Am- 
wer/i, u, 8, 9 

1914 Pdgnot, Paris, n, 223, 224 

1921 Goudy, J^TewYork, n, 234 


PLbeCEDARIUM, I, 93, 94. 
Acad^mie des Sciences, i, 7, 243, 

Acad6mie Fran^aise, i, 209, n, 261 ti. 

Ackermann, Rudolph, n, 191. 

Addison, Joseph, Wbrka (Basker- 

Adimari, A., La Clio, i, 168. 

Advertisements of books, earliest, i, 
63 and n. 

Advertising leaflet, Caxton's, i, 117. 

.MfrediRegiaRcBGeatx.VLy 91,128. 

.^Ischylus, Oresteia, n, 215. 

.^sop, FablcB, See Desbillons. 

Alberts, R. C, n, 36. 

Albertus Magnus, De Secretis Na- 
iurse, i, 122. 

Albrizzi, I, 174. 

Alcaic, n, 46. 

Aldine italic. See Italic, Aldine. 

Aldis, H. G., quoted, n, 15. 

Aldus Manutius I, roman types of, i, 
76, 77; the Aldine mark, 77; and 
Lyons printers, 91; his italic type, 
125-131; his letter to Scipio Car- 
teromachus, 126; his Greek type, 
127. 128; mentioned, 74, 170, 199, 
234, u, 16,215. 

Aldus Manutius II, i, 181. 

Alexander, W illiam , Earl of Stirling, 
Recreatioru with the Afuaes, n, 

Alexandre, Jean, i, 242, 244, n, 187. 

Allouds, n, 251. 

Alphabets, decorative, n, 237, 238. 

Aifihabetum Jbericum, i, 135. 

jiitar Book, The, n, 218. 

AmadiM de Gau/ (Crombui^r) , n, 
62; (GrouUeau), 80 n. 

Amaduzzi, C.,i, 182. 

America, North, types and print- 
ing in : seventeenUi and eighteenth 
centuries, n, 149-153 ; early nine-, 
teenth century, 153-158 ; modem, 

America, South, early printing in, 

n, 60 ; and 9ee Mexico. 
American Antiquarian Society, n, 

American point system, i, 33, 34. 
American Type Founders Co., n, 

156, 230, 231, 234. 
Ames, Joseph, quoted, n, 103. 
Amoretti, FrateUi, specimens, n, 175 

and n.; types of, 175, 176. 
Ampersand, i, 19 and n. 
Ampyzing, Samuel, Beachryvinge . . . 

der Stad Haerlem, n, 29. 
Anacreon, Odea, n, 172. 
Andilly, Amauld d', Viea de Flu- 

aieura Sainta, etc., I, 209, 210; 

(Euvrea Diroeraea, 210. 
Andrae, Hieronymus, i, 140 n. 
Andreae, J . , Baum der Geaififiachaft, 

Andrews, Robert, n, 99, 103. 
Andrews, Silvester, n, 99, 103. 
Angulo, Andres de, n, 67. 
Anisson, Jean, i, 212. 
AnissoD du Perron, i, 184. 
Annmary Brown Memorial Library, 

I, 68 and n., 95. 
Annunzio, Gabriele d', Franceaca da 

Rimini, TL, 221. 
Antique, eighteenth century appre- 
ciation of the, n, 1 60 if. 
Antonio, Nicolas, Bibliotheca Hia^ 

fiana, n, 56, 75. 
Appian, Roman History, i, 237, 238. 
Apprentices, disputes over, n, 251. 
Aquinas, St. Thomas, Commentum 

JSthicorum, i, 107. 
Arabic numerals, i, 19, n, 229, 230 

and n. 
Arden Press, n, 216 n. 
Ariosto, Orlando Furioao, i, 175. 
Armstrong, John, The Art of Fre- 

aerving Health, n, 138, 139. 
Arrighi, Antonio, De Vita . . . F. 

Mauroceni, i, 172. 




jir9 Moriendi,!, 118. 
Arto£ao, Joh. P., i, 156. 
Artois, Comte d*, i, 216. 
Ascham, Roger, 77ie Schoiemaater, 

n, 127. 
Ashbee, C. R., n, 214. 
Ashendoie Press, n, 213. 
Athias, Joseph, specimen, i, 135; 

buys EJzevir material, n, 22, 23 ; 

mentioned, 100. 
Athias foundry, n, 36, 37. 
Attaingnant, Pierre, i, 195, 196, 

Audin, Marius, i, 232 n., n, 8 n,; 

quoted, 186. 
Augustine, St., J> Gvitate Dei, i, 

72, n, 207. 
Augustinus Dactus, i, 123. 
jfureum ofiuB regalium, etc., i. 111, 

jItUeurs Clas8igiies Francois et La- 

/in(r«(Didot),i, 230. 
Avignon, early printing at, i, 82 ; 

foundry at, 180. 
Avila. Sec Gonzalez de Avila. 

I^ACHE, Benjamin Franklin, pupil of 
F. A. Didot, I, 217; specimen, n, 
153 ; mentioned, i, 274, n, 152. 

Bachelier, J. J., i, 223. 

Bade, Josse, i, 196. 

Badius Ascensius, Jodocus. See Bade, 

Badius, Perrette, i, 190, 191. 

Baemler, Johann, i, 64. 

Baiardi, Ottavio A., Delle AntichUh 
di Ercotano, n, 55, 160. 

Baine, John, u, 117, 152. 

Baine, John, and Grandson in Co., 
specimen, n, 152. 

Ballantyne, James, n, 189, 200. 

Ballantyne Press, n, 200, 210, 211, 
216 n. 

Balzac, Honors de, n, 183 and n., 

Barber, Mary, Poema on Several Oc- 
caaiona, n, 138. 

Barbier, Andr6, i,121, n, 183 and n. 
Barbin, Claude, i, 210. 
Barbou, Jean Joseph, i, 216, 252. 
Barbou, Joseph Gerard, i, 215, 216, 

222, 224, 244, n, 56, 263 and n., 


Baretti, Joseph, quoted, n, 85 n. 

Barlow, Joel, Coiumlnad, i, 154. 

Barra, Pablo, n, 83. 

Bartholomxus Anglicus, De Pro/iri- 
ekUibua Rerum, i, 114. 

Bartolozzi, Francesco, n, 147. 

Barzizi, Gasparino, i, 84. 

Basa, Domenico, i, 181. 

BaskerviUe, John, n, 107-110; his 
Virgil, 111, Addison,lll,112,Ju- 
venal and Persius, 112 ; his speci- 
mens, 113 ; history of his types, 
113, 114; his ornaments, 115 ; his 
work and influence considered, 
115, 116 ; his influence on Bodoni 
and Didot, 159 ; mentioned, i, 186, 
217, 219, 228, 273, n, SS, 56, 57, 
58, 83, 100, 104, 120, 122, 123, 
141, 142, 144 n., 145, 186, 187, 

Basle, sixteenth century printing at, 
I, 142, 143, 144; foundries at, 
150, 151 ; mentioned, 89, 90. 

Baiibloom, Louis, i, 199. 

Baudoin, J., Lea Saintea Meiamcr- 
fihoaea, etc., i, 207, 208. 

Bay Faalm Book, n, 149. 

Bayer, Perez, De Mimia Hebrmo Sa-^ 
maritania,n, 52,58, 78, 79; men- 
tioned, 72 and n., 75. 

Beaumarchais, P. A. Caron de, buys 
BaskerviUe types, i, 228, n, 1 14. 

Bebd, J., I, 143. 

Belgium. See Netherlands. 

Bdlaert, Jacob, i, 97. 

Bembo, Pietro, i, 76. 

Beneventan writing, i, 47. 

Bensley, Thomas, ii, 118, 121, 122, 
147, 148 n., 188, 191, 198. 

Bentley, R., Deaigna for Gray* a 
Poema, n, 140. 

Benton, Unn B., his punch-cutting 



machine, i, 11; self-spacing'* 
type, 34. 

Berlin, Royal Foundry at, i, 151. 
Bernard, Auguste, quoted, i, 189 n., 

238, 243, n, 106. 
Bemy, Alexandre de, n, 183 and n., 


Berthelet, Thomas, n, 88, 90, 125, 

Bernard, Jean, Vignetteaet Flennma^ 

n, 182; mentioned, i, 275. 
Bewick, Thomas, n, 122,143, 146 «. 

Bewicks, the (Thomas and John) , n, 
123, 124, 145, 146, 147. 

Bey, Jacob, n, 151,152. 

Bible, the, 42-line and 36-line, i, 61; 
German (Koberger), 64, (Lu- 
ther's), 145, 146; the first printed 
in France, 85; Imprimerie Roy- 
ale, 240 ; Dutch and Slavic, n, 32, 
33 ; Cranmer's, 90; Spanbh, 105 ; 
Macklin's, 121, 122, 188 ; Isaiah 
Thomas's, 156; Doves Press, 212; 
and 9ee Polyglot Bible and New 

Bidliografihica, u, 201 . 

Bid, Friedrich. See Fadrique de Ba- 

Biesta, Laboulaye 6c Cie., n, 184. 
Billetes, Filleau des, i, 241 n. 
Bindoni, F.,i, 173 n. 
Binny, Archibald, n, 153, 154. 
Binny & Ronaldson,specimen ( 1 809) , 

n, 153, 154; (1812), 154, 155; 

transitional types, 231. 
Blades, William, quoted, i, 3, 4, 115, 

116, 118, 119 n., 136, n, 23, 

Blado, Antonio, i, 180. 
Kaeu ^Eimily, printers, of Amster- 
dam, n, 24, 30-32. 
Blaeu's JVbvua Atla%y n, 30. 
Bkur, Robert, llie Grave, n, 188. 
Blake,Wimam, n, 189. 
Blondd, P. J., Mhnoire quoted, n, 

258 ff. 
Boccaccio, Giovanni, Decamerone 

(heirs of F. Giunta, 1527) , i, 160, 

(1573), 163, 164; (Elzevir), n, 
18; (A8hendene),213. 
Bocchi, A., Symbolicarum Quasatio- 
nutn, I, 164. 

Bodley, Sirlliomas, n, 95 n. 

Bodoni, Giambattista, his career, n, 
1 63 flF. ; at Parma, 1 64, 1 65 ; types 
designed by, 164, 166, 167; his 
early manner of working, 1 71 , 1 72 ; 
his later manner, 172, 173; his 
two manners compared, 173, 174; 
his conception of the fonctbns of 
a press, 1 74, 1 75 ; specimen of 1 771 
{Fregi e Mfijuacole),!, 184, 185, 
n, 81,84, 164, 166; specimens of 
1774 and 1788, 166, 167; Oratio 
Dominica^ 168, 169; Manuale 
T^fiogrqfico (1788), n, 166, 
(1818),I, 185, n, 169-171; lacri- 
zioni esotic/ie, i, 185 ; £^Uhaiamia 
exoticia Unguis reddita, i, 185, n, 
166, 171 ; LeUre d ie Marquia de 
Culfih'ea, 167, 168; mentioned, 
I, 38, 148, 176, 177, 182, 186 and 
n., 219, 230, n, 55, 57, 72, 121, 
123, 159, 186, 187, 197, 203. 

B<)doni, Signora, quoted, n, 169. 

Bodoni type, modem version of, n, 

Boethius, Qfiera, i, 160. 

Boileau Despreaux, Nicholas, 
(Eicvrea, i, 221. 

Boissieu, A. de, Inacrifiiiona jintiquea 
de Lyon, n, 185. 

Soke of St. AlbarCa, The, i, 120. 

Bonasone, G., i, 164. 

Bonaventura, St., i, 193. 

Bonhomme, Pasquier, i, 86, 87. 

Bordazar, Antonio, Hantiftcacion, 
etc., n, 50-52, 71; mentioned, 58. 

Bosch, Jan, n, 34. 

Bossuet , J . B. , Diacoura aur V Hiatoire 
Uhiveraeiie, i, 2 1 1 . 

Botteri, B., Orazione Punebre, n, 

Bouchot, Henri, quoted, n, 177. 
BouUencourt, L. J. de, Deacrifition 

Generate de PHoatel Royal dea In- 

validea, i, 206. 



Bourgoing, Chevalier de, quoted, n, 

Bowver, William I, n, 101 and n., 

102, 115 and n., 134, 136, 137, 

Bowyer, William II, n, 101 n., 137. 
Boydell, John and Josiah, n, 144, 

145, 147. 
''Boydell Shakspeare," n, 123, 144. 
Bradford, William, n, 151. 
Brahe, Tycho, n, 30, 31. 
Brandt, Gerard, La Vie dc Michel 

de Ruiter, n, 32. 
Brant, Sebastian, Stuitiferm JVavea, 

I, 108. 
Breda, Jacobus de, i, 95. 
Breitinger, J. J., Dic/akurut^ i, 147. 
Brdtkopf, Bemhard C, specimen, 

1, 154, 155, 156; mentioned, 147, 

154, n, 44. 
Breitkopf, J. G. I., i, 148, 150, 155, 

262, u, 115. 
Breton, Richard, i, 201. 
Br^es, Savary de, i, 208, 238. 
Brfviaire de Paris, i, 85. 
Breviarium Got/iicum, etc., n, 55, 

Brieven . . . den Johan de Witt, n, 

Briquet specimen, i, 268, 269. 
British Museum, Facsimiies from 

Early fainted Books in the,i,6l n, 
British Museum, Catalogue of Books 

firinied in the XVth Century now 

in the, i, 61 n. 
Brito, J., I, 97, 122. 
Brocar. See Guillen de Brocar. 
Broctes, B. H., Irdisches Vergniigen 

in Gott, I, 147. 
Brogiotti, A., I, 167, 181. 
Brothers of the Common Life, i, 95. 
Browne, SirT., Works, u, 133. 
Bruce, George, i, 32, 33. 
Brun, P., I, 107. 

Bud£,Guillaume, DePhilologia, etc. , 
I, 196; De TransUu Hellenismi, 
etc., 196. 

Bulmer, W., quoted, n, 145-147; 

mentioned, 121, 123, 124, 143, 

145, 154, 189, 190, 198. 
Buhner, W., & Co., n, 144, 147. 
Burger, K., Monumenta Germanise 

et Italias Tyfiografihica, i, 61 n. 
Bume-Jones, ^r £., u, 202. 
Bumey, Charles, History of Music, 

n, 118. 
Bus, Jan, n, 23, o5. 
Buyer, Barth^lemy, i, 89. 
Bynneman, Henry, n, 128. 
Byron, Lord, Works, n, 91. 

C^ADELL, Thomas, n, 142. 

Caesar, Commentaries (Sweynheym 
and Pannartz), i, 83; (Vidoue), 
195, 198; (Vascosan), 198; (El- 
zevir, 1635), n, 17, (1661), 18; 

Calligraphic types, Spanish, n, 86, 

Callimachus, Works, n, 143. 

Calviac, Gilbert de. Civile Honne^ 
stetf fiour les Enfants, etc. , i, 201 . 

Cambridge (Mass.), first press at, 
n, 149, 150. 

Cambridge University Press (Eng- 
land), n, 96 n., 214. 

Camusat, Jean and Denise, i, 209. 

Canones Afio^ohrum, i, 142. 

Capelle, Pierre, quoted, i, 250, 257 n. 

Cappon, Vincent Denys, i, 262, 269, 

Caradh-es d'ATiture,u, 181, 182. 

Caract^es de PUniversite (Gara- 
mond*s), i, 234 if., 238, 240, n, 

Carlos II, n, 51. 

Carlos III, patron of Spanish indus- 
tries and arts, n, 54, 55, 77, and 
of Bodoni, 55, 165 ; makes Ibarra 
court printer, 57', mentioned, 52, 
5:^, 79, 81, 84, 160, 168. 

Carlos IV, n, 165. 

Carolingian manuscripts, i, 70. 

Carolingian minuscule, i, 48-51; re- 
vived by Humanists, 53-55. 



Cartallier, F.,speciinen, n, 197. 

"Cases," modem, described, i, 20- 
22, 22 n.; theStanhope, 23, 24 n.; 
the Leftvre, 24; for foreign lan- 
guages, 24. 

Casiri, Miguel, BUfiiot/teca jfrabico- 
UisfianoEacuriaieruis, n, 52, 71. 

Caslon, William I, and the history of 
English type-cutting, n, 100 ; his 
oxngin and career, 101 ff.; death, 
104; specimen of 1734, 103; spe- 
cimen of 1763, 104 and n., 105, 
117; his types considered, 105, 
106; his ornaments, etc., 106, 
107, 240; his types copied, 118, 
119, 120; his English" roman 
first used in Selden's Ofiera^ 136, 
137; his types in North America, 
151, 157; mentioned, i, 20 n., 37, 
n, 21, 44, 83, 110, 121, 125, 236. 

Caslon, William II, n, 103, 105, 

Caslon, William III, buys Jackson's 
foundry, u, 122; mentioned, 105, 
and 71. 

Caslon family, the, n, 105. 

Caslon foundry, later history and 
present ownership of, n, 105 and 
n,; address prefixed to specimen 
of 1786, 119; specimen of 1798, 

Caslon types, original and later, com- 
pared, II, 195, 196; revival of 
original in 1844, 198, 199 ; recom- 
mended, 228. 

Castell, Edmund, Lexicon Hefita- 
glotton, u, 98. 

Castro. See Gomez de Castro. 
Catherwood, John James, n, 105. 
Catherwood, Nathaniel, n, 105. 
Catholicon, i, 63, 64. 
Catullus, Odes, in Latin and Italian, 

II, 176. 
Cavalca, D., Eafiejo de la Cruz, i, 


Cavellat, Guillaume, i, 200. 

Caxton, William, introduced print- 
ing in England, i, 113; his life, 
113 ff.; at Cologne, 114; quoted. 

114, 115; his press at Bruges, 
115; in London, 116; his types 
described, 115-118; number of 
books printed by, and their char- 
acteristics, 118, 119 and n.; his 
woodcuts and initials, 119 ; histori- 
cal agnificance of his types, 120; 
books on, 120 n.; his ^pes com- 
pared wi^ Continental ones, n, 88; 
mentioned, i, 3, 55, 95, 97. 

Cecchi, Gio\'anni F.,i, 169. 

Censorship of books, in France, u, 
266-269; m the Netherlands, 269, 

Century Dictionary, n, 141. 

Ch'imoniee et Coutumes Riligieuaen, 
etc., n, 34. 

Cervantes, Miguel de, Don Quijcote 
(Cuesta) , n, 49, 68 and n.; (Ibar- 
ra), 55, 56, 57, 73-75; (Chis- 
well), 133; (Tonson), 135. 

C^sar and Stoll, i, 88. 

Chamberlaine, John, Imitation of 
Drawings by Holbein, n, 145. 

Chambers* Cyclofiasdia, quoted, u, 
103, 117. 

Charlemagne, revival of learning 
under, i, 48 and n., 49, 50. 

Chatelain, Zacharie, n, 34. 

Chatto and Windus, n, 215. 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Works (God- 
frey), n, 126; (Pynson), 126; 
(Islip), 128, 129; (Kelmscott), 
213; Canterbury Tales, i, 122; 
Dives and Paufier, 122. 

Chlswick Press, n, 198, 199, 201, 
204, 216, 237, 238. 

Choffard, Pierre Philippe, i, 214, 

Chronicle of Roderigo of Tbledo, u, 

Chrysostom, St., Works (Eton),n, 
95 and n. 

Cicero, Ofiera (Estieime, 1543), i, 
197; (1538-39), 198; (Elzevir), 
n, 17, 18; De Oratore, i, 72. 

Cisneros, Cardinal. See Ximenez. 

CivUit6type, i, 131, 201, 202. 

Claeszoon van Balen, Pieter, ii, 27. 



Clarendon, Earl of, I^^tory of the 
Rebellion, u, 133, 134. 

Clarendon Press, n, 200. 

Clark, R. & R., n, 200, 201. 

"Classical" types, n, 159 ff., 163 
and 72. 

Claudin, Anatole, Htatoire de rim- 
firimerie en France, etc., i, 83 n., 
n, 186, 224 and ra., 225. 

Claye, Jules, Tyfie% de Caract'h'ea, 
etc., specimen, n, 186. 

Clement-Sturme, J. B., & Co., spe- 
cimen, II, 196. 

Cleland,T. M.,u, 235. 

Cloister Press, n, 216 n. 

Clousier, J. G., i, 226. 

Clutton-Brock, A., quoted, n, 208. 

Cobden-Sanderson, T. J., n, 211, 

Cochin, Charles Nicolas, i, 242. 

Coci, George, n, 45, 46, 61, 62, 65. 

Cockerell, S. C, n, 206 n., 213, 

Codex jilexandriniu, n, 121. 

Codex Decretorum (GratSan), i, 78. 

Coignard, Jean Baptiste II, i, 219, 
n, 261. 

Coignard, Jean Baptiste III, i, 221. 

Colines, Simon de, i, 1 90 ; his italic 
and Greek fonts, 191, 197, 198; 
mentioned, i, 19871., 200, u, 4, 9. 

Collection des jiuteura Latinea (Bar- 
bou), I, 215 and ti., 222. 

Collie de France, origin of, i, 233. 

Collombat, Jacques, teaches Louis 
XV to print, i, 247, 248 ; men- 
tioned, 269. 

Colonna, Francesco, Hyfinerotoma- 
chia PoUfihili (Aldus), i, 76, 199; 
(BaObloom), 199. 

Colour printing, early Spanish ex- 
ample of, u, 62. 

Columna, Acg. de, Regimento de loa 
Princifiea, i, 110. 

Commines, Philippe de, ili?moirf*, i, 

246, 247. 
Com/iania de Imfireaorea y Uberoa, 

u, 53. 

Complutensian Polyglot. See Polyglot 

Composing-room, modem, selection 

of types for, n, 226 ff. 
Comfirehenaorium, i, 105, 107. 
Condivi, Ascanio, Life of Michel- 

agnolo Buonarroti, n, 214. 
Confeaaion de frh^e Olivier Mail- 
lard, La, I, 87. 
Congregation of Propaganda Fide, 

catalogue of, i, 182; despoiled by 

the French, 183; after 1800, 183, 

Constable, T. & A., u, 200, 201, 

Copper-plates in book illustrations, 

I, 147 72.; effect of increasing use 

of, 165, 166, 172. 
Cordoba. See Fernandez de Cordoba. 
Comeille, P., Le TTiidtre de, i, 210. 
Coster, Laurens Janszoon, i, 4, 93, 

n, 29. 
"Costeriana," I, 59, 93. 
Cot, Jean, i, 269. 
Cot, Pierre, specimen, i, 270. 
Cottrell, Thomas, n, 104, 122, 196. 
Coura dea Princifiaux Fleuvea, etc., 

I, 247. 
Couraea de Te^ea et de Bague, i, 

Cousin, Jehan, Livre de Perafiective, 

I, 202 and 7i. 
Cramoisy, S6bastien, i, 206, 207, 


Crane, Walter, quoted, i, 70, 147n., 

Cmpdet, G. A., quoted, i, 248. 
Cratander, Andreas, i, 143. 
Cromburger, Jacob, n, 59, 62, 67. 
Cromburger, Johann, u, 60. 
Croniquea de France, i, 87. 
Cuesta, Juan de la, n, 68. 
Cufvrea de Cochin, etc., i, 342, 243. 
Cunningham, W., CoamografUncall 

Glaaae, n,9l, 126. 
Cupi, W., n, 100. 
Curio, Valentinus, i, 143. 
Curwen Press, n, 2I671. 



L/ANFRiE, Philippe, I, 201. 

Daniel, C. H. O., private press, n, 
200 and n, 

Daniel, Roger, n, 131 . 

Dante, Alighieri, Dtvina Commedia 
(Marcolini) , i, 1 60, 1 61 ; (Sessa) , 
162, 163; (Zatta), 174, 175; 
(Ashendene) , n, 213 ; Purgatorio 
(Aldus), I, 129; Inferno (Ash- 
endene), n, 213. 

Dauvillier, Hubert, n, 94. 

David, Christophe II, n, 263 and n. 

David, Jacques Louis, n, 161. 

Day, John, n, 27, 90-92; 98, 99, 
126, 127,128,132, 149. 

Daye, Stephen, n, 149. 

DeVinne, T. L., i, 5, 18, 33, 77n.^ 
n, 21, 22, 104 fi., 135 n., 24271. 

Decellier, Madame, n, 42 and n. 

Decker, Georg Jacob, i, 148. 

Declaration of Independence, set in 
Caslon, n, 151. 

Delacolonge foundry (Lyons) , speci- 
men, I, 213, 267, 268. 

Ddbene, A., Chnta* Feri arve 
Morum, i, 206. 

Desbillons, F. J., Fabularum Mjio- 
fiiarum, i, 222. 

"Descenders,"!, 35-37. 
Dcacrifuion dea F^tet donniea fiar la 
ViUe dc JPlaHs, i, 213. 

DevUiere, Nicolas, i, 250. 

Diary of Lady mUougMy (1844), 
n, 199. 

Dibdin, Thomas F.^Bibiiotheca^en- 
ceriana, n, 190; Bibliogra/ihical 
Decameron, 190; ly/iografihicai 
Antiquities of Great Britain, 190; 
quoted or mentioned, 91, 106,124, 
144 n.,148 n., 188, 191. 

Diccionario de la lengua Castellana, 
n, 70 and n,, 71. 

Dictea or Sayengia of the Philoao- 
fihrea, 7%<?,i, 116. 

Dictionaries, methods of printing, ii, 

140, 141. 
Didot, Ambroise Flrmin, i, 189 n., 

218, n, 180,184. 

Didot, Denis, i, 216. 

Didot, F6Ucie, i, 218. 

Didot, Flrmin, i,217, 218; interested 
in stei'eotyping, 218 ; translator of 
Virgil, 218; his sons, 218; men- 
tioned, \Sl, 158, 186, 225, 226, 
227, 230, ii, 177, 179, 180, 184. 

Didot, Francois, i, 216, 221. 

Didot, Francis Ambroise, Paini: his 
point system, i, 31, 32, 217; his 
types cut by Waflaixi, 216; his 
collection of French classics, 216; 
introduces /ta/(t>r v^lin, 217 \ his 
sons, 217; influence of, on Dutch 
printing in eighteenth century, n, 
43; Baskerville's influence on, 159 ; 
quoted, 175; mentioned, i, 38, 
148, 218, 226, 227, 228, n, SS, 
57, 176, 178. 

Didot, Henri, i, 218. 

Didot, Hyadnthe, i, 218. 

Didot, L6ger, i, 218. 

Didot, Pierre, Patn^: his fditiona du 
Louvre, i, 217 and n.; heads neo- 
classic movement in printing, 217, 
218,230,231; Aftitre 9ur lea Pro- 
gr^a de PImprimerie, 218, 226, 
227, n, 56, S7\ Eaaai de Fablea 
notdveliea, etc., i, 227, n, 176; 
specimenof 1819, 178, 179; men- 
tioned, I, 228, 230, n, 121, 123, 
176 n., 177, 178, 182, 186, 187. 

Didot, Pierre Francis, i, 216, 218, 

Didot lejeune, son of Pierre Fran- 
cis, I, 218, 229. 

Didot, L^^rand et Cie., specimen, n, 

Didot family, history of, i, 216-219 ; 
and the development of nineteenth 
century types, n, 176 fF., 197. 

Didot foundry, types of, sold to Fon- 

derie G^6rale, n, 184. 
Didot types and derivatives, books 

printed in,n, 179, 180; influence 

of, in France, 186; mentioned, 

177, 178, 187. 
Doctrina Ckriatiana en la lengua 

Mexicana e Caatellana, ii, 60. 



Doctrinal of Safiience, ThCy i, 118. 
Dodoens, Rembert, Stirfiium HUto- 

ria, n, 13, 14. 
Dolet, Etienne, n, 257. 
DoUar-marks first made in type, n, 

"Domesday" character, n, 121, 

Donatus, JE^s, i, 72, 93, 94. 
Dorat, Claude Joseph, FMe% Mm- 

velles, I, 224 ; Lea Baiaera, 224 ; 

Ltttrea en Fera, etc., 229. 
Doves Press, n, 211, 212. 
Drouart,Ambrose and Jerome,i,206. 
Druckachriften dea XV bia XVIIl 

Jahrhunderta^ i, 62 n. 
Dudley, Robert, DeW ,Arcano del 

Mare, i, 166. 
Duff, Gordon, Early Engliah Print- 
ing, I, 55 n,; quoted, 118, 119, 

120, 121. 
Durandus, G., i, 63, 65. 
DQrer, Albert, i, 194 and n. 
Dutch school of printing, i, 3; 2jv^aee 

Dutch types, in England, i, 25, n,43, 

44, 99, 100; eighteenth century, 

I, 156, 157; vernacular, n, 8; in 

Germany, 44. 
D Wiggins, W. A., quoted, n, 106, 


IIguia, Miguel de, n, 67. 

"Egyptian" types, n, 195 n. 

Eisen, Charles, i, 214, 224, 259. 

Eliot, John, Indian Bible, n, 149. 

Homily, etc., n, 134, 135 and n,; 
jinglo-Saxon Grammar, 135 n. 
Elz^vier" type, modem, n, 185, 

EHzevir, Abraham, n, 15. 

Elzevir, Bonaventure, n, 15. 

Elzevir, Daniel, n, 18, 19, 22, 23. 

Elzevir, widow of Daniel, letter of, to 
wife of Moi^etus, n, 19, 20 ; speci- 
men, 20 and n., 21. 


EJzevir, Louis, i, 22 n., n, 15, 19. 

Elzevir books, i, 37, n, 15; in 32mo, 

17, 18; in octavo, 18; in folio, 18, 

Elzevir fi&mily, history of, n, 15 ff. ; 

mentioned generally, i, 150 n., 

238, 239, n, 99. 
Elzevir foundry, later history of, n, 

22, 23. 
Elzevir specimen-sheets (1658 and 

1681), I, 135, (1681), n, 20, 21. 
Emblems in spedmen-books con- 

sidered, i, 274-276. 

Endters fiEimily, i, 153. 

England, types and printing in : fif- 
teenth century, I, 113-124; from 
1500 to 1800, n, 88-148; from 
1800 to 1844, 188-197; revival 
of Caslon (1844) and FeU (1877) 
types, 198-201; revival of early 
type-forms and their modem use, 

English law-books, n, 137. 

Ensdied^, Ch., Fonderiea de Carac- 
threa dana lea Pttya-Baa, etc., i, 
98 n., n, 39 ; quoted, i, 150 n., n, 
42, 43. 

Ensched6, Isaac, n, 36. 

Ensched^, Johannes, i, 98, n, 23, 34, 
36, 38. 

Ensched^ foundry (Haariem) , n, 37 ; 
specimens, 38-40, 197. 

Episcopius, Nicolaus, i, 143. 

E^:agny Press, n, 213. 

Erasmus, Desiderius, i, 1 43 ; his Latin 
translation of New Testament 
(Froben, 1616), 143, (l52l), 
144; jintibarbarorum, 144; La 
Ctvilitf PuMle, etc., 201. 

Erhardt, Hr., i, 150, 156, n, 44. 

Emesti, J. H. G., specimens, i, 152, 

Espinosa, Antonio, specimen, n, 80, 

Essex House Press, n, 214. 

Estienne, Charles, De Diaaectione 
Partium Corfioria Humani, i, 191 ; 
mentioned, 237. 



Estienne, Henri, i, 190, 192. 
Rstienne, Robert, i, 190, 191, 196, 

197, 198, 204, 205, 233, 235, 

236, 237. 
Euclid, EiemenU, n, 126, 127. 
Eusebius, Prsefiaratio Evan^etica, 

I, 237, 238; mentioned, 73. 
Evelyn, John, quoted, i, 209, 239, 

240, n, 16 and n., 30. 

Fadrique de Basilea, i, 106, 107, 

108,111, n, 61. 
Fann Street Foundry, n, 121. 
Fell, Dr. John, types imported by, 

n, 95, 96 and n., 97; mentioned, 

"Fell" types, modem UBeof, n,200; 

ornaments, 238. 
F^nelon, Francois de S. de la Mothe-, 

(Euvrea^ i, 228 ; Aventurea de 

TflSmaque, 228. 
FenoUar, B., Odrea e TrobeSy i, 105. 
Fenzo, Modesto, i, 173. 
Ferdinand, Duke of Parma, and Bo- 

doni, n, 164, 165, 168, 171 ; men- 
tioned, 55. 
Feniandez de Cordoba, Alonso, i, 

Femd, Jean, Monaiotfihssrium and 

Co9mo Thetnia, i, 197. 
Fertd, Martin, Science Pratique de 

Vlmfirimcrie^ i, 26, 260 n. 
Feyerabend, Sigmund, Thumier 

Buck, I, 140, 141. 
Fichet, G., I, 83, 84, 188, n, 248. 
Fifield, A., n, 98. 
Fifteen Oea, i, 121. 
Figgins, Vincent, specimens, n, 122, 

194 n., 196, 236. 
Fine, Oronce, De Reims Mathemati- 

cis, etc., I, 200; mentioned, 198. 
Firmin-Didot, house of, i, 218. 
Flaxman, John, illustrations to the 

Iliad, n, 161. 
Fleischman, J. M.,n, 23, 34, 36, 37, 

38, 39, 40, 41, 43. 
Fliscus, Grammatica, i,107. 

Florets, n, 238 ff. 

Florio, John, Mw fVorld of Words, 
n, 141. 

Focard, Jacques, Para/i/trase de 
PAatrolaAe, i, 199. 

Fonderie G6n^rale, Paris, specimen, 
n, 184, 185. 

Fonderie Mayeur, n, 186, 232, 237. 

Font of type, numerous characters 
in, I, 8; standard, 16, 17; classes 
of characters in, 18. 

Fontenai, Abb^ de, quoted, n, 16, 
108, 109. 

Fontendle, Bernard le B. de, 
CEuvres Drveraes, n, 34. 

Ford, Richard, quoted, i, 104, n, 73, 

Foulis, Andrew, i, 186, 230, n, 117, 
118, 122, 123, 142, 143, 193. 

Foulis, Robert, i, 186, 230, n, 117, 
118, 122, 123, 142, 143, 193. 

Foumier, Antoine, i, 254, 256. 

Foumier, Francois, i, 248 and n. 

Foumier, Jean Claude, and his chil- 
dren, I, 205, 248. 

Foumier, Jean Fran^is,y?/9, i, 249 ; 
specimens, 250 and n., 251. 

Foumier, Jean Pierre, Paini: his 
foundry, i, 248 ; marries Charlotte 
Pichault, 249 ; his daughters, 250, 
251 ; mentioned, 205, 257, 262, 
266, 273. 

Foumier, Pierre Simon, lejeune: his 
point system, i, 26 if., 32, 217, 
252; his career, 251 ff.; Manuel 
Tyfiografihique (1764, 1766), 
252, 260 andn., 261 ff., n, 81, 
171,240; specimen-books, 252 and 
n., 254, 262-264; other works 
of, 253; his marriage, 253; his 
houses in Paris, 253, 254 and n,; 
death and floge of, 254, 255 and 
n.; his widow carries on foundry, 
256 ; his types described, 257 ff.; 
type ornaments, 264, 265 ; special 
characters, 265 ; quoted, i, 28- 
31, 149-151, 155, 156, 179, 180, 
204, 205, 207, 215, 216, 241 n., 
243, 255, 261, 262, 263, 267, n. 



35, 36, 53, 103, 104, 108; men- 
tioned, 1, 148, 184, 185, 186, 216, 
221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 250, 
271, 273, 274, n, 5, 37, 41, 43, 
44, 83, 84, 153 and n., 164. 

Foumier, Simon Pierre, son of Pierre 
Simon (le jeune), i, 256; men- 
tioned, 251, 254, 257 and n., n, 
152 and n,, 153. 

Foumier family, importance of, in 
history of French type-founding, i, 
257; genealogical table of, 258. 

Fox, Justus, n, 151. 

Foxe, John, Book of Martyrs, n, 92. 

Fraktur type, i, 62, 139 ff., 145, 
146, 148, 149, 150, 153, 155, 
156, 157. 

France, types and printing in : fif- 
teenth century, i, 82-92; from 
1500 to 1 800, 1 88-276; the Didots, 
II, 176-180; nineteenth century 
foundries and specimens, 181-187; 
modern, 222-225. 

Francis de Sales, St., Introduction d 
la Fie dhfotc, i, 240. 

FranQois I, reign of, i, 189, 190; 
mentioned, 195, 233, 234, 238. 

Francour, Jean de, i, 101. 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, foundries at, 
1, 150. 

Franklin, Benjamin, and the Four- 
niers, i, 257 and n.; quoted, n, 56, 
57, 150, 151; letters to Bodoni, 
167, 168; mentioned, i, 59, 217, 
267, 273, 274, n, 99n., Ill, 113, 
114 and n., 139, 153, 156, 165. 

Franklin, James, n, 150. 

Frfert, Roland, JParali^le de P Archi- 
tecture jlntique et de la Afoderne, 
I, 209. 

Frederick the Great, i, 148, 151. 

Freiburger, M., i, 83, 85. 

French books published in Nether- 
lands, n, 34, 35. 

French and Italian printing con- 
trasted, I, 198, 199. 

French Old Style, u, 232. 

French printing-offices, early, n, 
251, 252. 

French Script, n, 237. 

French types imitated in Germany, 

I, 148. 
Freylinghausen, J. A., jfn Abstract 

of the Whole Doctrine, etc., u, 189, 


Frisius, Gemma, Le9 Prindfie^ 

d* Aatronomie, etc., i, 200. 
Froben, Johann, i, 143, 144, u, 66, 

Froschauer, Chrystoph, Kumtrich 

Buch, 1, 142. 
Fry, Edmund, Jhntogra/ihia, n, 

Fry, Edmund, 6c Co., spedmen of 

1787, n, 120, 121; of 1816, 196. 
Fry, Henry, n, 120. 
Fry, Joseph, n, 118, 120. 
Fry, J., & Co., specimen, n, 118, 

119, 121. 
Fry and Kammerer, u, 154. 
Fry and Pine, n, 118. 
Fry and Steele specimen, n, 120, 1 21 . 
Fry's Type Street Letter Foundry, 

n, 121. 

Fuchs, Leonard, De Hiatoria Stir- 

fiium, n, 146, 147. 
Fuhrmann, G. L., specimen, i, 134, 

146, 147. 
Fuller, Thomas, quoted, n, 4 ; Holy 

and Profane State, 131. 
Fundamentbuch, i, 141. 
F\ist, Johann, and Schoefier, Peter, i, 

61, 62, 64, 66, 71, 82. 

Cjabriel Antonio de Borbon, Don, 

translation of Sallust, n, 56, 58, 

G^;uin, Robert, i, 84, 195. 
Gallner, type-cutter, i, 151. 
Game and Ptaye of the Chewe, The, 

I, 115. 
Gando, Francis, le jeune, i, 249, 

Gando, Jean Louis, i, 271. 
Gando, Nicholas, PatnS, specimen, i, 

271, 272, 273. 



Garamond, Claude, i, 234 ; his car-* 
acthre% de rUniveraitf, 234, 235, 
240 ; his grec9 du roi^ 236-238 ; 
his types now m collection of Im- 
primerie Nationale, 238 ; revived 
use of his types, n, 224, 225 ; men- 
tioned, I, 191, 205, 20r,243, 245, 
249, 259, 268, n, 4, 6, r, 22, 36, 
177, 187. 

Garnier, J. B.,i, 220. 

Gaefiarini ^Utoiag, i, 83, 84. 

Ga9fiarini Orthografihia, i, 84. 

Gast, Matthew, n, 48, 49. 

Ged, William, n, 99 n. 

General Councils, Acts of, i, 240. 

Geographical works, Dutch, n, 23, 
24, 29, 30. 

George III, n, 147 n, 

Gering, Ulrich, i, 83, 85, 86. 

Gering and Rembolt, i, 191. 

German printers in Spain, i, 99, 103. 

Germany, types and printing in: 
fifteenth century, i, 58-69; from 
1500 to 1800, 139-158; modem, 
n, 219-221. 

Gessner, Christian Y.^Buchdrucker- 
kunat undSchriftgie9aerty,ii 154, 
n, 44. 

Geyssler, Valentine, spedmen,i,134. 

Gil, Geronimo, n, 74, 82, 83, 86. 

Gill6, J., specimen, n, 181 n.; men- 
tioned, I, 148, 273. 

Gill£, J. G.,yUs, specimen, n, 181, 

Giunta, Filippo di, i, 160. 

Giunta, Luc Antonio di, i, 160. 

Criunti, the, i, 130. 

Glover, Joseph, n, 149. 

Godfrey, Thomas, n, 126. 

Godfrey of Boloyne, i, 117, n, 131. 

Goethe, J. W. von, Faust, i, 149; 
Wilkelm Meisier, 149; mentioned, 
154, 155. 

Golden Legend, The, i, 120. 

Goldoni, Carlo, Ofiere Teatrale, i, 

Goldsmith andPamell, Poems by, n, 
123, 124, 125. 

Goltz (Goltzius) , Hubert, Ofiera, n, 
52; Vivse Omnium fere Imfiera- 
torum Imagines, 27; C. Julius 
Csesar, etc., 28. 

Gomez de Castro, Alvar, De Rebus 
Gestis a Francisco JGmenio, n, 67, 

Gonzalez de Avila, G., Teatro de las 
Grandezasde . . . Madrid, n, 69. 

Goodhue, Bertram G., n, 217, 234. 

Gorgonzola, Nicolas, i, 159. 

Gofichen, Georg Joachim, i, 149. 

Gottsched, J. C, Crttischer DiclU- 
kunst, I, 147. 

Goudy, Frederic- W., n, 234, 235; 
specimen, 234 n. 

Gourmont, Gilles de, i, 236 n. 

Gower, John, Confessio jimantis, n, 
125, 126. 

Grafton, Richard, n, 90, 129 n, 

Grandjean de Pouchy, Philippe : his 
romain du roi, i, 241 and n., 242, 
243, 244, n, 159, 187, 225; his 
form of serif, 159 ; revived use of 
his types, 224; mentioned, i, 7, 
254, 259, 264, 271, n, 186, 197. 

Granjon, Robert, civility types, i, 
201, 202; italic, 203, 204; men- 
tioned, 131,167, 179 and 72., 181, 
249, 250, n, 4, 5, 7, 8 and n., 41. 

Grapheus, J., n, 27. 

Grave, Nicolas de, n, 26. 

Gray, lliomas. Six fbems (Dods- 

ley), n, 140; /^m*(Foulis), 143; 

quoted, 88; mentioned, 165. 
Grecs du roi. See Garamond. 
Greek diss., Aldus's imitation of, i, 

127, 128 and n, 
Greek Testament, i, 240. 
Greek types, De Colines*, i, 191; 

Garamond's, 236-238 ; " Royal," 

238 (and see Silver Letter); in 

Complutensian Polyglot, n, 46; 

Hibbert's, 192; Image's, 215; 

Proctor's, 215, 216 and ra. 
Green, Samuel, n, 149, 150. 
Grismand, J., n, 98. 
Groot, J. de, specimen, n, 42. 



Groppo, Antonio, i, 174. 

Groulleau, Elstienne, i, 200, n, 80 ra. 

Grover, James, n, 99, 103. 

Grover, Thomas, n, 99. 

Gryphius, J., i, 162. 

Giyphius, Sebastian, i, 204. 

Gu6rin, Maurice de, i> Centaur, n, 

Gu6rin(H.L.) andDelatour(L.F.)> 

Guicciardini, h.,DescrUtiorte di TUai 
i FaeH Baasi, u, 28 ; mentioned, 

Guillen de Brocar, Amald, i, 106, 
108, u, 46, 47, 65, 

Gumiel, Diego de, i, 111. 

Gutenberg, Johannes, perfected in- 
vention of movable types, i, 3, 4, 
5 ; mentioned, 61, 63, 84, 90. 

Guyot, Francois, n, 4, 5, 49. 

Guzman, Perez de, Cranica de Don 
Juan II (Brocar), n, 47, 65 1 
(Monfort),58, 77, 78. 

XJ.AAS, Wilhdm, i, 151. 

Hacon, W. L., ii, 211. 

Haebler, Konrad, Tyfiografihie 
Jb^igue du Quinzihne SiMe, i, 
102 n.; Eariy Printers of Sfiain 
andPortugalf 102 n.; quoted, 99, 
100-102, n, 45, 47, 61, 62, 65; 
mentioned, i, 106, 107. 

Haener, Henri, i, 251, 267. 

Hagenbach, Peter, i, 109, n, 45, 61. 

Hall, F. W., quoted, i, 49, 50, 53 n. 

Han, Ulrich, i, 72, 79. 

Hanmer, Sir Thomas, his edition of 
Shakespeare, n, 139. 

Hansard, Thomas C, quoted, n, 195, 

Hansy, Honor6 T. de, i, 273. 

Harmsen & Co., n, 42. 

Harper, Thomas, n, 131. 

Hart, Horace, n, 97 n. 

Harvard College, and the first Colo- 
nial press, n, 149, 150; types 
given to, by Hollis, 150 and n. 

Hatfield, Arnold, n, 13 1 . 

Hautin, Pierre, i, 195, 213, 250, 
u, 4. 

Hawkins (Rush C.) Collection, i, 68 

and n., 95. 
Hebrew types, Le B^'s, i, 204, 205. 
" Height-to-paper," i, 34 n. 
H^e, Georges de la, Masses, n, 5, 

Hetvetiorum Besfiublica, n, 16. 
Hemery, J. d', n, 267. 
Henric of Ddft, i, 97, 98. 
Hentzsken, Michael, i, 142. 
Herbort, J. , Jenson's successor, i, 74. 
Herculaneum and Pompeii, effect of 

discovery of, on design, n, 160. 

Herder, J. G. von. Brief e, i, 148. 

H^rissant, Jean T., i, 262, 269. 

H^rissant, Marie N. (Estienne), spe- 
cimen, I, 269. 

Hewitt, Graily, n, 213. 

Heynlin, Johann,i, 83, 188, 248. 

Hibbert, Julian, Book of the Orfihic 
Hymns, ii, 192 and n. 

Hispanic Society of America, n, 

68 n. 
Historia von D. Johann Fausten, i, 

History of the River Thames, n, 145. 
Hobdy Horse, The Century Guild, n, 

Holland, Philemon, translation of 

Pliny, n, 130. 
Holland. See Netherlands. 
Holle, L., I, 66. 

Hollis, Thomas, n, 101 n., 150 and n. 
Holtrop, J. W., Monuments Tyfio- 

grafihiques des Pays-Bas, i, 93 

and n., 94. 
Holyoke, Edward, quoted, n, 101 n. 
Homer, Iliad and Odyssey (YovMs) , 

n,117,143;//iarf(Bowyer), 136. 

Hondius, H., u, 29. 

Hondius, J., n, 24, 28, 29, 30. 

Hongre, Pierre, i, 90. 

Hooft, Pieter C, JSTederlandscht 

Historien, n, 32. 



Horace, Ofiera (Miscomini) , i, 80; 

(Edition du Lourure), 217, 231; 

(ImprimcrieRoyale) ,240; (Pine) , 

n, 137, 138 ; (Foulis), 143 ; (Di- 

dot), 163 n., 178 ; Odea and JEfiia- 

tlesy 1, 197. 
HwsB ad U9um SafTitn (Caxton) , i, 

117; (Pynaon), 123; (Notary and 

Barbier), 121, 122. 
Horse Beatse Virginia adusum Pari- 

aicTiaem, i, 191. 
Homian, W., Fulgaria, n, 89, 125. 
Hornby, C. H. St. John, n, 213. 
Home, Herbert P., TTie Century 

Guild HMy Horae^ n, 201 ; types 

designed by, 214. 
Hostingue, printer at Rouen, n, 89 n. 
Hours, Books of, i, 88 ; and aee Ho- 

Hours of work, n, 270, 271. 
Housman, Laurence, n, 238. 
Hugo, Obaidio Bredana, n, 14. 
Humanistic bcss., and Italian roman 

types, I, 70. 
Humanistic writing, a revival of Car- 

olingian minuscule, i, 53 and n., 

54, 55 ; results of its adoption, 56. 
Humaniata* Library^ The, n, 215. 
Hume, David, IHaiory of England, 


Hurio, Francesco del, n, 70. 
Hums, Juan, i, 106. 

Hums, Pablo, i, 104, 106, 107, 108, 
109, 110. 

Hums printing-house, n, 45, 46. 

Husz, Martin, i, 89. 

Husz, Matthieu, i, 91. 

Hutten, Ulrich, De UnUate Eccle- 

aim Conaervanda, i, 142. 
Hutz and Sanz, i, 110. 

Hyfinerotomachia PoUfihili, See Co- 

1, CAPTTAL, originally represented J 
also, I, 22 and n., 23, n, 236. 

Ibarra, Joachin, his career, n, 54 
If.; court printer, 55, 57; books 
printed by, 55, 56, 71-75 ; rivalry 

between Didot and, 55, 56; his 
death, 57 ; his office carried on by 
hiswidowand sons, 59 ; mentioned, 
I, 177, 186, 219, n, 53, 82. 

Iciar, Juan de, i, 110 and n. 

Ideograms, i, 40 and n. 

Ifera, Pedro, specimen, n, 84, 85. 

n Francia. See Raibolini. 

Image, Selwyn, n, 215. 

Imprenta Real, n, 79 ; specimen, 85, 
86; mentioned, 59, 69. 

Impressao Reg^ (Lisbon) , n, 54 n. 

Imprimerie Nationale, and Gara- 
mond's types, i, 238; "historical 
types" of, n, 186; comparative 
table of, 186, 187; and aee next 

Imprimerie Royale, founded, i, 238 
ff*.; first books printed at, 240, 
241 ;Grandjean's types(n>majn du 
ro/) castfor, 241,242, 243; Luce's 
types and ornaments bought for, 
245, 246; aided by royal subven- 
tions, 246, 247 ; productions of, 
248 n.; specimen, ii, 184; men- 
tioned, I, 212, n, 179; and aee 

Index Exfmrgatoriua, i, 180. 

Initial letters, calligraphic, in eariy 
French books, i, 87, 88, 91; en- 
graved, in early Spanish books, 
100, 111; selection of, for modem 
composing-room, n, 237. 

Irish type, n, 95 n. 

Islip, Adam, n, 129, 130. 

Italian art, influence of, in France, i, 

Italian cursive handwriting, and italic 
type, I, 125, 128, 129. 

** Italian letter " (roman), n, 89, 91. 

Italic, Aldine, i, 125 ff.; reasons for 
invention of, 126, 127, 128; based 
on Italian cursive hand, 128, 129 ; 
model for all later ittdic types, 
129 ; different names of, 129; 
counterfeited at Lyons, whereitalic 
capitals were first added, 130. 

Italy, types and printing in : fifteenth 
century, i, 70-81 ; Aldine italic. 



125-132; from 1500to 1800, 159- 
187;Bodoni, n, 163-175; mod- 
em, 221, 222. 

J , CAPITAL, I used for, in early times, 
I, 22, 23, n, 236; differentiated 
from I, I, 22 n,; lower-case, dif- 
ferentiated from i, 22 n., 23. 

Jacobi, J. G., /m, i, 148. 

Jackson, Joseph: his ''peculiar" 
fonts, n, 121 ; his foundry sold 
to Caslon, 122; mentioned, 104, 

105 72. 

Jacquemin, type-cutter, n, 179, 184. 
Jacquinot, Dominique, Vlhage de 

V Astrolabe^ i, 200. 
James, Thomas, n, 99 n., 100. 
James foundry, obtains types from 

Holland, n, 99, 100; purchased 

by Mores, 102 n. 
Jansson, J.,n, 29. 
Jaugeon, Nicolas, i, 7, 11, 241 and n. 
Jenson, Nicolas, at Venice, i, 73 ; his 

roman types, 73, 74, 79; his gothic 

types, 74, 78 ; books printed and 

published by, 74; contemporary 

eulogy of, 74-76; mentioned, 71, 

234, 243, n, 116, 177, 206, 207, 

208, 212, 217, 233. 
Jobin, Bernhard, i, 141. 
Johannot, Tony, n, 180. 
John of Westphalia, i, 97. 
Johnson, Lawrence, n, 156. 
Johnson, Samuel, quoted, i, 126; 

Dictionary, n, 140, 141; Basaelaa, 

Joly, Maurice P., i, 267. 
Jombert, C. A., i, 222. 
Jordan, Peter C, n, 156. 
Josephus, Flavius, Works, i, 193, 

194; History of the Jnv9,200,201. 
Junius, Francis : his gift of Gothic, 

Saxon, and other types to Oxford, 

n, 95, 96; Elymotogicum AngH- 

canuniy 135 n. 
Junta, Tomas, n, 69. 
Juvenal, Satires (Du Pr6), i, 91; 

(Imprimerie Royale), 241. 

Juvenal and Persius (Aldus), i, 126, 
128; (Baskerville) , n, 112; (Chis- 
wick Press), 198, 199. 

K^ AMTER, Berlin type-founder, i, 15 1 . 

Kauifmann, Angelica, u, 161. 

Keblin, Ignace A., i, 180. 

Kelmscott Press, established by W. 
Morris, n, 204; editions of, con- 
sidered, 204, 205, 207, 208, 216. 

Kerver, Jacques, i, 191, 199. 

Kerver, Thielman, i, 193. 

Ketdaer and Leempt, Dutch print- 
ers, I, 94, 95. 

Klopstock, F. G., Messias, i, 147. 

Koberger, Anton, i, 63, 64, 65, n, 

Koler, Andr., i, 156. 

Konnecke, Gustav, Bilderatlas zur 
Geschichte derdeutschen Motional- 
iitteratur, i, 141 n. 

Kranz, Martin, i, 83, 85. 

JLa Fontaine, Jean de. Fables Choi- 
sies, I, 213, 215, 222 and n., 223 
and n.; Contes (Jdition des fer- 
miers'ghih'aujc) , 215; {Edition 
du Louvre), 217. 

LaMotte, Antoine H. de. Fables 
Mmveiles, i, 219, 220. 

La Rochelle, N6e de, quoted, n, 57. 

Lactantius, Ofiera, i, 72. 

Laet, J. de, Gallia, n, 16. 

Laigue, Estienne de, i, 195. 

Lama, Giuseppe de, n, 168, 173 n. 

Lamesle, Claude, specimen, i, 213, 
270, 271; mentioned, 202. 

Las Santos, Francisco de, Descrifi- 
cion breve, etc., n, 69, 70. 

I^tin alphabet, i, 38-57. 

Latin writing, periods in histor}' of, 
I, 42 if. ; and see Carolingian mi- 
nuscule. Humanistic writing. 

Laud, William, n, 95, 96. 

Laurent, J. F., n, 183 and n. 

Le B6, Guillaume I: his Hd>rew 
types, I, 204, 205 ; mentioned, n, 
4, 6, 7. 



Le B€y Guillaume II, letter of, to 
Moretus, n> 5, 6; mentioned, i, 
205, 212. 

Le B6, Guillaume III, and his daugh- 
ter, I, 205, 248; mentioned, n, 36. 

Le B€ foundry, i, 266. 

L'Ecluse, Charles de, Rariorum 

Stirfiium His/ianise Historia, n, 

10, 11, 13. 
Le Ffevre, Raoul, i, 114. 

Le Jay, Qui Michel, Polyglot Bible, 

I, 208, 238, n, 98, 103. 
Le Mercier, P. G., i, 213. 
Le Monnier (Abb6), F^es dc9 

Bonne^'Gens de Canon, n, 163 n. 
Le Petit, Jules, Bibliografihie dea 

PrincifialesAdiHons,eic,, i,232 n, 

Le Petit, Pierre, i, 209, 210. 

Le Preux, Poncet, i, 195. 

Le Rouge, Pierre, i, 88, 233. 

Le Roy, Guillaume, first Lyons 
printer, i, 89. 

Le Royer, Jean, i, 202. 

Le Sueur, Nicolas, i, 223. 

Leeu, Gerard, i, 95. 

Lef^re, Th., i, 24. 

Leger, L., specimen, n, 183, 184. 

Legouv6, Gabriel, Lc Mtrite dea 

Femmea, etc., n, 163 n. 
Legrand, type-founder at Avignon, 

I, 180. 
Lemercier, Pierre G., i, 273. 
Lenzoni, C, La Clori, i, 168. 
Leslie, Charles, Theological Worka^ 

n, 135, 136. 

Lessing, Gotthdd Ephraim, Mithan 

der fVeiae, i, 148. 
Lettera of Charlotte, The, n, 143. 
Lettera of Indulgence, i, 60, 61. 
Lettersnijder, Comelis Henriczoon, 

n, 26 and n. 

Lettersnijder, Jan, n, 26. 

Lettou, John, i, 122. 

Lettre batarde, i, 55, 60, 86 and n., 


(Mouchon's, 1890), n, 222. 

Lettre de forme, i, 55, 60, 61, 62, 

86 and nl, 89, 90, 93, 96, 116, 
117, 121, 122, 124, 192, 193, 
194, 195. 

Lettre de aomme, i, 60, 63 and n., 

Lettre francoyae d*art et de main. 

See Civility type. 
Leyea del Quademo, etc., i, 110. 
Leyea /lor la Brevedad dea loa 

Pleitoa, I, 109. 

Liber Feativalia, i, 120. 

Libroa Menorea, i, 108. 

Lied auf die Schlacht von Pavia, i, 

Lilio de Medicina, i, 110. 

Lille. Abb€ de, i, 226, 227. 

lipsius, Justus, n, 11, 13. 

Littlefidd, George E., n, 149 n. 

Littleton, Sir Thomas, Tenorea JVb- 

velli, I, 122. 
Liturgical works in Spain, n, 50. 
Livermore, Martin, n, 105. 
Livy, Qfiera (Coci), n, 62, 65; 

(Wetstein and Luditmans), 33. 
Lobel, Mathias de, n, 13. 
Lobinger, Pancr., i, 136. 

L5neissen, G. E., Fbn Zeumen, i, 

Loritus, Henricus, Dodecachordon, 
I, 145. 

Lorraine, Jean de, n, 89 n. 

Lothaire, Cardinal, Comftendium 
Breve, i, 89. 

Lottin, Augustin Martin, i, 212, 

247, 251, 266 and n., 268, 272. 
Louis XIII, I, 207, 209, 238. 

Louis XIV, I, 206, 241, 242, 246, 

Louis XV, I, 245, 247, 275. 
Louis XVI, 1, 48, 216, 247, 272, 275. 
Louis Philippe, i, 276. 

Louvain, early printing at, i, 95, 96, 

97, 98. 
Louveau, J.,i, 201. 
Lower-case letters, beginnings of, i, 

Loyson specimen, i, 268. 



Lucan, Pharaaiia (Renouard), i, 
230 ; (Strawberry Hill), n, 140. 

Luce, Louis: his types, i, 244, 245, 
246; his Eaaai (Tune Mnivellc Ty- 
fipgrafihiCf etc., 244 and n., 245 ; 
Efircuve du Premier Alfihabeth 
Droit etPenchit 246 andn.; men- 
tioned, 148, 259, 263, n, 159, 160, 
181, 18r. 

Lucena, Juan de, Re/ieticion de Amo- 
rea, etc.,i, 110. 

Luchtmans, Samuel, u, 33. 

Luckombe, Philip, History of Print' 
ing, n, 104 n. 

Lucretius, /> Rerum JVa/ura, Italian 
translation of, n, 163 n. 

Luther, Erasmus, specimen, i, 135; 
mentioned, 150 and n. 

Luther, Martin, German Bible, i, 
145, 146 ; mentioned, 143, 150. 

Lutheran Foundry, i, 150 and n., 

Lyons, early printing at, i, 89-9 1 ; Al- 
dus's italic pirated at, 130 ; print- 
ing at, in sixteenth century, 202- 
204; printers' strike at, in 1539, 
u, 253-256, and its results, 258. 

JVIcCreery, John, The Preaa^ n, 

124, 189; specimen, 124 n. 
McCulloch, William, quoted, n, 152, 

McKerrow, R. B., n, 93 and n. 
Mabre-Cramoisy, S6bastien, i, 211 

and n. 
Machlinia, William de, i, 97, 117, 

122, n, 89. 
Mackail, J. W., quoted, n, 210 n, 
Mackellar, Thomas, n, 156. 
Mackellar, Smiths and Jordan, n, 

Madan, Falconer, The Oxford Uni- 

veraity Preaa, n, 97 n. 
Magalotti, Lorenzo, Count, Saggi 

di Mituraii Ea/ierienze, etc., i, 

Mainz, early printing at, by Guten- 

bei*g, I, 4, 5; eariiest dated piece 

of printing printed at, 60 ; other 
works printed at, 61 If.; sack of 
(1462), causes printers to scatter 
through Europe, 67 ; their chief 
customers, 67, 68 ; the types they 
made, 68, 69; went mostly to Italy, 
69 ; at Subiaco, 71 . 

Malo de Lugue, Eduardo, Eatabli- 
cimierUoa Uitramarinoa^ etc., n, 
75, 76. 

Malory, Sir T., Morte Darthur, n, 

Mame, A. H. A., n, 182. 

Manifrulua Curatorum, i, 85, 106. 

Manni, Joseph, i, 171. 

Man^on, Colard, i, 95, 96, 97, 115, 
116, 119, n, 89. 

Manuel de Mena, Francisco, n, 52. 

Manuale Burgenae, i, 108. 

Manuscripts, first printed books imi- 
tations of late, I, 38, 39; copying 
of, under Charlemagne, 48, 49; 
relation of gothic types to, 48, 52, 
53, 60; Italian and early printed 
books, 80, 81; and printing, 136, 
137; and aee Humanistic writing. 

Manutius, Aldus. See Aldus. 

Manutius, Paul, i, 180, 181. 

Mappa, Adam Gerard, n, 152. 

Marcellin-Legrand,n, 179, 184,187. 

Marcolini, F., i, 160. 

Marder, Luse Sc Co., i, 33. 

Mariana, Juan de, Hiatoria General 
de £afiana, n, 56, 58, 77, 

Mariette, Denis, n, 261. 

Marillier, C16ment Pierre, i, 214, 

Marin, Antonio, i, 59, 79. 

Marshall, Thomas, quoted, n, 96, 
97; mentioned, 43. 

Martens, Thierry, i, 96, n, 26, 27. 

Martial, JS/iigrama, i, 197. 

Martin, Edme, i, 209. 

Martin, Robert, n, 114. 

Martin, William : his types, n, 123, 
124 and n., 230; mentioned, 121, 
144 and ra., 145, 146, 147, 189. 

Martinez, Antonio, i, 108. 



Martinez de Jaravia, Antonio. See 

Nebrija, Antonio de. 
Mathematical 8ig;ns, early use of, i, 

18 n. 
Matthaeus of Flanders, i, 105, 106. 
Mattioli, P. A., commentary on Di- 

oscorides, i, 173 n. 
Maximea Moralea et FoiitiqueB tiries 

de Telimaqtie^ i, 247. 
Mayeur. See Fonderie Mayeur. 
Mazi^res, Veuve, I, 220. 
M^daillea 8ur lea Princifiatuc Evi- 

nementa du Rbgne de Louia ie 

Grand, i, 242. 
Medici, Cardinal Ferdinand de% i, 

Medici Society, London, n, 215. 

Mellott6e, Paul, n, 249. 

Mena. See Manuel de Mena. 

Mendez, F. , Thffiografihia Eafianola, 
n, 52, 53, 55, 59, 82 n. 

Mendoza. See Sakzar de Mendoza. 

Mentelin, John, i, 65, 66, n, 206. 

Mer dea Hyatoireay i, 88, 91. 

Mercator, n, 23. 

Mercatorand Hondius, AtlaaNmmay 
n, 29. 

Merrymount Press, n, 214, 217. 

Mexico, first American book printed 
in (1539), n, 60. 

Microcoam of London, The, u, 191. 

Millar, A., n, 139. 

MiUer & Richard, ''Series of Old 
Founts,'* n, 230, 236. 

Milton, John, JVorka (Baskerville), 
n, 109, 110 ; Pbetical Worka (Bul- 
mer), 144, 145; Baradiae Loai 
(Foulis) ,143 ; Early POema (Vale 
Press), 211. 

Miroir de Fie Humaine, i, 89. 

Mirouer de la Redem/iiion, Le, i, 89. 

Mirror of ConaoloHon, i, 121. 

Mirrour of the World, i, 117. 

Miscomini, Antonio, i, 79, 80. 

Missal, Bamberg (1481 and 1488), 
I, 62 and n.; Sarum (Notary), 
121, (Pynson), 123; Toledan, 
109; and aee following entries. 

MiaaaU Dioceaia Colonienaia, i, 191. 

Miaaale Bariaienaia, i, 86. 

Mtaaale Romanum, n, 45, 46. 

Miaaale Saliahurgenae, i, 62. 

Miaaale aecundum uaum Lugduni, 
I, 90. 

Miaaarum Muaicalium, i, 195, 196. 

Mo\€jeufie, specimens, n, 182; men- 
tioned, 184. 

Moli^re (J . B. Poqudin, dit) , (Euvrea 
(Prault), I, 230; (Didot), 230. 

Mdini (G. C.) and Lamy(P.M.), i, 

Momoro, A. F., i, 249 and n. 
Monfort, Benito, n, 52, 56, 58 and 

n., 77, 78. 
Monnet, Jean, ^TUhologieFrangoiae, 

etc., I, 223, 224. 
Montaigne, Michel de, Eaaaya, i, 

Montano, Benito A., n, 4, 13. 
Mont&ucon, Monumena de la Mon- 

archie Franqaiae, i, 220. 
Moore, Isaac, & Co., specimen, n, 

Morales, Juan Gomez, n, 51, 52. 
Morante, Diaz, Arte Mieva de Ea- 

crUnr, n, 87. 
Moreau, Pierre: hb types, i, 207, 

208; mentioned, 269, n, 163 n. 
Moreau, J. M., lejeune, i, 214. 
Moreri, Louis, n, 260, 261. 
Mores, Edward Rowe : his Diaaerta- 

tion ufton EngHah Tyfiografihical 

Foundera and Founderiea quoted, 

I, 25 n., 86 n., n, 43,96,100, 102, 

103, 239, 240; specimen of James 

foundry, 102 n. 
Moretus, Edouard, n, 15. 
Moretus, Johan I, Plantin's son-in- 
law, letter of Le B6 II to, n, 5, 6 ; 

mentioned, 13, 36, 53. 
Moretus, Johan II, n, 13, 36. 
Morgan, John Pierpont, Catalogue of 

Manuacri/ita, etc., in library of, 

u, 201. 
Morosini, Andrea, Hiatoria Veneta, 

I, 166. 



Morris, William, as writer and deo 
orator, n, 202; as printer, 203; 
establishes Kelmscott Press, 204 ; 
his Note on his jiimSf etc., 205, 
206; his types, 206, 207; his work 
considered, 207, 208, and its effect 
on typography, 208, 209; quoted, 
230; mentioned, 201, 210, 211, 
212, 216, 217, 245; Tlie Roots of 
the MountaiTis, 204; Gunnlaug 
&^a,204; TJte Storu of the Glit- 
tering Plain (first Kelmscott" 
book; , 204 ; 7%<r Golden Legend^ 
206; Bistoryes of TYoye, 207; TTie 
Order of Chivalry, 207. 

Moxon, Joseph, sketch of, i, 9 ra.; 
specimens and Mechanick Rxer- 
cises, 9 71., 135, n, 43, 44, 95 and 
n.; quoted, 43; his foundry, 99; 
mentioned, i, 261, n, 20, 21. 

Mozarabic Breviary, n, 45. 

Mozarabic Missal, n, 45. 

Mozet, Claude, i, 268. 

Muller, J. C, i, 156. 

Murray, Gilbert, quoted, n, 247. 

Murray, John, n, 191. 

Music printing, i, 155, 195, 196. 

Music types, Sanlecque, i, 213 ; Four- 
nier, 265 ; Plantin, n, 5 ; Elzevir, 
21; Rosart, 41,42. 

Myllar, Androw, first Scottish print- 
er, n, 89 n, 

^ANNINI, Remigio, Considerationi 
Ovili, I, 164. 

Napoleon I, i, 183, 218, 275, 276, 
n, 165. 

Napioleon III, i, 276. 

Nebrija, Antonio de, Introductionum 
Latinorum, i, 108, 109 ; Introduc- 
tiones in Latinam Gratnmaticam, 
n, 66, 67; Hymnorum Recognition 
67 ; mentioned, i, 1 01 ; and see Un- 
known Printer of Salamanca. 

Nebrija, Sanchode, n, 65, 66, 67. 
Nebrissensis, ^^lius Antoninus. See 

Nebrija, A. de. 
Neobar, Conrad, i, 233. 

Netherlands (Holland and Belgium) , 
types and printing in the : fifteenth 
century, i, 93-98 ; from 1500 to 
1800, n, 3-44; modem, 222. 

Neudorfer, Johann, i, 140 n. 

Neumeister, J., i, 62, 90. 

New, Edmund, n, 214. 

JSTew English Dictionary, n, 141. 

New Testament (Froben), i , 143; 
(Didot), 229, 230; (Estienne), 
237 ; (Everingham) , n, 95 n. 

Newcomb, Thomas, n, 132. 

NichoUs, A., n, 98. 

Nicholls, Nicholas, earliest Ei^lish 
specimen (1665), i, 135, n, 94, 

Nichols, Charies L., n, 156. 

Nichols, John, n, 121. 

Nicol, George, n, 123, 144 and r., 
146, 148 n. 

Nicd, W., n, 144. 

NijhofT, Wouter, VArt Tyfiogra-^ 
fihique dans les Pays-Bas, n, 25 
and n., 26, 27. 

Nogarola, L., Dialogus, etc., i, 162. 

North, Sir Thomas, translation of 
Plutarch, u, 90, 128. 

Notary, Julian, i, 121. 

Novarra, C. G. de, Contemfllaciones 
sobre el Rosario, etc. , i. 111. 

Noyers, Sublet de, i, 239. 

JVureniberg Chronicle, i, 65. 

Nutt, David, n, 201. 

OsELiaco Faticano, Bella TYas- 
fiortazione deir, i, 181. 

Obra Mlaors de S. Cristofol, i, 110. 

Occleve, Thomas, i, 56. 

Qljicia Quotidiana, i, 106, n, 45. 

Officina Isingriniana, printing-house, 
I, 144. 

Officina Plantiniana, n, 14, 15. 

Ogilby, John, n, 99, 132. 

Old Style, " Modernized " or "Re- 
vived," n, 201 and n., 232. 

Olrveros de Costilla, i. 111. 

Olivier, Peter, n, 89 n. 



Olschki, Leo S., quoted, i, 39, ITSn. 

Oporinus, J., 1, 143. 

Orcesi, Niccol6, i, 177. 

Ordinate seu Pica Sarum, i, 117. 

Orga, Jos6 de, n, 52 and n.,S3 and 
n.f 58. 

Orga, Tomas de, n, 52 n. 

Oriental types, in Walton's Polyglot, 
I, 179 n., 181,182. 

Oriental typography, i, 179 n., 181, 

Orsi, Luigi, n, 169. 

Ortel, Abraham, Tlieatrum Ordia 
Terrarum, n, 11, 29; mentioned, 
- 13, 23. 

Ortiz de Saravia, Maria, n, 69. 

Os, Gottfried van, i, 120. 

Oudry, Jean Baptiste, i, 213, 215, 

Ovid, Heroidca (Bindoni), i, 173 
n.;Metamorfiho8C9 (Gorgonzola) , 
159, 160; (TQnson),n, 135. See 
Vita, La, etc. 

Oxford, early printing at, i, 123. 

Oxford Book of Engliah Ferae, n, 

Oxford Foundry, n, 97. 

"Oxford" type, n, 231. 

Oxford University, n, 94. 

Oxford University Press, specimens, 
I, 135 ; history of, n, 95 AT.; men- 
tioned, 43, 44, 122, 133, 135 n., 

± ABLOS, Juan, n, 60. 

P&ce, Richard, Oratio, n, 89. 

Paderbom, Johann of, i, 95. 

PkfFraet, Albert, n, 27. 

Paifraet, Richard, i, 95. 

Palencia, Alfonso de, EftUtula de 
Beiio Granatenai, i, 108. 

Palmart, Lambert, i, 105, 106, 107, 

Palmer, Samuel, n, 99 n., 136. 

Pannartz, Arnold, i, 71, 72, 78, 
79 ; and aee Sweynheym and Pan- 

Pant^raph, uses of, in type-cutting, 
I, 11,12. 

Paolini, Ste&no, i, 182. 

P&olo Giovio, Hiaioriarum aui Tern- 
fioria, I, 161 ; Vitw duodecim Vice- 
comitum Mediolani Princifium, 

Papillon, J.B., 1,215,220, 222,223, 

Paradin, Claude, Miancea G^nMo- 
giquea dea JRoia de France, i, 202, 
203; Symbota Heroica, n, 10. 

Par6, Ambroise, MHhode Curative, 
etc., I, 202. 

Parentalia in jinniveraario Funere 
MarifB Clementinas, etc., i, 182, 

Paris, early printing at, i, 82 ; sue- 
teenth century printing at, 1 88 if . ; 
printers' strike in, in sixteenth 
century, n, 256, 257; conditions 
of printing in, in early eighteenth 
century, 258 and n., 259 if. 

Pkrker, Matthew, quoted, n, 91; 
De Antiquitate Britannicas Eccle- 
aiSB, 91, 92; mentioned, 98, 128. 

Parma, Duchy of, n, 55 and n.; and 
aee Bodoni, Giambattista. 

Pamell, Tliomas. See Goldsmith. 

Pasquali, J. B., i, 174. 

Pasteur, J. A., specimens, i, 274, n, 

Pater, Paul, specimen, i, 152. 

Pavoni, Giuseppe, i, 165. 

Pdgnot foundry, Paris, n, 223, 

Peinturea jintiquea de BartoH, pro- 
spectus of, 1, 227, 228. 

Pelican Press, London, n, 216 n. 

Pepys, Samuel, n, 70. 

Percier, Charies, i, 231, n, 163 n. 

Pemot, type-founder at Avignon, i, 

Perrin, Louis, n, 185. 

Persius, Satirea, n, 67; and aee Ju- 
venal and Persius. 

Peter the Great, his Bible, n, 32, 



Petit, Jean, i, 193, 200. 

Petit Bernard, Le. See Salomon, Ber- 

Petrarch, Francesco, i, 78, 128. 

Petri, Hcnric, i, 145. 

Petri, Joh., specimen, i, 133, 134, 

Phalaris, Efiiatoim, i, 109. 

Philip II and printing in Spain, n, 48, 

Philip y and printing in Spain, n, 49, 
50; mentioned, 71. 

Philip, Duke of Pkrma, n, 55, 

Piazzetta, J. B., i, 174. 

Picart, Jean, i, 250. 

Picart, Bernard, i, 24, 33, 34. 

Pickering, William, n, 198, 199. 

Pickering editions, n, 199. 

Pierres, Philippe Denis, specimen, i, 
250, 255 n., 273, 274; his career, 
272, 273; mentioned, 269. 

Pignoni, Z., x, 168. 

Pigouchet, Philippe, i, 88. 

Pinard, J.,n, 183. 

Pine, John, his edition of Horace, ii, 
137, 138. 

Pine, William, n, 1 1 8. 

Pinelli, Antonio, i, 166. 

Pissarro, Lucien, n, 213. 

Pistorius, Jean, i, 151. 

Pius VII, 1, 183, 184, 276. 

Plantin, Christophe, specimen, i, 
134, n, 7, 8 ; career of, 3 ff. ; made 
Antwerp a centre of printing, 4 ; 
his Polyglot Bible, 4, 7, 10 ; divers 
printing ** privileges," 5; rela- 
tions with Du Tour, 5 ; his music 
types, 5 ; his earlier and later work 
compared, 10 if.; his death, 13; 
mentioned, i, 143, n, 28, 29, 36, 
37, 47, 48, 49, 52, 53. 

Plantin-Moretus &mily, n, 48. 

Plantin-Moretus office, n, 13 if., 

Plantin-Moretus Museum, n, 14, 

37; Sficcimen des Gzratr^r«,etc., 

Plautus, Comcediag, i, 222. 

Pliny, Historia MUuralis (John de 
Spire), I, 72; (EJzevir), n, 17; 
Holland's translation (Islip) ,130, 

Ploos van Amstd, brothers, n, 23, 
39, 40, 42. 

Plutarch, Lives, Nortli's transla- 
tion, II, 90, 128. 

Po6tique type (Luce), i,. 244, 245, 

Fbeiry of the Anti-Jacobin, i, 189. 
Poggiali, C, Memorie fier le Storia 

Utteraria di Placenza, i, 177. 

Point-line. See Standard Lining Sys- 

Point-set, i, 34, 37. 

Point system, Foumier's, i, 26 ff.; 
his description of it, 28-31 ; and 
the metric system, 32, 33; the 
American, 33 ; effect of its adop- 
tion in typographical practice, 34 ; 
adopted in England, 34; and 9ee 
Foumier (Pierre Simon), Dklot 
(Francis Ambroise) . 

Pole, Reginald, Cardinal, De Con- 
ciiio, I, 180, 181. 

Pollard, Alfred W. , Catalogue of the 
Annmary Brown Memonal (Haw- 
kins) Collection, i, 68 n.; quoted, 
I, 4, 5, 65, 68, 88, 95, 96, 103, 
109, 110, 125, 126, 137, n, 94, 
126, 216. 

Pdyglot Bible, Complutensian, his- 
tory and description of, n, 46, 
63-65; mentioned, i, 192, n, 98, 
216; Plantin's, n, 4, 7, 10, 98; Le 
Jay's (P&ris), i,208, 238, n, 103; 
Walton's (London), n, 92, 98, 

Polyglot Founders, the, n, 98. 

Pombal, Marquis de, n, 54 n. 

Pompadour, Madame de, as printer, 
I, 247 and n. 

Pompeii. See Herculaneum. 

Pomponius Mela, Cofmogra/ihia, i, 

Pontanus, J., Rerum et Urbi* Am-^ 
stelodameruium IRatoria (Hon- 
dius), Latin, n, 28; Dutch, 29. 



Ponz, Antonio, quoted, n, 73, 82. 

Pope, Alexander, fVorka (Tonson), 
n, 135 ; (Bowyer), 136; (Foulis), 
142; translation of the JUad 
(Bowyer), 136. 

Pradell, Eudaldo I, n, 83, 84. 
Pradell, Eudaldo II, specimen, n, 83, 

Pradell, Marig;uerite, wife of Pedro 

Ifem, n, 84. 
Prault, Pierre, i, 230. 
Pt€, Galbt du, i, 195. 
Pv€, Jean du, i, 86, 88, 91. 
Provost, Abb6, travels, i, 216. 
Prince, E. P., n, 215, 236. 
Printers, early, methods of, i, 66- 

69 ; their own type-designers and 

founders, 133. 
Printing, date of introduction of, in 

various European countries, i, 59 ; 

separation of, from letter-found- 
ing, n, 98. 
Prior, Matthew, PoemM^ n, 135. 

Proctor, Robert, i, 80, 90, 91, 236, 
n, 95 It., 215, 216 and n. 

Propaganda Fide, press of the, speci- 
men alphabets, 1, 134, 135; men- 
tioned, n, 163, 164. 

Prototype, the, i, 29, 30, 31. 

Psalter, Latin (Mainz), first dated 
book printed from movable types, 
I, 62, 82; Sanim (Caxton), 117. 

JPtalterium . . . VtrginU MarisB, i, 

Ptolemy, L. Claudius, Coamogra- 
fihiat I, 66. 

Pulgar, Fernando de, Crtnica de ios 
Reyea Catdlicos (Monfort) , ii, 58, 
78 ; (Sancho de Nebrija) , 66 ; J^ 
Gran Ca/iUan, 62. 

Punches, hand-cut, 10 ; invention of 
machine for cutting, 1 1 ; the meth- 
ods compared, 11, 12. 

Pybus,Charles Small, TheSorvereign, 
u, 188. 

Pyea of Saliabury IMe, i, 1 1 7. 

Pynson, Richard, i, 122, 123, n, 88, 
89 and n., 125, 126. 

\)u.£8TlONBS ArUonii jindrem^ i^ 

Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book, n, 

Quincufilex I^alterium,i, 192, 193. 

1\. Bizarre," font of the, i, 65. 
Racine, Jean, CEuvrea (Jdition du 

Louvre\ i, 217, n, 177, 178; 

jit/iaiie, 1,211. 
Raibolini, Francesco, i, 76, 128, 129. 
Ramirez, Gabriel, n, 54, 59, 79. 
Ramsay, A. M. de, Hiatoire du VU 

comte de Tlirenne, l, 220, 221. 
Raphdengius, F., specimo), i, 134; 

mentioned, n, 13. 

Ratdolt, Erhard, borders and initials, 

I, 77 and n.; specimen, 77, 133, 

145; mentioned, 79. 
Rayon, Jos6 Sancho, n, 45. 
Real Biblioteca, Madrid, specimen, 

n, 83. 
Rechten, ende Coatumen van Ant- 

werfien, n, 12. 
RecuyeU of the Biaioryea of Troye, 

I, 114. 
Reed, T. B. : his Hiatory ofOid Eng^ 

liah Letter Foundriea quoted, i, 

14n.,n, 89n.,91, 93, 100. 
Regnault, FiTUi^ois, i, 193, 200. 
Relacion del Ultimo Viage al Eatrecho 

de Mdgallanea, n, 59. 
Rembolt, Berthold, i, 85, 86. 
Renouard, Antoine A., i, 230, 231. 
Renouard,Ph.,i,198n.,n, 174,179. 
"Republics, The" (Elzevir), n, 16, 

Reaftublica, aive Statua Regni ScotiSB 

et HidernisB, u, 16. 
Revelation of St. Mcholaa, i, 122. 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, Diacourae, 

etc.,n, 142. 
Ricardo, Antonio, n, 60. 
Riccardi Press editions, n, 215. 
Ricci, Seymour de, A Cenaua of 

Caxtona, i, 120 n. 
Richelieu, Cardinal, Lea Princifiaux 



Faincta de la Foy Catholique D^- 
fendua, i, 240; mentioned, 209, 
238 and ti., 239. 

Ricketts, Charles, and the Vale Press, 
n, 210,211; mentioned, 213. 

Ridolfi, B., OraHo in Funere Cdroli 
III, n, 55, 

Ringhier, Innocent, Dialogue de la 
Vie et de la Mart, i, 201. 

Ripoli Press, i, 9 and n., 10. 

Risorgimento Grqfico, n, 222. 

Riverside Press, n, 216. 

Robert, Hubert, n, 160. 

Roberts, S. C, 7%^ Cambridge Uni- 
versity PreM, 1521-1921, n,96 n. 

Rockner, Vincenz, i, 140 n. 

Rogers, Bruce, quoted, i, 11, 12; 
his types, n, 216, 217; men- 
tioned, I, 189. 

Rolu, Dutch letter-cutter, n, 100. 
Romain du rot. See Grandjean. 
Roman, Jan, n, 23. 

Roman capitals with italic fonts, i, 

Roman characters, source, i, 38, 39. 
Roman cursive hand, old, i, 44 ; new, 

I, 45. 

Roman period, in history of Latin 
writing, i, 42-45 ; ecrifitura cur- 
aiva and acrifitura erecta, 43, 44. 

Rome, early printing at, i, 72; 
foundiy at, 179,181. 

Ronaldson, James, specimens, n, 15 1 , 
156; mentioned, 153. 

Ronaldson, Richard, n, 156. 

Rooman, Adriaen, n, 29. 

Rooses, Max, Chriatqfihe Ftantin, n, 

5 71. 

Uosart, Jean Francois : specimen, n, 
40, 41, 42 «.; and the Ensched&, 
• 40, 41 ; his music types, 41, 42. 
Rosenbach, J., i, 111. 

Rouen, and the trade in types, n, 
89 n. 


Round" Gothic type. See Ltttre 
de aomme, 

Rousseau, Jean Baptiste, (Euvres, i, 

Royal printers and types in France, 
I, 233. 

Roycroft, Thomas, n, 92, 98, 99, 

Rud, Jean, De JVatura Stirpium, i, 

Ruggeri, C, I, 182, n, 164. 
Ruscli, Adolph (**R Printer"), i, 


b, LONG, lower case, n, 229 and n. 
Sacrobosco, Johannes de, T^xtua de 

J^haera, i, 197. 
St. Albans, early printing at, i, 123. 
St. Aubin, A. de, i, 223, 259. 
St. Josq)h, Fabricadd Conventode, 

Barcelona, spedmen, n, 81, 82. 
St. Juan Qimaco, De laa TbbUu y 

Eacalera Spiritual, n, 60, 61. 
Saint-Lambert, J. D. de. Lea Sat- 

aona, i, 224, 225. 

Saint-Non, Abb6 de, Voyage FUto- 
reague, etc., i, 213, 225, 226. 

St. Pierre, Bemardin de, i, 218; Za 
Chaumih'e Indienne, 227 n.; Faul 
et Virginie, 227 n., n, 180. 

Salamanca, early printing at, i, 101, 
102, 106. 

Salazar de Mendoza, Pedro, Cronica 
de el gran Cardinal de JSafiana, 
etc., n, 69. 

Sallust, Ofiera (Frdburger, Gering, 
and Kranz),i, 84; (Gering), 85; 
(Ibarra), n, 55, 56, 57, 59, 71- 
73, 81. 

Salomon, Bernard, i, 199, 203, 304. 

San Pedro, Di^o de, CarceldeAmor 
(F. de BasUea), i, 108; (Rosen- 
bach), 111. 

Sancha, Gabridde, n, 59, 70,75,76. 
Sanguisti, the brothers, i, 180. 
Sanlecque, Jacques del, i, 212. 
Sanlecque, Jacques de II, i, 212. 
Sanlecque, Jean de, i, 212. 
Sanlecque, Jean Eustache Louis de, 
specimen, i, 212, 213. 

Sanlecque, Marie, widow of J. E. L. 
de, quoted, i, 267. 



Sanlecque foundry, specimen,!, 212, 

213, 266, 267; mentkmed, 263, 

273, n, 4. 
Sontander, Juan de, n, 82. 
Saragossa, early printing at, i, 105, 

Saravia. See Ortiz de Saravia. 
Sardini, Giacomo, Storia Critiea di 

Mcoiao Jenton, i, 177. 
Sauer, Christopher I, n, 151. 
Sauer, Christopher II, n, 151. 
Saugrain, C. M.,i, 229. 
Savage, William, quoted, n, 194, 

Savile, Sir H., and the Eton Chry- 

aostom, n, 95 and n. 
Scheffers, Jacques, i, 98. 
Schipper, J. J., n, 23. 
Schmidt, J. M., i, 151, n, 36. 
SchoefTer, Johann, JReformacion der 

Slat JF^anckenfort, i, 141, 142; 

mentioned, n, 206, 207. 
Schoelfer, Peter, Hortua SanitatUy 

I, 64; mentioned, 85, 98; and aee 

Fust and Schoeffer. 
Sch5nsperger, Hans, Diumaky i, 

139, 140; Teuerdanck, 140 and n. 
Schrijver, Pieter, Laure^Crana voor 

Laurens Coater van Haerleniy n, 

Schwabacher type, i, 64, 139, 141, 

142, 145, 149, 150, 153, 155 and 

n., 156, 157. 

Scotch modem &oe type, n, 193, 

Selden, John, Ofiera, n, 102, 136, 


"Self-spacing" types, i, 34, 37. 

Sensenschmid, Johann, i, 62. 

'* Series of Old Founts " (MiUer & 

Richard), n, 230, 236. 
Serif, the, defined, i, 16 and.n., 243 

71.; Grandjean's form of, 243, and 

its influence, n, 159. 
Sermofratria Hiertmymi de Ferra- 

via, u, 89. 

Servius, Oliverius, i, 79. 
Sessas, the,i, 162. 

Seversz., Jan, n, 26. 

Sewall, JonathanM . , Carmina Sacra, 
n, 151. 

Shakespeare, William : the First Fo- 
liosaoid Quartos, n, 129; Hanmer's 
edition, 115, 139; the "Boydell 
Shakspeare," 123, 144; divers 
editions suggested fSor comparison, 
130 71. 

Shakespeare Exhibition, Catalogue 

of, n, 200. 
Shakespeare Head Press, n, 130 n. 
Shakespeare Press, n, 123, 144. 
Sheldon, Gilbert, n, 97. 
Sheldonian Theatre, n, 133 and n., 

Shdton, Thomas, n, 133. 
Siculus, Marinaeus, De Hiafianias 

LaudUma^ i, 107. 
Signs for foot-note references, n, 

Sigdenzay Vera, Juan J.; n, 53,57 n. 
"Silver Letter" (Greek type), n, 

95 and 71. 
Silvius, G.,n, 28. . 
Simon, Claude, i, 220. 
Simon, C. F., i, 151. 
Simpson, Benjamin, u, 94. 
Smith, Chariotte, Elegiac Sonneta, 

n, 156. 
Smith, George F., n, 156. 
Smith, John, Printer'a Grammar^ 

n, 120. 
Smith, John F., n, 156. 
Smith, Richard, n, 156. 
Smith, T. W., takes over Caslon 

foundry, n, 105. 
Soci£t6 litt^raire Typographique, 

Kehl, I, 228. 
Soliani printing-house, Modena, i, 

Soils, Antonio de, Btatoria de la Con- 

guiata de Mexico (Villa-Diego), 

n, 70 ; (Sancha) , 76, 77. 

Spmervile, William, 77ie Otaae, n, 

Sommaire dea SingiUariiez de FUne, 

I, 201. 



Sorbonne, the, and the first printers 
in Paris, i, 83, 84 ; and the decline 
of printing in France, u, 3. 

"Sorts," I, 19. 

Soto, Perez de, n, 52, 54, 71, 79. 

Southey, Robert, quoted, n, 59. 

Sower. See Sauer. 

Spain, types and printing in: fifteenth 
century, i, 99-1 12 j from 1500 to 
1800, n, 45-87. 

Spanish Academy, n, 79. 

Spanish books, characteristic national 
typography of, n, 80. 

Spanish typography, fifteenth cen- 
tury, characteristic style and ex- 
cellence of, I, 102, 103 ; assimila- 
tion of foreign printers, 103, 104 ; 
decorative features of incunabula 
in, 104; books about, 112 n.; great 
traditions of, persisted in sixteenth 
century, u, 45, 47 ; influence of 
Netherlands, etc., on, 48 ; in eigh- 
teenth century, 49 ff. 

Specimen-books and sheets of print- 
ers and founders, i, 133-136; and 
«ee Chronological List of Specimens 
preceding Index. 

^eculum Chriatiani (Machlinia) , i, 
117, 122. 

Sfieculum Satvationis (early Dutch 
editions), i, 59, 93, 94 and n . 

Sjfieculum Fitss Chriati (DeWorde), 
I, 121. 

Spindeler, Nicolaus, i, 107, 111. 

Spire, John de, roman types used by, 
I, 72, 73; mentioned, 79. 

Spire, Wenddin de, roman types 
used by, i, 72 ; mentioned, 79, 89, 

Spottiswoode & Co., u, 200. 

Stamperia dellaCapilla ddSS. Sacra- 
mento, printing-office, i, 1 70, 171 . 

Stamperia Medicea, i, 179 n. 

Stamperia Reale (Parma), under Bo- 
doni, n, 164, 165, 171. 

Stamperia ' Vaticana & Camerale, 
specimen, i, 166-168, 181. 

Standard Lining System, i, 35, 36, 
37, n, 228. 

Stanhope, Charles, Earl : his ' case, ' ' 
I, 23 ; his stereotypii^ process, n, 

Star Chamber decree of 1637, ti, 
94 and ra., 98. 

Stede, Isaac, n, 120. 

Steffens, Fraia,PaKogra/ihieLiUine^ 
I, 42 n.; on periods in history of 
Latin writing, 42, 43 ; quoted, 52, 

Stephenson, Blake & Co.,n, 121. 

Stereotype Office, England, rules of, 
n, 190. 

Stereotyping, employed by F. Didot, 
I, 218; the awignaia and the re- 
vival of, 218. 

Stockum, W. P. van. La Librairie, 
VImfirimerie et la Preaae en Hoi- 
lande d trovers Quatre Si^iea, n, 
33 n. 

Stower, C, quoted, n, 120. 

Strahan, William, n, 56, 140, 143. 

Strange, E. F., i, 110 «. 

Strawberry Hill Press, n, 140. 

"Strike," in making punches, i, 10. 

Strikes of French printers in six- 
teenth century, n, 253 ff. 

Stubenvoll, J. H., i, 150. 

Stuchs, Georg, i, 62. 

Subiaco, first press in Italy at, i, 71 ; 
books printed there, 72. 

Sulpitius, Ofius Grammaticum (De 
Worde), i, 121; (Pynaon), 123. 

SuTna de Confeaion^i^ 109. 

Superior letters and figures, n, 229. 

Swash italic capitals, n, 228, 229. 

Sweynheym, Conrad, at Subtaoo, i, 
71; at Rome, 72; mentioned, 78, 

Sweynheym and Pannartz, i, 54, n, 
207, 213. 

Swinburne, Henry, quoted, n, 73, 

1 Acrrus, Ofiera, n, 11, 12; AgrU 
cola (Doves Press), n, 212; 
(Merry moimt Press) ,218. 
Tarb6, E.,n, 184. 



Tarrant, F.,n, 236. 

Tasso, Torquato, Gerusalemmc Lib- 
erata (Pavoni),i, 165; (Stampe- 
ria delia Cappilla del SS. Sacra- 
mento), 170, 171; (Albrizzi), 
174; (Groppo), 174; (Zatta), 
175; (in French, Barbin), 210; 
(Didot),227; (Imprimerie Roy- 
ale), 240; (in English, Hatfield), 
n, 131; (Bensley), 188; JimintOy 

Tavemier, Ameet, n, 8 and n., 49. 

Taylor, Isaac,quoted, i,40 and n. , 41 . 

Temfilc dea Muses , n, 34. 

Tfodulus, Ecloga, i, 109. 

Terence, Comcgdiss, i, 240. 

Textur type, i, 62. 

Thibaudcau, F., La Lettre d'lm- 
/irimmcy i, 232 n., 260, n, 176, 
177, 242 n. 

Thiboust foundry, i, 269. 

Thierry, Denys, i, 211, 269. 

lliomas k Kempis, De ImUatione 
ChrUHy I, 240. 

Thomas, Isaiah, quoted, n, 152; Hts- 
tory of Printing in America, 155, 
157; specimen, 156-158; men- 
tioned, 150 n. 

Thompson, Charles, Recueil de Vi- 
gnettes, etc., II, 182, 183. 

Thompson, Sir £. Maunde, Intro- 
duction to Greek and Latin Palm- 
ografihy, i, 41 n,; quoted, i, 41, 
48, 49, 51, 52, 80, 81 ; mentioned, 

Thompson, John, ii, 183. 

Thomson, James, The Seasons (Stra- 
han), n, 143; (Bensley), 122, 147; 
mentioned, 165. 

Thome, Robert, specimens, n, 194 n. , 
196; mentioned, 122, 175 n., 179. 

Thorowgood, William, specimens, 
n, 196. 

Thumeysser zum Thum, Leonhardt, 
Historia . , . alier . . . Brdge^ 
fvechssen, i, 142. 

Tlpografia della Society Litter&ria, 
II, 175. 

llrant io Manch, i, 1 1 1. 


Titling-letters," n, 237 and n. 

Tonson, Jacob, n, 133, 135, 191. 

Ton8on,J.&R.,n, 112,115. 

Torrentino, Lorenzo, i, 161, 162. 

Torresano, A., i, 74. 

Tortis, Battista de, n, 82 ti. 

Tory , Geofroy : Chamfifleury^ i , 1 88 , 
189 n., 194; influence of, in the 
displacement of gothic by roman 
types, 189; use of accents, etc., 
introcluced by, 189; mentioned, 
86 n., 88, 189,193, 197, 198, 201, 
231, 233, 235, 237, n, 126. 

Tour, Henri du, and Plantin, u, 5 ; 
mentioned, 8, 36, 39. 

Toumes, Jean del, i, 199, 203,204. 

Toumes, Jean de U, i, 203. 

Trattner, J. T., specimen, i, 156, 
157 ; mentioned, 150. 

TYecentaU Bodieianum, n, 200. 

Trincher, Pedro, i, 110. 

Trivorius, Gabriel, Observatio ^fiol- 
ogetica, etc., i, 206, 207. 

Trott, Bartholomew, i, 130. 

Truchet, S^bastien, i, 241 n. 

Tudor and Stuart Library, n, 200. 

Tudor Translations, n, 201. 

Tuileries, the, printing-house at, i, 

Turrecremata, Cardinal, Medita- 
tiones, i, 62, 71. 

Type, defined and described, i, 15, 
1 6 ; measurement of , 28 ff . ; names 
of sizes of : in England, seventeenth 
century, i, 24, 25, 26 n., 27; 
varied in different countries, 25, 
26, 27; traditional names aban- 
doned for point system by Didot, 

Type Facsimile Society, Publications 
of, I, 78, 80. 

Type-casting, different methods of, 
I, 7; hand-casting, 8, 9, 14 n,; ma- 
chine-casting, 13 ; the two metli- 
ods compared, 13. 

Type-cutters, early, i, 5, 6, 133. 

Type-forms of fifteenth century, 
dasses of, i, 59, 60. 



Type-metal, in early types, i, 9, 10; 
in modem types, 13, 14. 

Types, method of study of, i, 131, 
132; of fifteenth century, the 
classics of type-histoty , 132 ; dete- 
rioration in, in sixteenth century, 
136 ff., 142; effect of mixture of 
different sizes and styles of, 161, 
162, 163, 168; specially designed 
. and privately cut, value of, dis- 
cussed, n, 218, 219; selection 
of, for modem composing-room, 
227 ff.; undesirable kinds of, 243, 

Types recently cut (private fonts 
starred): *Ashendene, n, 213; 
Auriol, 223; *Avon,211; Batardes 
Coul6es, Les, 237; •Brook, 213; 
Cadmus Old Style, 233 ; '^Cam- 
bridge, 214; 'Centaur, 217; 
•Chaucer, 207; Cheltenham, 217, 
235; Cloister, 233, 234; Cochin, 
Le, 223; •Distd, 222; •Doves, 
iV2 ; •Endeavour, 214; Florence, 
215; Foumier-le-jeune, Le, 224, 
237; Garamond (modem version) , 
234; •Golden, 206; Grasset, 223; 
• Humanistic, 218; Kennerley ,234, 
235; •King's Fount, 211; •Mer- 
rymount, 217; •Montaigne, 216, 
217; •Montallegro, 214, 215; 
Moreau-le-jeune, Le, 224, 237; 
Nicolas-Cochin, Le, 223;01d Rem- 
ish Black, 236; Old Tudor Black, 
236; •Otter (Greek), 215, 216 
and n.s •Prayer Book, 214; •Ric- 
cardi, 215; •Troy, 207; 'Vale, 
211, 213; Wdss Fraktur, 221; 
•Zilver, 222. 

Typographia Medicea, Alfikabetum 
Arabicum, i, 134, 179 n. 

U , CAPITAL, V used for, in early 

times, I, 22; differentiated from 

V, 22 «. 
Uncial letters, how distinguished 

from book-hand capitals, i, 44. 
Unger, J. F., specimen, i, 157, 158; 

mentioned, 38, 149, n, 43. 
Ungut, Meinardus, i, 111. 

Ungut and Stanislaus, i, 106, 108, 

United States Type Founders' Asso- 
ciation and the point system, i, 33, 

University of Paris and the copying 
of Mss., n, 247, 248. 

University Press, Cambridge, Mass. « 
n, 218. 

Unknown Printer of Salamanca, i, 
101, 106,107,110, 111. 

Utrecht, early printing at, i, 94, 
95; Elzevirs at, n, 15. 

V, CAPTFAL, originally stood for U 
sJso, I, 22 and n., 23. 

Vagad, G. F. de, CronicadeAragtrnt 

Vale Press, books issued by, n, 210, 

Valencia, first Spanish press set up 
in, 1, 105 ; and the revival of print- 
ing, n, 58. 

Van Dyck, Abraham, n, 96. 

Van Dyck, Christoffel: his charac- 
ters, n, 37, 39, 43, 44, and their 
fate, 37; mentioned, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 35. 

Van Hoochstraten, Michiel, n, 27. 

Van Hout, J., specimen, i, 134, n, 

Van der Keere, Henric. See Tour, 
Henri du. 

Van Oosten de Bruyn, G. W., De 
Stad HaarUniy etc., n, 34. 

Van der Putte, Isaac, n, 35. 

Vasari, Giorgio, Le Vtte de* fiiik £c- 
cellerUi Architetti^ etc., i, 161, 

Vascosan, Michel, i, 191, 199, 200. 

Vatican printing-ofTice, specimen, i, 
134, 179. 

VautroUier, Thomas, n, 90. 

Vddener, Jan, i, 96, 115, 122. 

Venice, early printing at, i, 72 ff.; 
a great centre of printing, 77^ 78 ; 
wide vogue of types of, 90 ; illus- 
trated books printed at, eighteenth 



century, 173-176; foundries in, 

V^rard, Antoine, i, 88. 

VergetioB, Angelos, i, 236. 

Ferai Scio&i di Tre EcccUenH Mo- 
demi Autari^ i, 172, 173. 

Vesalius, Andreas, De Humani Cor- 
fioria Fabrica^ i, 143, 144. 

Veterum Mat/iematicorum, i, 212. 

Vibert, type-cutter, n, 176 n., 178. 

Vidoue, Pierre, i, 195. 

Villa-Diego, Bernardo de, n, 70, 76. 

Yillanova, A. de, Rudimenta Gram- 
maticaB, i, 107. 

Villegas, £. M. dei Laa Eroticas, n, 

Vindd, P., Btbliografia Grqfica, n, 
60 and n. 

Virgil, (^era (ais.) , i, 78 ; (Gering) , 
85; (Aldus), 128-130; (Manni), 
171; (JdUion du Louvre), 217, 
230, 231; (Imprimerie Royale), 
240; (Elzevir, 1636), ii, 17, 
(1676), 18; (Baskerville) , 109, 
111, 139; (Tonson),133; ^w«rf, 
I, 208; Bucoiica, 218; Georgica^ 
226, 227. 

Vita J L/iy et Metamorfoaeod* Ovidio, 
I, 203. 

Vitr6, Antoine, quoted, u, 253 ; 
mentioned, 208, 209, 236. 

Volpe (Delia), Lelio andPetronio, i, 

Volpi-Comino, printing-house, Pa- 
dua, I, 172. 

Voltaire, Arouetde, Kehl editions of, 
I, 228, 229. 

Vorsterman, Willem, n, 25, 26. 

Voskens, Dirk, n, 35, 96, 100. 

Vostre, Simon, i, 88. 

Voyage de Jean de MandaruiUe^ i, 

Vytwerf, H., n, 36. 

Waflard, type-cutter, i, 216, n, 
176 and «., 177. 

Waldfoghel, Procope : his "artifi- 
cial writing " at Avignon, i, 82. 

Waldis, Burkhard, Fabeln, i, 146; 

Urafirung und Herkumen, etc., 

Walker, Emery, i, 211, 212, 213, 

Walpaigen, Peter, n, 97. 
Walpole, Horace, Strawberxy Hill 

Press, n, 140 ; quoted, 175; men- 
tioned, 165. 
Walsingham, Thomas, Hiatoria Bre- 

via, n, 128; Y/iodigtna JVeua- 

triaB, 128. 
Walton, Brian, n, 92, 99. 
Walton, Izaak, Uvea, n, 132, 133. 
Watdet, C. H., L*Art de Peindre, 

I, 214. 
Watson, James, HiMcfry of the Art of 

Printing, n, 44, 100; specimen, 

Watts, John, n, 101. 
"Wayside Series," n, 230. 
Werdet, Edmond, hudea BUUio- 

grafihiquea (Didot &mily), n, 

185 n. 
Wetstein, G., n, 32, 33, 36. 
Wetstein, Rudolph, n, 36, 38. 
Whitchurch, Edward, n, 129 n. 
White, Gilbert, JVatural Hiatory of 

Selbome,u, 118. 
Whittingham, Charies I, n, 114, 

198, 204. 
Whittingham, Charles II, n, 198, 

204, 237. 
Wilkins, David, Pentateuch, n, 102; 

mentioned, 136. 
Wilkins, John, Eaaay towarda a Real 

Character, n, 95 n. 
Wilson, Alexander, types, n, 116, 

117; specimens, 117; mentioned, 

120, 143, 193, 233. 
Wilson foundry, specimen, n, 193, 

Winckelmann, J; J., Geachichte der 

Kunat dea A&erthuma, i, 148. 
Winship, G. P., quoted, i, 113. 
Woide, Charies G., Mvum Teata- 

mentum Graxum, u, 121. 

Wolf, G., I, 85, 86. 




Wolffchaten, Balthazar von, ii, 36. 
Wood, T., n, 136. 
Worcester Collection of Sacred Har- 
mony, n, 157. 

Worde, Wynkyn de, quoted, i, 1 14 ; 

his types, 120, 121; mentioned, n, 

88, 89 71., 90, 99. 
Wotton, Sir Heniy, Elements of 

jlrchitecture, nj 201. 
Wren, Qiristopher, JParentalia, n, 

Wright, T., n, 98. 
Writing, history of, i, 38 fF. 

yViMENEZ, Franc, De la Mitura 

jingelicoy n, 61. 
Ximenez*de Cisneros, Cardinal Fran- 

ciscus,Complutensian Polyglot due 

to, n, 63; mentioned, 46, 65; and 
see Gomez de Castro. 
Ximeno, Josef, n, 76. 

Young, Arthur, quoted, n, 164 n. 
Yriarte, Juan de, Obras Sueltas^ n, 
52, 79. 

JuMSERy Gunther, i, 65, n, 306, 

Zatta, A., books printed by, i, 174, 
175; specimen, 186. 

Zdgler, H. A. von, ^siatische Ba- 
nise, 1, 147. 

Zilverdistel Press, n, 222. 

Zingt, Christian, i, 156. 

Zonca, Vittorio, Mmfo Teatro di Ma- 
chine et Edificii, i, 169. 

t » 


The ••tsrilbrtlW* oif'ttie fttml 'page ofl 

ONE of the moat dlatlnirufshed book«» P ^^^ ^jtn. Book go«8 on to state, above the 
put forth in recent yMirs is of pe- linked coata of arms €)i these two devoted' 
culiar concern to Rhode lalandw **I-a3rmcn of the Diocese of Rhode Island." 
rk««ii.i T>-«i,«i^,- TT^^iu^'^ «'oZi«*««o. *hat "the plain-son^ Is arranged by Sir- 
— Daniel Berkeley t^pdike i ^^^^^^8 john StAlner, the pltiteB aeiigne6 hy 
Types. Thi'tr History, Forms and Use; a. Robert Annlng Bell: the borders, initials, 
^tuJr in *juz-\*f\*al3** fllarvAYu t?n K r J sltT ' type aad cover by Bertram Gfosvenor 

Press), which appears in two volumes, to Goodhue; and the colophons *re engraved 

by Charles Sherbom." Harold Brown, 

which the rarely fit term 
may properly be applied 




Mr. Updike's Notable Work 

I^ROVIDENCE Of thlrty-flve jfew» ag^^ 
ji has already withdrawn into, the h\B^ 
toric past, but th^re are many readelfa. 
Of the Sunday Journal's Book Fa^e who 
retain a lively reooUdction 'of that very 
brilliant decade in the artistic and literary 
life of the community. Their thoughts 
of those days will be reawakened by the 
announcement of a publication—enthusias- 
tically hailed by those competent to^ judge, 

as the most important contribution to 
an understanding of its subject that has 
appeared in/ a generation — whose roots 
were nourished In^ this city at that time. 

The seed from' which thia book ha« 
grown sprouted tti the old stone building 
of the Providence Athenaeum Library. 

who is remembered in Provideooe aa a 
lad who grew up to look like his father, 
John Carter Brown, was not physically 
strong, and he raised aroui>d himself a 
wall that seemed to shut him oft from 
people. If he did this deliberately, it 
was so that he might give alt thai he 
had of strength of mind and of aHec- 
tion to the three or four whom he ad- 
mitted > within lis confines. To those few, 
he gave unstintedly;, and his advice and 
Interest helped the Merr3rmouht Pres^ 
largely through th^ doubtful years of Its 

It was natural that the John Carter 
Brown Library should go to Mr. Updike 
when it had printing to be done. Be- 
sides Its annual reports, check lists and 
catalogue, and the History of the Li- 
brary, the Uerrymount and John Carter i 
Brown Library imprints are combined on| 

its description of the "Gaxeta do Uma" 

*.w..-^ w . -- ^^^^ *^" *^** ^^'^' Q'J^rtos. one containing 

TTie'^'planuVg^toea much ""ifurther' back, f^,^.**;;^."!^^ .^f ^roadHU^es relating to the 
nearly a century and a half, to the time 
when Sarah Updike of Narragansett, wife 

of Dr. Goddard, helped her son, William, 
with money and advice and watchful over- 
sight when he set up the first printing 
press in the town of Providence. It is a 
long story from^ the son's poster annoonc* 
ing that a company of play-actors were 
come to town, in 17M, to the brilliant 
pages of the great-grandnephew's mag- 
num opus, but it is easier to believe 
that an inheritance of some of Sarah Up- 
dike's common vense and a certain deli- 
cate feeling for piitting together type-or- 
naments, has something to do with the 
achievement of a lifetime, than to credit 
it altogether to unaided genius, 
^'^When Daniel Berkeley Updike went from 
the desk of the Athenaeiun Library to 
learn the trade of printing at the River- 
side Press, he took with him a deflnite 
\ ambition, high Ideals, the good wishes of 

lottor)'' whlcl) 

of ^ 

th*» money to pup- 

i » colony, imi i tlic* 

K( Frnncivco J*«,y- in 

177t), j;rowrr(jnivt;joUy soon fpiloy. -d tliQ 
library; and for several years "its armuAK 
catalogue, Prcsid^'nt's report, and bulle- 
tin have ' borne the Merrymount stamp. ' 
This also apppeam on the ITnlversity's,' 
more important recent publications, Pro-' 
feasor Bironson's History, the commemo- 
rative volume of the Scffqiilcentennlal ex- 
ercises of 1D14. and William Vail Kellens 
"Appreciation" of Henry Whcaton on the ' 
hundredth anniversary of his firaduation. 
For the Rhode Island School of Desiqm, 
Mr. Updike set the standard for Its Year 
Book, and Butle.r Hospital has likewise 
gone to him for Its more important print- 
ing:. The Episcopal Diocese of Rhode Is- 
land, as well as several of its stronK^-.r 
parishes, have sought his skill for th<, 
printing? incidental to their occasional 
functions, PYom the same press came 
Uhe volume commemorating the twenty* 
a few men and women of very sound , first anniversary of the Review Club pre- 
Judgment, and an intimate frtendship. The j sented to the members by its long-time 
friend, when Mr. Updike started his- own President, Arnold B. f'hase. Its ^tamn 
"Merrymount Press" in lf«)3, could e»fi1ly His <,„ ^^e memorial issued by St George's! 
have paid all the bills, but If he had done School to commemorate the students wha 
il .M. the exp'Miment bftBun b; tMs pit: * were killed in the war. , 

would have k xke«'. Ati lt« • «fs»>i(l««'**''^- ,-,,-,..,,_ 
Instead of d^ing this, he gave the Sup-' J/^rin'i.vldual Rhode Is^ 
port of enthusiastic conlMence and per- Z^^''^^ ^^"^^^ /f.« produced some of Its 
sonal co-operation in the undertaking. "T^^ characteristic volumeS. Three of 
shaHng in the consideraUon of all its ^Jf^J ^.'^uf '?f^>f^ ^''"^^^^ history of the 
plans and helping to decide on all doubt- ^''^^T J^l Johnny Cake Papers," Rev. 
ful problema until his untUnelir death. It ^aniel Goodwm's edition of the Diary of 
was^^much morethan his money that car- i^^iTsforv "nf ^^''^^^ ^''"'^ Wilk ns ITpdiko's 
ried through to a tHumphant issue the ThiTr J wL rJ! /^r^r^^t" , ^.'^"S^'^- 
Merrymounfs flrst. and still .one of its ^he Arst *r^aa reprinted for the late Row 

land Hazard, with clujrming woodcuts by I 
Rudolph Ruzickn. Of the tv.o volumes I 


most notable, achievements, the Altar 

Book "ftnished at Easter, A. D. 1890, by ^^„.,,„^,,„ iuA * i . ., . 

Daniel Berkeley Updike and Harold ^°?\^.*''\"f ^^^ caU ogije of Senator Al 

n^-m •• ° ' .*^ I clricli s library one is devoted entirely to 

i^row^. . . * books dealing with the State. Of less im- 

portance but each with its own interest 
to the history of "T4ttle Rliody" are "The 

J #^l J* T 

ol why h/9 haa sllcce«^ed^^VIl7 
ount Prwa iifter thirty years 
buay. prlntii^ as well as Its own> 
era Iciiow how and better than they have 
ever printed before, asid doinir nothing: 
«i0e; and why all hJ« rivala and all their 
f Ideals have failed. . The explanation^ like 
I -most adequate ones, is simple enough. 
I Good work in the past Was achieved under 
conditions that never were better and 
may have been worse than those of to- 
day, and rood work can be do&e to-day 
Quite as easily as ever before. 

The '•Good Old Days," the *'G<dden 
Are'/ of "Hand Labour" by "Mediaeval 
Craftsmen" never existed except in th^ 
sentimentalized imaginations of Ruskln 
and of William Morris and of those 
who repeat their formulae. There la no 
lack of documentary evidence fqr those 
who prefer facts to "inspiration." in the 
year Anno Domini 1296 women were in- 
trudinr themselves and their problems into 
the male monopoly of the book-maklnr 
Industries. In 1395. "shorter hours, with 
the same wares riven for a lonrer work- 
inr day, was a practical question.*' The 
printer's strike at Lyons and Paris, and 
I resultant disturbances, lasted from 1539 
to 1572. The prihtera stopped work, broke 
up the work of other Journeymen, Indulred 
in armed picketinr while "amonr the 
workmen themselves excellent discipline 
reirned, showln'r that a perfectly rood 
understandinr existed, and had existed for 
some time, as to what was to be done 
by the labor party. The outroinr men 
ipledred themselves not to work except in 
& body, and punished anyone refusinr to 
si«bmit to the rules of their orranlzation." 
Tiiey forced the Government officials to 
tecornlze the delerates of the workinrmen 
fas entitled to speak for and nerotiate on 
1)ehalf of the body of laborers. This was 
in the year 1539, and is typical of what 
Mr. Updike finds to be characteristic of 
labor conditions down to me French Revo- 
lution, when most writers say that such 
things started. In brief, "the old . times 
were not so very rood, nor was human 
nature then so dlfTerent. nor is the modern 
spirit particularly devilish. • • • The out- 
look for typorf'sphy is as rood as it ever 
was — and much the same. Its future de- 
pends upon the knowledre and taste of 
educated men." G. P. W. 





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